• Title, Summary, Keyword: Combined Loading

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Concrete structures under combined mechanical and environmental actions: Modelling of durability and reliability

  • Vorechovska, Dita;Somodikova, Martina;Podrouzek, Jan;Lehky, David;Teply, Bretislav
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.99-110
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    • 2017
  • Service life assessments which do not include the synergy between mechanical and environmental loading are neglecting a factor that can have a significant impact on structural safety and durability assessment. The degradation of concrete structure is a result of the combined effect of environmental and mechanical factors. In order to make service life design realistic it is necessary to consider both of these factors acting simultaneously. This paper deals with the advanced modelling of concrete carbonation and chloride ingress into concrete using stochastic 1D and 2D models. Widely accepted models incorporated into the new fib Model Code 2010 are extended to include factors that reflect the coupled effects of mechanical and environmental loads on the durability and reliability of reinforced concrete structures. An example of cooling tower degradation by carbonation and an example of a bended reinforced concrete beam kept for several years in salt fog are numerically studied to show the capability of the stochastic approach. The modelled degradation measures are compared with experimental results, leading to good agreement.

Seismic resistance of dry stone arches under in-plane seismic loading

  • Balic, Ivan;Zivaljic, Nikolina;Smoljanovic, Hrvoje;Trogrlic, Boris
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.58 no.2
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    • pp.243-257
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    • 2016
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the seismic resistance of dry stone arches under in-plane seismic loading. For that purpose, several numerical analyses were performed using the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM). Twelve types of arches with different ratios of a rise at the mid-span to the span, different thicknesses of stone blocks and different numbers of stone blocks in the arch were subjected to an incremental dynamic analysis based on excitation from three real horizontal and vertical ground motions. The minimum value of the failure peak ground acceleration that caused the collapse of the arch was adopted as a measure of the seismic resistance. In this study, the collapse mechanisms of each type of stone arch, as well as the influence of the geometry of stone blocks and stone arches on the seismic resistance of structures were observed. The conclusions obtained on the basis of the performed numerical analyses can be used as guidelines for the design of dry stone arches.

Out-of-plane ductile failure of notch: Evaluation of Equivalent Material Concept

  • Torabi, A.R.;Saboori, Behnam;Kamjoo, M.R.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.75 no.5
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    • pp.559-569
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    • 2020
  • In the present study, the fracture toughness of U-shaped notches made of aluminum alloy Al7075-T6 under combined tension/out-of-plane shear loading conditions (mixed mode I/III) is studied by theoretical and experimental methods. In the experimental part, U-notched test samples are loaded using a previously developed fixture under mixed mode I/III loading and their load-carrying capacity (LCC) is measured. Then, due to the presence of considerable plasticity in the notch vicinity at crack initiation instance, using the Equivalent Material Concept (EMC) and with the help of the point stress (PS) and mean stress (MS) brittle failure criteria, the LCC of the tested samples is predicted theoretically. The EMC equates a ductile material with a virtual brittle material in order to avoid performing elastic-plastic analysis. Because of the very good match between the EMC-PS and EMC-MS combined criteria with the experimental results, the use of the combination of the criteria with EMC is recommended for designing U-notched aluminum plates in engineering structures. Meanwhile, because of nearly the same accuracy of the two criteria and the simplicity of the PS criterion relations, the use of EMC-PS failure model in design of notched Al7075-T6 components is superior to the EMC-MS criterion.

Experimental Study on Combined Failure Damage of Bi-directional Prestressed Concrete Panel under Impact-Fire Loading (충돌 후 화재에 대한 이방향 프리스트레스트 콘크리트 패널부재의 복합 파괴손상에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Yi, Na-Hyun;Lee, Sang-Won;Choi, Seung-Jai;Kim, Jang-Ho Jay
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.429-440
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    • 2014
  • Since the World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks in 2001, terror, military attack, or man-made disaster caused impact, explosion, and fire accident have frequently occured on civil infrastructures. However, structural behavior researches on major Prestressed Concrete (PSC) infrastructures such as bridges, tunnels, Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel (PCCVs), and LNG tanks under extreme loading are significantly lacking. Especially, researches on possible secondary fire scenarios after terror, bombing, collision of vehicles and vessels on concrete structures have not been performed domestically where most of the past researches related to extreme loadings on structures focused on an independent isolated extreme loading scenario. Due to the outcry of public concerns and anxiety of potential terrorist attacks on major infrastructures and structures, a study is urgently needed at this time. Therefore, in this study, the bi-directional prestressed concrete $1400{\times}1000{\times}300mm$ panels applied with 430 kN prestressing force using unbonded prestressing thread bars were experimentally evaluated under impact, fire, and impact-fire combined loadings. Due to test site restrictions, impact tests were performed with 14 kN impactor with drop heights of 10m and 3.5 m to evaluate impact resistance capacity. Also, fire and impact-fire combined loading were tested using RABT fire loading curve. The measured residual strength capacities of PSC and RC specimens applied with impact, fire, impact-fire combined loadings were compared with the residual strength capacity of undamaged PSC and RC specimens for evaluation. The study results can be used as basic research data for related research areas such as protective design and numerical simulation under extreme loading scenarios.

TREATMENT OF HIGH-CONCENTRATION SWINE WASTEWATER BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND AN AQUATIC PLANT SYSTEM

  • Kim, B.U.;Kwon, J.H.
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.134-142
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    • 2006
  • The treatment of high-strength swine wastewater by anaerobic digestion combined with an aquatic plant system was investigated. Anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater gave volatile solids (VS) removal efficiencies of 43.3%, 52.1% and 54.5% for hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 20, 30, 40 days, respectively. The removal efficiencies of VS, total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) and soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) decreased with increasing VS volumetric loading rate (VLR). Higher organic removal efficiency was observed at longer HRTs for the same VS volumetric loading rate. As VS volumetric loading rate increased, biogas production increased and the methane content of the biogas decreased. Experiments using duckweed (Lemna species) as an aquatic macrophyte gave the following results. In the case of nitrogen, removal efficiency was above 60% and effluent concentration was below 10.0 mg/L when the influent ammonia-N loading was about $1.0\;g/m^2/day$. In the case of phosphorus, removal efficiency was above 55% and effluent concentration was below 2.0 mg/L when the influent $PO_4$-P loading was about $0.15\;g/m^2/day$. In addition, crude protein and phosphorus content of duckweed biomass increased from 15.6% to 41.6% and from 0.8% to 1.6%, respectively, as the influent nutrient concentration increased. The treatment of high-strength swine wastewater by anaerobic digestion combined with an aquatic plant system offers good performance in terms of organics and nutrient removal for relatively low operation and maintenance costs. The results indicate that under appropriate operational conditions, the effluent quality is within the limits set by Korean discharge criteria.

Robust Design of Composite Structure under Combined Loading of Bending and Torsion (굽힘-비틀림 복합하중을 받는 복합재료 구조물의 최적 강건 설계)

  • Yun, Ji-Yong;O, Gwang-Hwan;Nam, Hyeon-Uk;Han, Gyeong-Seop
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society For Composite Materials Conference
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    • pp.211-214
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    • 2005
  • This research studied robust design of composite structure under combined loading of bending and torsion. DOE (Design of Experiment) technique was used to find important design factors. The results show that the beam height, beam width, layer thickness and stack angle of outer-layer are important design parameter. The $2^{nd}$ DOE and RSM (Response Surface Model) were conducted to obtain optimum design. Multi-island genetic algorithm was used to optimum design. An approximate value of 6.65 mm in deflection was expected under optimum condition. Six sigma robust design was conducted to find out guideline for control range of design parameter. To acquire six sigma level reliability, the sigma level reliability, the standard deviation of design parameter should be controlled within 2.5 % of average design value.

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Plastic Limit Load Solutions for Circumferential Surface Cracked Cylinders Under Combined Loading (복합하중이 작용하는 원주방향 표면균열배관에 대한 소성한계하중식)

  • Shim, Do-Jun;Kim, Yun-Jae;Kim, Young-Jin;Hwang, Seong-Sik;Kim, Joung-Soo
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.1469-1476
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    • 2003
  • This paper provides plastic limit load solutions of cylinders with circumferential part-through surface cracks under combined axial tension, internal pressure and global bending. Such solutions are developed based on detailed three-dimensional (3-D) finite element (FE) limit analyses using elastic-perfectly-plastic material behaviour, together with analytical solutions based on equilibrium stress fields. For the crack location, both external and internal cracks are considered. Furthermore, in terms of the crack shape, both semi-elliptical and constant-depth surface cracks are considered. The resulting limit load solutions are given in a closed form, and thus can be easily used in practical situations. Being based on detailed 3-D FE limit analysis, the present solutions are believed to most reliable, and thus to be valuable information for integrity assessment of piping.

A Study on the Stability Boundaries for Single Layer Latticed Domes and Arch under Combined Loads (조합하중를 받는 단층 래티스 돔과 아치의 안정경계에 관한 연구)

  • Han, Sang-Eul;Lee, Sang-Ju;Lee, Kap-Su
    • Journal of the Korean Association for Spatial Structures
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.103-109
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    • 2004
  • The lowest load when the equilibrium condition becomes to be unstable is defined as the buckling load. The primary objective of this paper is to be analyse stability boundaries for star dome under combined loads and is to investigate the iteration diagram under the independent loading parameter. In numerical procedure of the geometrically nonlinear problems, Arc Length Method and Newton-Raphson iteration method is used to find accurate critical point(bifurcation point and limit point). In this paper independent loading vector is combined as proportional value and star dome was used as numerical analysis model to find stability boundary among load parameters and many other models as multi-star dome and arch were studied. Through this study we can find the type of buckling mode and the value of buckling load.

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Estimation of C(t) -Integral Under Transient Creep Conditions for a Cracked Pipe Subjected to Combined Mechanical and Thermal Loads Depending on Loading Conditions (열응력 및 기계응력이 작용하는 균열배관의 하중조건에 따른 천이 크리프 조건 C(t)-적분 평가)

  • Oh, Chang-Young;Song, Tae-Kwang;Kim, Yun-Jae
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.609-617
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    • 2011
  • There is a trend towards the progressive use of higher operating temperatures and stresses to achieve improved efficiencies in power-generation equipment. It is important to perform the crack assessment under hightemperature and high-pressure conditions. The C(t)-integral is a key parameter in crack assessment for transient creep states. The estimation of the C(t)-integral is complex when considering the mechanical and thermal loads simultaneously. In this paper, we study estimation of C(t)-integral under combined mechanical and thermal load depending on loading conditions.

Behaviour and design of Grade 10.9 high-strength bolts under combined actions

  • Li, Dongxu;Uy, Brian;Wang, Jia;Song, Yuchen
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.327-341
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    • 2020
  • The use of high-strength steel and concrete in the construction industry has been gaining increasing attention over the past few decades. With it comes the need to utilise high-strength structural bolts to ensure the design load to be transferred safely through joint regions, where the space is limited due to the reduced structural dimensions. However, research on the behaviour of high-strength structural bolts under various loading combinations is still insufficient. Most of the current design specifications concerning high-strength structural bolts were established based on a very limited set of experimental results. Moreover, as experimental programs normally include limited design parameters for investigation, finite element analysis has become one of the effective methods to assist the understanding of the behaviour of structural components. An accurate and simple full-range stress-strain model for high-strength structural bolts under different loading combinations was therefore developed, where the effects of bolt fracture was included. The ultimate strength capacities of various structural bolts obtained from the present experimental program were compared with the existing design provisions. Furthermore, design recommendations concerning the pure shear and tension, as well as combined shear and tension resistance of Grade 10.9 high-strength structural bolts were provided.