• Title, Summary, Keyword: Complexity

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The Effects of Emergent Leader on Team Cognitive Complexity and Team Performance

  • Choi, Kyoosang
    • Journal of the Korean Data Analysis Society
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.2781-2792
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    • 2018
  • From a cognitive perspective, this study investigates the role of emergent leaders in developing team cognition and affecting team performance. With application of the cognitive complexity theory, this study hypothesizes that emergent leaders' cognitive complexity will be positively associated with team cognitive complexity, and that team cognitive complexity will be positively associated with team performance. In addition, team cognitive complexity is hypothesized to mediate the effect of the cognitive complexity of emergent leaders on team performance. To test the research hypotheses, data were obtained from 100 teams comprising a total of 339 undergraduate students who participated in a business simulation game. The findings of this study suggests that the cognitive complexity of emergent leaders is a significant predictor of team cognitive complexity, and that team cognitive complexity is positively related to team performance. Moreover, team cognitive complexity significantly mediates the effect of emergent leaders' cognitive complexity and team performance.

The Relationship of Complexity and Order in Determining Aesthetic Preference in Architectural Form

  • Whang, Hee-Joon
    • Architectural research
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.19-30
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    • 2011
  • This investigation, based on empirical research, examined the role of complexity and order in the aesthetic experience of architectural forms. The basic assumption of this study was that perception in architectural form is a process of interpreting a pattern in a reductive way. Thus, perceptual arousal is not determined by the absolute complexity of a configuration. Rather, the actual perceived complexity is a function of the organization of the system (order). In addition, complexity and order were defined and categorized into four variables according to their significant characteristics; simple order, complex order, random complexity, and lawful complexity. The series of experiments confirmed that there is a point on the psychological complexity dimension which is optimal. By demonstrating that consensual and individual aesthetic preference can be measured to have a unimodal function of relationship with complexity, the results of the experiments indicated that complexity and orderliness are effective design factors for enhancing aesthetics of a building facade. This investigation offered a conceptual framework that relates the physical (architectural form) and psychological factors (complexity and order) operating in the aesthetic experience of building facades.

Identification and Organization of Task Complexity Factors Based on a Model Combining Task Design Aspects and Complexity Dimensions

  • Ham, Dong-Han
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.59-68
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    • 2013
  • Objective: The purpose of this paper is to introduce a task complexity model combining task design aspects and complexity dimensions and to explain an approach to identifying and organizing task complexity factors based on the model. Background: Task complexity is a critical concept in describing and predicting human performance in complex systems such as nuclear power plants(NPPs). In order to understand the nature of task complexity, task complexity factors need to be identified and organized in a systematic manner. Although several methods have been suggested for identifying and organizing task complexity factors, it is rare to find an analytical approach based on a theoretically sound model. Method: This study regarded a task as a system to be designed. Three levels of design ion, which are functional, behavioral, and structural level of a task, characterize the design aspects of a task. The behavioral aspect is further classified into five cognitive processing activity types(information collection, information analysis, decision and action selection, action implementation, and action feedback). The complexity dimensions describe a task complexity from different perspectives that are size, variety, and order/organization. Combining the design aspects and complexity dimensions of a task, we developed a model from which meaningful task complexity factors can be identified and organized in an analytic way. Results: A model consisting of two facets, each of which is respectively concerned with design aspects and complexity dimensions, were proposed. Additionally, twenty-one task complexity factors were identified and organized based on the model. Conclusion: The model and approach introduced in this paper can be effectively used for examining human performance and human-system interface design issues in NPPs. Application: The model and approach introduced in this paper could be used for several human factors problems, including task allocation and design of information aiding, in NPPs and extended to other types of complex systems such as air traffic control systems as well.

Software Complexity and Management for Real-Time Systems

  • Agarwal Ankur;Pandya A.S.;Lbo Young-Ubg
    • Journal of information and communication convergence engineering
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.23-27
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    • 2006
  • The discipline of software performance is very broad; it influences all aspects of the software development lifecycle, including architecture, design, deployment, integration, management, evolution and servicing. Thus, the complexity of software is an important aspect of development and maintenance activities. Much research has been dedicated to defining different software measures that capture what software complexity is. In most cases, the description of complexity is given to humans in forms of numbers. These quantitative measures reflect human-seen complexity with different levels of success. Software complexity growth has been recognized to be beyond human control. In this paper, we have focused our discussion on the increasing software complexity and the issue with the problems being faced in managing this complexity. This increasing complexity in turn affects the software productivity, which is declining with increase in its complexity.

Fuzzy Linguistic Approach for Evaluating Task Complexity in Nuclear Power Plant (원자력발전소에서의 작업복잡도를 평가하기 위한 퍼지기반 작업복잡도 지수의 개발)

  • Jung Kwang-Tae;Jung Won-dea;Park Jin-Kyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.126-132
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study is to propose a method to evaluate task complexity using CIFs(Complexity Influencing Factors). We developed a method that CIFs can be used in the evaluation of task complexity using fuzzy linguistic approach. That is, a fuzzy linguistic multi-criteria method to assess task complexity in a specific task situation was proposed. The CIFs luting was assessed in linguistic terms, which are described by fuzzy numbers with triangular and trapezoidal membership function. A fuzzy weighted average algorithm, based on the extension principle, was employed to aggregate these fuzzy numbers. Finally, the method was validated by experimental approach. In the result, it was validated that TCIM(Tink Complexity Index Method) is an efficient method to evaluate task complexity because the correlation coefficient between task performance time and TCI(Task Complexity Index) was 0.699.

Task Complexity of Movement Skills for Robots (로봇 운동솜씨의 작업 복잡도)

  • Kwon, Woo-Young;Suh, Il-Hong;Lee, Jun-Goo;You, Bum-Jae;Oh, Sang-Rok
    • The Journal of Korea Robotics Society
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.194-204
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    • 2012
  • Measuring task complexity of movement skill is an important factor to evaluate a difficulty of learning and/or imitating a task for autonomous robots. Although many complexity-measures are proposed in research areas such as neuroscience, physics, computer science, and biology, there have been little attention on the robotic tasks. To cope with measuring complexity of robotic task, we propose an information-theoretic measure for task complexity of movement skills. By modeling proprioceptive as well as exteroceptive sensor data as multivariate Gaussian distribution, movements of a task can be modeled as probabilistic model. Additionally, complexity of temporal variations is modeled by sampling in time and modeling as individual random variables. To evaluate our proposed complexity measure, several experiments are performed on the real robotic movement tasks.

COLORINGS OF TREES WITH LINEAR, INTERMEDIATE AND EXPONENTIAL SUBBALL COMPLEXITY

  • LEE, SEUL BEE;LIM, SEONHEE
    • Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.1123-1137
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    • 2015
  • We study colorings of regular trees using subball complexity b(n), which is the number of colored n-balls up to color-preserving isomorphisms. We show that for any k-regular tree, for k > 1, there are colorings of intermediate complexity. We then construct colorings of linear complexity b(n) = 2n + 2. We also construct colorings induced from sequences of linear subword complexity which has exponential subball complexity.

Evaluation of the Product Complexity Considering the Disassemblability (제품의 분리 공정의 특성을 고려한 제품의 복잡도 평가)

  • Mok, Hak-Soo;Kim, Sung-Ho;Yang, Tae-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.14-24
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    • 1999
  • In this study, the product complexity is evaluated quantitatively considering the disassembly process of the product. To evaluate complexity of the product, we analyze the characteristics of the product and the disassembly process. And we determine factors, which influence on the complexity of the product in the main-disassembly and sub-disassembly. Considering each characteristics of part and subassembly. Evaluations criteria of complexity are determined. Using evaluation criteria of the complexity can be determined the complexity grade of the product, and then we show the total complexity of the product considering the disassembly process.

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A QUALITATIVE METHOD TO ESTIMATE HSI DISPLAY COMPLEXITY

  • Hugo, Jacques;Gertman, David
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.141-150
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    • 2013
  • There is mounting evidence that complex computer system displays in control rooms contribute to cognitive complexity and, thus, to the probability of human error. Research shows that reaction time increases and response accuracy decreases as the number of elements in the display screen increase. However, in terms of supporting the control room operator, approaches focusing on addressing display complexity solely in terms of information density and its location and patterning, will fall short of delivering a properly designed interface. This paper argues that information complexity and semantic complexity are mandatory components when considering display complexity and that the addition of these concepts assists in understanding and resolving differences between designers and the preferences and performance of operators. This paper concludes that a number of simplified methods, when combined, can be used to estimate the impact that a particular display may have on the operator's ability to perform a function accurately and effectively. We present a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach and a method for complexity estimation.

Developing Visual Complexity Metrics for Automotive Human-Machine Interfaces

  • Kim, Ji Man;Hwangbo, Hwan;Ji, Yong Gu
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.235-245
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    • 2015
  • Objective: The purpose of this study is to develop visual complexity metrics based on theoretical bases. Background: With the development of IT technologies, drivers process a large amount of information caused by automotive human-machine interface (HMI), such as a cluster, a head-up display, and a center-fascia. In other words, these systems are becoming more complex and dynamic than traditional driving systems. Especially, these changes can lead to the increase of visual demands. Thus, a concept and tool is required to evaluate the complicated systems. Method: We reviewed prior studies in order to analyze the visual complexity. Based on complexity studies and human perceptual characteristics, the dimensions characterizing the visual complexity were determined and defined. Results: Based on a framework and complexity dimensions, a set of metrics for quantifying the visual complexity was developed. Conclusion: We suggest metrics in terms of perceived visual complexity that can evaluate the in-vehicle displays. Application: This study can provide the theoretical bases in order to evaluate complicated systems. In addition, it can quantitatively measure the visual complexity of In-vehicle information system and be helpful to design in terms of preventing risks, such as human error and distraction.