• Title, Summary, Keyword: Composting

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Operating Characteristics of Composting Facility during Composting of Food Waste and Co-composting of Food Waste and Sewage Sludge (음식물쓰레기 단독 퇴비화 및 음식물쓰레기와 하수 슬러지의 혼합 퇴비화에 따른 퇴비화시설의 운전특성)

  • 남궁완;이노섭;박준석;인병훈;허준무;박종안
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.86-92
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    • 2002
  • This study was performed to assets the operating characteristics of food waste composting and co-composting (food waste + sewage sludge) at a compelling facility. The facility was being operated successfully without being affected by kind of composting feed materials. Partial anaerobic condition was detected during food waste composting and co-com-posting, but these two composting systems were proven to be operated successfully under aerobic condition from the monitoring results of $O_2$, volatile solids reduction rate, temperature, and other parameters. The conductivity and chloride concentrations of compost were gradually increased during two composting periods, but the conductivity and chloride concentrations of co-compelling indicated lower values than those of food waste composting at final point(40 m). As a result, co-composting was turned out to be more desirable than food waste composting, considering salt problem. High correlations ($R^2$= 0.9265 for food waste composting and $R^2$= 0.9685 for co-composting) between CEC and volatile organic matter were found. Quality of composts produced from two composting process satisfied Korean heavy metal standard.

Influence of Control Variables on the Aerobic Biodegradation Performance in Bin Composting System (회분식 퇴비화 시스템에서 제어변수가 호기성 분해성능에 미치는 영향)

  • 박금주;홍지형
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.359-364
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    • 1999
  • A theoretical model was developed to evaluate the influence of control variables on the composting performance in a bin composting system. The model was verified using pilot scale composting system. Simulation of the composting temperature according to air flow rate and composting bin size was conducted using the mathematical model. High composting temperature above 55$^{\circ}C$ needed to kill a pathogen was maintained for longer periods as the air flow rate was lower and the bin size was larger. Optimum air flow rate was 0.77L/min/kg.DM for the experimental pilot scale bin system. The size of composting bin should be large enough to maintain the higher composting temperature for required periods.

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Composting Chemical Treated Hog Wastewater Excess Sludge Amended with Sawdust and Compost Biofiltration (화학적처리 양돈폐수 잉여오니와 톱밥 혼합물 퇴비화 및 퇴비탈취처리)

  • Hong Ji-Hyung;Park Keum-Joo
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2006
  • The effects of turning frequency were examined on the efficiency of composting lime treated excess sludge amended with sawdust from the activated sludge process after a liquid/solids separation process. The raw and excess sludge from the activated sludge process associated with the hog wastewater treatment system is a significant problem and composting is an effective method far reducing the pollution potential of hog wastewater sludge. The coagulant used sludge composting and ammonia emissions from composting are not well established. The effect of compost properties such as high total carbon, C/N ratio and pH value on performance of composting sludge and biofiltration of ammonia from composting process were investigated. The ammonia emission was not significantly increased during composting. The ammonia concentrations of the exhaust air of composter were ranged from 0.5 and 7 ppm about 12 days after composting. The performance of the hog wastewater sludge composting was the most sensitive to chemical treated sludge properties such as high total carbon and high C/N ratio of the initial compost mixes. Temperature in compost and ammonia emission were not greatly affected by the turning frequency.

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Development of Composting Technology in Animal Waste Treatment - Review -

  • Haga, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.604-606
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    • 1999
  • Solid animal wastes in Japan are treated mainly by composting. The composting process under controlled conditions is able to convert the wastes into high-quality organic fertilizer. Various types of composting facilities with/without forced aeration and turning device are available. Characterization of the maturing process during composting was studied, to improve the quality of compost and to make the degree of maturity. Recycling of animal wastes as compost without any environmental pollution will be closely related to the development of sustainable agriculture with organic fertilizer in Japan.

Estimation of Characteristics Treatment for Food Waste using Ultra Thermophilic Aerobic Composting Process (초고온 호기성 퇴비화 공정을 이용한 음식물쓰레기 처리 특성 평가)

  • Park, Seyong;Oh, Dooyoung;Cheong, Cheoljin;Jang, Eunsuk;Song, Hyoungwoon
    • Journal of Korea Society of Waste Management
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.140-147
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of physical characteristics. Twelve specific odorous compounds and various sources of bacteria were tested via treatment of food waste using an ultra-thermophilic aerobic composting process. Food waste was mixed with seed material and operated for 47 days. During composting, the temperature was maintained at $80-90^{\circ}C$. The variations in $O_2$, $CO_2$ and $NH_3$ production suggested typical microorganism-driven organic decomposition patterns. After composting, the concentrations of 12 specific odorous compounds other than ammonia did not exceed the allowable exhaust limits for odor. After composting, thermophiles represented 50% of all bacteria. After composting, the percentage of thermophile bacterial increased by 15%. Therefore, both stable composting operation and economic benefit can be expected when an ultra-thermophilic composting process is applied to food waste.

Effects of Raw Materials and Bulking Agents on the Thermophilic Composting Process

  • Tang, Jing-Chun;Zhou, Qixing;Katayama, Arata
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.925-934
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    • 2010
  • Three typical biological solid wastes, namely, animal manure, garbage, and sewage sludge, were compared with regard to the composting process and the changes in microbial community structure. The effects of different bulking agents such as rice straw, vermiculite, sawdust, and waste paper were compared in manure compost. The differences in the microbial community were characterized by the quinone profile method. The highest mass reduction was found in garbage composting (56.8%), compared with manure and sludge (25% and 20.2%, respectively). A quinone content of $305.2\;{\mu}mol/kg$ was observed in the late stage of garbage composting, although the diversity index of the quinone profile was 9.7, lower than that in manure composting. The predominant quinone species was found to be MK-7, which corresponds to Gram-positive bacteria with a low G+C content, such as Bacillus. The predominance of MK-7 was especially found in the garbage and sludge composting process, and the increase in quinones with partially saturated long side-chains was shown in the late composting process of manure, which corresponded to the proliferation of Actinobacteria. The effects of different bulking agents on the composting process was much smaller than the effects of different raw materials. High organic matter content in the raw materials resulted in a higher microbial biomass and activity, which was connected to the high mass reduction rate.

Characterization of Bacterial Community Dynamics during the Decomposition of Pig Carcasses in Simulated Soil Burial and Composting Systems

  • Ki, Bo-Min;Kim, Yu Mi;Jeon, Jun Min;Ryu, Hee Wook;Cho, Kyung-Suk
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.12
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    • pp.2199-2210
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    • 2017
  • Soil burial is the most widely used disposal method for infected pig carcasses, but composting has gained attention as an alternative disposal method because pig carcasses can be decomposed rapidly and safely by composting. To understand the pig carcass decomposition process in soil burial and by composting, pilot-scale test systems that simulated soil burial and composting were designed and constructed in the field. The envelope material samples were collected using special sampling devices without disturbance, and bacterial community dynamics were analyzed by high-throughput pyrosequencing for 340 days. Based on the odor gas intensity profiles, it was estimated that the active and advanced decay stages were reached earlier by composting than by soil burial. The dominant bacterial communities in the soil were aerobic and/or facultatively anaerobic gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas, Gelidibacter, Mucilaginibacter, and Brevundimonas. However, the dominant bacteria in the composting system were anaerobic, thermophilic, endospore-forming, and/or halophilic gram-positive bacteria such as Pelotomaculum, Lentibacillus, Clostridium, and Caldicoprobacter. Different dominant bacteria played important roles in the decomposition of pig carcasses in the soil and compost. This study provides useful comparative date for the degradation of pig carcasses in the soil burial and composting systems.

Effects of Animal Waste Addition on Food Waste Compost under Co-composting

  • Lee, Chang Hoon;Kim, Seok-Cheol;Park, Seong-Jin;Kim, Myeong-Sook;Oh, Taek-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.623-633
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    • 2017
  • Food waste has been recognized as a organic sources for composting and many research was conducted to efficiently utilize or treat. This study was to evaluate a feasibility for producing food waste compost under co-composting with mixture of food and animal waste. The mixing ratio of food and animal waste was 35% as main material, which additionally mixed 30% of sawdust for co-composting. Total days of composting experiment were 84 days and each sub samples were collected at every 7 days from starting of composting. Results showed that inner temperature in composting was rapidly increased to $70{\pm}4^{\circ}C$ within 3~5 days depending on mixing animal waste of cattle, pig, and chicken base compared to sole food waste base. Expecially, the CN ratio in the mixture of food and pig water was the highest (16.2) among compost. After finishing composting experiment, maturity was evaluated with solvita and germination test. Maturity index (MI) of the mixture of food and animal waste was ranged between 6~7, but was 3 in sole food waste. Calculated germination index (GI) was at the range of about 100 irrespectively of mixing of food and animal waste. However, NaCl content and heavy metal as Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn contents was increased in the mixture of food and animal waste. which was the highest in compost mixed the food and pig waste. Both MI and GI showed that manufactured fertilizer was suitable for fertilizer criteria while sole food waste was not adequate for composting due to composting periods. Overall, mixing the food and animal waste can be utilized for improving compost maturity, but more research should be conducted to make high quality of food waste compost with animal waste in agricultural fields.

Evaluation of Ammonia Emission from Liquid Pig Manure Composting System with Forced Aeration (돈분뇨의 호기적 액비화 과정에서 암모니아 휘산량 평가)

  • Kim, Tae-Young;Kim, Song-Yeob;Chang, Hong-Hee;Yun, Hong-Bae;Lee, Yong-Bok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.366-368
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    • 2013
  • BACKGROUND: Composting is the most frequently used waste management process for animal manure in Korea's livestock industry. In the composting process, a large amount of nitrogen (N) is volatilized to the atmosphere as amonia ($NH_3$). However, quantitative information of $NH_3$ emission from composting of liquid manure is required to obtain emission factors for management of livestock manure in Korea. METHODS AND RESULTS: To evaluate the $NH_3$ emission from composting of liquid manure affected by aeration, we conducted composting of liquid pig manure with three forced aeration systems. The aeration conditions were continuous (A60), cycle of 30 min aeration and 30 min pause (A30S30) and without aeration(A0). All treatments were aerated 12 hour per day with these aeration systems. The total ratio of $NH_3$ volatilization loss to total N content in liquid manure throughout composting period was estimated to 19.9% for A0 treatment, 25.9% for A30S30 treatment and 36.3% for A60 treatment. The A30S30 and A60 aeration systems increased $NH_3$ volatilization by 30.2 and 82.3% compared with systems without forced aeration. CONCLUSION(S): Ammonia emission during liquid pig manure composting was highly affected by forced aeration. The development of liquid pig manure composting systems with forced aeration would be considered both reducing ammonia emission and efficiency of composting.

Optimum Environmental Conditions for Composting of Livestock Manure (축분의 퇴비화를 위한 최적 환경조건)

  • Rim, Jay-Myung;Han, Dong-Joon;Kang, Hyun-Jay
    • Journal of Industrial Technology
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    • v.13
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    • pp.3-17
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    • 1993
  • The composting process is a suitable to dispose the livestock manure in terms of resources recovery. However the performence of composting process is greatly affected by the environmental conditions such as characteristics of manure, type of the bulking agent, initial moisture contents, temperature, recycle and so on. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the optimum environmental conditions of composting process for livestock manures. The analytical results indicated that no bulking agent was necessary for the cow manure because of the proper C/N ratio. However the pig manure required a bulking agent since the pig manure had not only low in C/N ration but poor ventilation characteristics. In addtion, the initial miosture content for optimum composting appeared to be about 60%. The temperature control was also an essential factor to enhance the activity of thermophilic microorganisms in the laboratory composting unit. It was further found that the recycle of composts may contributed the completion of composting precess as well as C/N ratio reduction and moisture control.

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