• Title, Summary, Keyword: Concentrically braced frame

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Seismic response evaluation of concentrically rocking zipper braced frames

  • Sarand, Nasim Irani;Jalali, Abdolrahim
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.73 no.3
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    • pp.303-317
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    • 2020
  • In this study an innovative rocking zipper braced frame (RZBF) is proposed to overcome the deficiencies of common concentrically braced frames. RZBF is an improved rocking concentrically braced frame which is based on combination of rocking behavior and zipper columns. The base rocking joints and post-tensioned bars provide rocking response and restoring force, respectively. Also, zipper columns distribute the unbalance force over the frame height and reduce the damage concentration. To evaluate seismic performance of RZBF, a comparison study is carried out considering concentrically braced frame, zipper braced frame, rocking concentrically braced frame and RZBF. Thereby, a suite of non-linear time history analyses had been performed on four different types of archetypes with four, six, eight, ten and twelve stories. Frames were designed and non-linear time history analyses were conducted in OpenSees. To compare the seismic behavior of the archetypes, roof drifts, residual roof drifts, story drifts, the forces of first and top story braces, PT bars forces, column uplift and base shears were taken in to consideration. Results illustrate that using RZBF, can reduce the damage due to reduced residual drifts. Zipper columns enhance the seismic performance of rocking systems. As the number of stories increase in the RZBF systems, larger top story braces were needed. So the RZBF system is applicable on low and midrise buildings.

Seismic behavior of concentrically steel braced frames and their use in strengthening of reinforced concrete frames by external application

  • Unal, Alptug;Kaltakci, Mevlut Yasar
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.687-702
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    • 2016
  • There are many studies in the literature conducted on the subject of ensuring earthquake safety of reinforced concrete and steel structures using steel braced frames, but no detailed study concerning individual behavior of steel braced frames under earthquake loads and strengthening of reinforced concrete structures with out-of-plane steel braced frames has been encountered. In this study, in order to evaluate behaviors of "Concentrically Steel Braced Frames" types defined in TEC-2007 under lateral loads, dimensional analysis of Concentrically Steel Braced Frames designed with different scales and dimensions was conducted, the results were controlled according to TEC-2007, and after conducting static pushover analysis, behavior and load capacity of the Concentrically Steel Braced Frames and hinges sequence of the elements constituting the Concentrically Steel Braced Frames were tested. Concentrically Steel Braced Frames that were tested analytically consist of 2 storey and one bay, and are formed as two groups with the scales 1/2 and 1/3. In the study, Concentrically Steel Braced Frames described in TEC-2007 were designed, which are 7 types in total being non-braced, X-braced, V- braced, $\wedge$- braced, $\backslash$- braced, /- braced and K- braced. Furthermore, in order to verify accuracy of the analytic studies performed, the 1/2 scaled concentrically steel X-braced frame test element made up of box profiles and 1/3 scaled reinforced concrete frame with insufficient earthquake resistance were tested individually under lateral loads, and test results were compared with the results derived from analytic studies and interpreted. Similar results were obtained from both experimental studies and pushover analyses. According to pushover analysis results, load-carrying capacity of 1/3 scaled reinforced concrete frames increased up to 7,01 times as compared to the non-braced specimen upon strengthening. Results acquired from the study revealed that reinforced concrete buildings which have inadequate seismic capacity can be strengthened quickly, easily and economically by this method without evacuating them.

Progressive collapse analysis of buildings with concentric and eccentric braced frames

  • Larijan, Reza Jalali;Nasserabadi, Heydar Dashti;Aghayan, Iman
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.61 no.6
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    • pp.755-763
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    • 2017
  • In this study, the susceptibility of different symmetric steel buildings with dual frame system to Progressive Collapse (PC) was assessed. Some ten-story dual frame systems with different type of braced frames (concentrically and eccentrically braced frames) were considered. In addition, numbers and locations of braced bays were investigated (two and three braced bays in exterior frames) to quantitatively find out its effect on PC resistance. An Alternate Path Method (APM) with a linear static analysis was carried out based on General Services Administration (GSA 2003) guidelines. Maximum Demand Capacity Ratio (DCR) for the elements (beams and columns) with highest DCRs ($DCR_{moment}$ and $DCR_{shear}$) is given in tables. The results showed that the three braced bays with concentric braced frames especially X-braced and inverted V-braced frame systems had a lower susceptibility and greater resistance to PC. Also, the results represented that the beams were more critical than columns against PC after the removal of column.

Evaluation of Progressive Collapse Resisting Capacity of Special Concentrically Braced Frames (특수 중심가새골조의 연쇄붕괴 저항능력 평가)

  • Lee, Young-Ho;Kim, Jin-Koo;Choi, Hyun-Hoon
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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    • pp.319-324
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    • 2008
  • In this study the progressive collapse potential of special concentrically braced frames were investigated using the nonlinear static. All of seven different brace types were considered. According to the pushdown analysis results, most braced frames designed according to current design codes satisfied the design guidelines for progressive collapse initiated by loss of a first story mid-column; however most model structures showed brittle failure mode. This was caused by buckling of columns after compressive braces buckled. Among the braced frames considered, the inverted-V type braced frames showed superior ductile behavior during progressive collapse.

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Element loss analysis of concentrically braced frames considering structural performance criteria

  • Rezvani, Farshad Hashemi;Asgarian, Behrouz
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.231-248
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    • 2012
  • This research aims to investigate the structural behavior of concentrically braced frames after element loss by performing nonlinear static and dynamic analyses such as Time History Analysis (THA), Pushdown Analysis (PDA), Vertical Incremental Dynamic Analyses (VIDA) and Performance-Based Analysis (PBA). Such analyses are to assess the potential and capacity of this structural system for occurrence of progressive collapse. Besides, by determining the Failure Overload Factors (FOFs) and associated failure modes, it is possible to relate the results of various types of analysis in order to save the analysis time and effort. Analysis results showed that while VIDA and PBA according to FEMA 356 are mostly similar in detecting failure mode and FOFs, the Pushdown Overload Factors (PDOFs) differ from others at most to the rate of 23%. Furthermore, by sensitivity analysis it was observed that among the investigated structures, the eight-story frame had the most FOF. Finally, in this research the trend of FOF and the FOF to critical member capacity ratio for the plane split-X braced frames were introduced as a function of the number of frame stories.

A study on detailing gusset plate and bracing members in concentrically braced frame structures

  • Hassan, M.S.;Salawdeh, S.;Hunt, A.;Broderick, B.M.;Goggins, J.
    • Advances in Computational Design
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.233-267
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    • 2018
  • Conventional seismic design of concentrically braced frame (CBF) structures suggests that the gusset plate connecting a steel brace to beams and/or columns should be designed as non-dissipative in earthquakes, while the steel brace members should be designed as dissipative elements. These design intentions lead to thicker and larger gusset plates in design on one hand and a potentially under-rated contribution of gusset plates in design, on the other hand. In contrast, research has shown that compact and thinner gusset plates designed in accordance with the elliptical clearance method rather than the conventional standard linear clearance method can enhance system ductility and energy dissipation capacity in concentrically braced steel frames. In order to assess the two design methods, six cyclic push-over tests on full scale models of concentric braced steel frame structures were conducted. Furthermore, a 3D finite element (FE) shell model, incorporating state-of-the-art tools and techniques in numerical simulation, was developed that successfully replicates the response of gusset plate and bracing members under fully reversed cyclic axial loading. Direct measurements from strain gauges applied to the physical models were used primarily to validate FE models, while comparisons of hysteresis load-displacement loops from physical and numerical models were used to highlight the overall performance of the FE models. The study shows the two design methods attain structural response as per the design intentions; however, the elliptical clearance method has a superiority over the standard linear method as a fact of improving detailing of the gusset plates, enhancing resisting capacity and improving deformability of a CBF structure. Considerations were proposed for improvement of guidelines for detailing gusset plates and bracing members in CBF structures.

Effect of seismic design level on safety against progressive collapse of concentrically braced frames

  • Rezvani, Farshad Hashemi;Asgarian, Behrouz
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.135-156
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    • 2014
  • In this research the effect of seismic design level as a practical approach for progressive collapse mitigation and reaching desired structural safety against it in seismically designed concentric braced frame buildings was investigated. It was achieved by performing preliminary and advanced progressive collapse analysis of several split-X braced frame buildings, designed for each seismic zone according to UBC 97 and by applying various Seismic Load Factors (SLFs). The outer frames of such structures were studied for collapse progression while losing one column and connected brace in the first story. Preliminary analysis results showed the necessity of performing advanced element loss analysis, consisting of Vertical Incremental Dynamic Analysis (VIDA) and Performance-Based Analysis (PBA), in order to compute the progressive collapse safety of the structures while increasing SLF for each seismic zone. In addition, by sensitivity analysis it became possible to introduce the equation of structural safety against progressive collapse for concentrically braced frames as a function of SLF for each seismic zone. Finally, the equation of progressive collapse safety as a function of bracing member capacity was presented.

Evaluation of seismic criteria of built-up special concentrically braced frames

  • Izadi, Amin;Aghakouchak, Ali A.
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.23-37
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    • 2018
  • In this paper, seismic provisions related to built-up special concentrically braced frames (BSCBFs) are investigated under cyclic loading using non-linear finite element analysis of a single-bay single-story frame. These braces, which contain double angle and double channel brace sections, are considered in two types of single diagonal and X-braced frames. The results of this study show that current seismic provisions such as observing the 0.4 ratio for slenderness ratio of individual elements between stitch connectors are conservative in BSCBFs, and can be increased according to the type of braces. Furthermore, such increments will lead to decreasing or remaining the current middle protected zone requirements of each BSCBFs. Failure results of BSCBFs, which are related to the plastic equivalent strain growth of members and ductility capacity of the models, show that the behaviors of double channel back-to-back diagonal braces are more desirable than those of similar face-to-face ones. Also, for double angle diagonal braces, results show that the failure of back-to-back BSCBFs occurs faster in comparison with face-to-face similar braces. In X-braced frames, cyclic and failure behaviors of built-up face-to-face models are more desirable than similar back-to-back braces in general.

Cyclic Behavior of Concentrically Braced Frames with Built-Up Braces Composed of Channel Sections

  • Naderpour, M. Nader;Aghakouchak, Ali. A;Izadi, Amin
    • International journal of steel structures
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1391-1403
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    • 2017
  • Concentrically braced frames are earthquake resistant systems commonly used in buildings. Seismic behavior of this type of structures is affected by their configurations, brace properties, and brace to gusset plate connections. In this paper, the results of three experiments conducted to investigate the cyclic behavior of concentrically braced frames with braces built-up of double channels are reported. Significant damage was observed in beam to column connections. Large out of plane deformation of braces caused some cracks in the connector welds; however they did not result in fracture. Although large drift was applied to the frames, no brace fracture was observed. Furthermore, experiments showed that the majority of compressive strength in post-buckling state and a noticeable portion of tensile strength originated from frame action. By choosing connector spacing as the main parameter and using finite element models, a parametric study was performed to investigate the effect of this parameter on this type of frames with two different details of brace to gusset plate connections. It is observed that reducing the connector spacing increases the inelastic strain demand in braces and decreases it in gusset plates. However, gusset plates, which accommodate 2t linear clearance, are less dependent on connector spacing, compared to those accommodating 6t elliptical clearance. It seems that the limitations of slenderness ratio of individual section, stipulated in current seismic provisions, need further study.

Parametric study on energy demands for steel special concentrically braced frames

  • Dogru, Selcuk;Aksar, Bora;Akbas, Bulent;Shen, Jay
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.265-276
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    • 2017
  • Structures are designed in such a way that they behave in a nonlinear manner when subject to strong ground motions. Energy concepts have been widely used to evaluate the structural performance for the last few decades. Energy based design can be expressed as the balance of energy input and the energy dissipation capacity of the structure. New research is needed for multi degree of freedom systems (MDOFs)-real structures- within the framework of the energy based design methodology. In this paper, energy parameters are evaluated for low-, medium- and high-rise steel special concentrically braced frames (SCBFs) in terms of total energy input and hysteretic energy. Nonlinear dynamic time history analyses are carried out to assess the variation of energy terms along the height of the frames. A seismic energy demand spectrum is developed and hysteretic energy distributions within the frames are presented.