• Title, Summary, Keyword: Congestion Management

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The Intertidal Restoration and Relationship with Water birds According to Before and After Operation of Sihwa Lake Tidal Power Plant (시화호 조력발전소 가동 전·후 조간대 복원과 수조류와의 관계)

  • Park, Chi-Young;Kim, Ho-Joon;Paik, In-Hwan;Jin, Seon-Deok;Paek, Woon-Kee;Lee, Joon-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.320-327
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    • 2016
  • Intertidal zone has been restored by the Sihwa Lake tidal power plant is operating in 2012. After restoration, to check the difference of bird group's community change out, the examination has been carried out from 2009 to 2014 when sea dike sluicer runs, the intertidal zone area was increased to $20.3km^2$ after restoring in $5.3km^2$. There was no significant difference in the number of individuals congestion of the whole, but the results of analysis of the differences between the six bird group by number of individuals, it showed a significant difference in Diving ducks(p = 0.237) the Herons (p<0.001), Swans and Geese (p<0.01), Dabbling ducks (p<0.001), showed a significant difference in the Shore birds (p<0.001) gulls (p<0.001) except for diving of ducks. Sihwa Lake intertidal zone was only just been restored, but environment and the improvement of benthic ecosystem has been carried out, It is determined that waterfowls that living based on intertidal zone are also affected. This study is a good example of the restoration of the intertidal zone that disappeared, which hard to find a similar case. It will be utilized as basic data of ecological monitoring for the conservation and management of the future of the intertidal zone later.

Development of Dynamic Passenger-Trip Assignment Model of Urban Railway Using Seoul-Incheon-Gyeonggi's Transportation Card (대중교통카드기반 수도권 도시철도 통행수요배정모형)

  • Sohn, Jhieon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.105-114
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    • 2016
  • With approximately 20 million transportation card data entries of the metropolitan districts being generated per day, application of the data to management and policy interventions is becoming an issue of interest. The research herein attempts a model of the possibility of dynamic demand change predictions and its purpose is thereby to construct a Dynamic Passengers Trip Assignment Model. The model and algorithm created are targeted at city rail lines operated by seven different transport facilities with the exclusion of travel by bus, as passenger movements by this mode can be minutely disaggregated through card tagging. The model created has been constructed in continuous time as is fitting to the big data characteristic of transport card data, while passenger path choice behavior is effectively represented using a perception parameter as a function of increasing number of transfers. Running the model on 800 pairs of metropolitan city rail data has proven its capability in determining dynamic demand at any moment in time, in line with the typical advantages expected of a continuous time-based model. Comparison against data measured by the eye of existing rail operating facilities to assess changes in congestion intensity shows that the model closely approximates the values and trends of the existing data with high levels of confidence. Future research efforts should be directed toward continued examination into construction of an integrated bus-city rail system model.

Design and Implementation of Response type of Flickering Green Signal System using Beacon Message (비콘메세지를 이용한 반응형 녹색점멸 신호시스템 설계 및 구현)

  • An, Hyo-In;Mun, Hyung-Jin;Kim, Chang-Geun
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.241-247
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    • 2016
  • As a domestic traffic control signal system, either the system with which a traffic signal turns into green at regular intervals or the system with which an amber or a red signal flickers on local roads without heavy traffic at midnight has been utilized. However, when the former system is used for roads with light traffic at midnight, delays and congestion can be incurred. Besides, in case of the latter signal system, the risk of vehicle crash is high. This study proposes a response type of flickering green signal system that rearranges signal system after analyzing beacon messages including sensor data. The proposed system, on a trunk road or a branch road at midnight, makes the signal keep flickering in green; When a vehicle enters the range of RSE, the transfer coverage, it transmits beacon messages regularly and Agent System analyzes the messages and alters the signal. It is a system by which vehicles move following the altered signal system, which will not only ensure smooth flow but also prevent vehicles from crashing on a road with light traffic. As a result of a simulation, traffic throughput and the average waiting time displayed 10 to 30 percent better improvement than existing signal systems, in terms of performance.

Changes in Demographic and Housing Characteristics of New Towns in Korea: Focused on Five New Towns in Seoul Metropolitan Area (우리나라 신도시의 인구 및 주거특성 변화: 분당, 일산 등 1기 신도시를 중심으로)

  • Yoon, Jeong-Joong;Kim, Eun-Mi
    • LHI Journal of Land, Housing, and Urban Affairs
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.235-246
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    • 2014
  • In the late 1980s, 5 new towns such as Bundang, Ilsan, Pyeongchon, Sanborn, Jungdong were constructed to solve housing problems and to disperse functions concentrated within Seoul. As the city got matured, it began to appear the initial signs of urban problems such as aging of high rise-density apartment sites, traffic congestion, lack of parking spaces and aging of infrastructure. Therefore, in order to cope with urban problems, it is very important to apprehend the process of urban growth, its change and the feature of physical/human elements. So, the purpose of this thesis is to analyze the changes in housing and population characteristics for past 20 years by use of Census data from 1995 to 2010. First, the new town's goal of population and housing plan at the time of construction was analyzed how it was achieved, and it is close to the performance of the goal. And the trend of changes in the population and household characteristics was analyzed by every five year's data. As the result of analysis, it shows socio-demographic changes such as aged and elderly population growth, rapid increase in one generation's household and single person household, highly educated city, monthly rent household's increase and charter household's reduction. Results of this analysis can be utilized to aforethought management of new towns. But it is required more sustained and systematic urban monitoring and data analysis because the one-off analysis of the city's characteristics alone is difficult enough to grasp them.

Internalizing Environmental Cost using TDM Alternatives (교통수요관리 기법을 활용한 환경오염비용의 내부화 방안연구)

  • 김운수;엄진기;황기연;장지희
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.99-110
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    • 1999
  • With a growing awareness, transportation is the maior source of urban air pollution. Planners and policy-makers are strongly urged to care the impacts of transportation management strategies on environment. Since transport-related air Pollution can be regarded as negative externalities of transport, it is indispensable to evaluate chanties in air quality which seems to occur when proposed transport measures are implemented. In addition, transport measures should be integrated in a set of combined Paradigm regarding transport and environment. Based on the integrated Paradigm between transportation demand management(TDM) and environmental planning, the main focus is given to apply environment cost internalizing measures to the short-term congestion management Program(SCMP) in Seoul, that has been developed in 1998 by Seoul Development Institute. Three modules are analyzed: without and/or with ₩500, ₩1000 emission plus gas tax, respectively. From the empirical applications on Seoul city, one of the most exemplary findings in SCMP program is that, emission plus gas tax can be a very useful measure to reduce vehicular emissions by targeting major Pollutants differently, rather than by dealing with pollutants collectively. Further research that provides (1)showing the spatial variation of pollution levels along the intersections, (2)more developing combined Paradigm between transport, land use, and environment, (3)using environmental road capacity rather than Physical-aspects of road capacity, and (4)continuing R&D on air quality constrained TDM, can contribute significantly to applications of the real and efficient environment-constrained transportation planning.

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Attitudes and Problems of Urban Parks, in Taegu City, Korea (도시공원(都市公園)의 속성(屬性)과 문제점(問題點))

  • Choi, Seok-Joo
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.205-217
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    • 1996
  • Today in the industrial society, the urban park is the place for citizens' health, recreation, exercise, and education. This is a very important place as a fine sight and maintenance of public security. As the results of rapid economic growth during the last thirty years, citizens are in the age of material civilization and are challenged with many serious urban problems such as pollution, noise, traffic congestion, human alienation, etc. Rapid material civilization brought to citizens' mental and physical diseases. To some of the problems, it is necessary that we should have proper leisure and recreation facilities, and that we should have the active, positive posture to them. Especially we need the out door recreational spaces and facilities. But nowadays the urban parks are given little thought in spites of the necessity of parks which should be used as a recreational spaces in the urban areas. So, This study attempt to comprehend the function, quantity and quality of the urban park system in Taegu. It is clear that the quantity is inappropriate. Because of inappropriate disposition and management, its coefficiency of utilization is low. In view of the population and park ratio, Dong Gu, Nam Gu, Suseong Gu and Dalseong Gun have comparative good, environments. However, Dalseo Qu, Seo Gu and Jung Gu have less geographical features. There are some methods to provide expansion of the aggregate of urban parks. We can use the school-grounds and their facilities. which were moved from C.B.D. to the outskirts of Daegu, or some parts of urban redevelopment, or the riverside of Sincheon river. In the urban park-program, users' satisfaction-factors are analyzed. We must reconsider the efficiency. The above problems are improved. Active administration and inhabitants' Positive participation are demanded so that the sound development of cities and daily life-surroundings are promoted.

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Development of Parking Space Forecast Model for Large Traffic-inducing Facilities Considering Surrounding Circumstance (주변 환경을 고려한 대규모 교통유발시설 주차면산정 모형개발에 관한 연구 - 판매시설을 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Je jin;Oh, Seok Jin;Kim, Sung Hun;Ha, Tae Jun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.593-601
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    • 2017
  • With the rapid industrial development and national economic advance since 1970, the national income of Korea has sharply increased. As a result, issues regarding city expansion, urban concentration, increase in the number of registered motor vehicles, and increase in traffic have caused transportation issues such as traffic congestion and problems with parking. Especially, enforcement ordinances and rules have been established on installation and management of parking lots to solve problems with parking which are raised as social problems such as conflict with neighbors but the flexible calculation of legal parking space has the limitations because of the diversity and complex functionality of purposes of facilities. Accordingly, this study attempted to supplement such demerit of the parking space demand forecast method based on the legally required number of parking spaces and average unit requirement in the parking space supply. This study estimated the required number of parking spaces by analyzing existing literature, collecting field research data, and analyzing the factors that have an impact on the parking demand. Also, it compared the required number of parking spaces based on the average unit requirement as well as the required number of parking spaces by the forecast model based on the cumulative number of motor vehicles parked. The result was that the required number of parking space based on average unit requirement was less than the cumulative number of motor vehicles parked by 9.99%. Meanwhile, the required number of parking spaces by the forecast model was more than the cumulative number of motor vehicles parked by 4.37%. Therefore, it is believed that the parking space forecast model is more efficient than the others in estimating there quired parking space. The parking space forecast model of this study consider different environmental factors to enable practical parking demand forecast considering the local characteristics and thus supply the parking space in an efficient way.

Intelligent Optimal Route Planning Based on Context Awareness (상황인식 기반 지능형 최적 경로계획)

  • Lee, Hyun-Jung;Chang, Yong-Sik
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.117-137
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    • 2009
  • Recently, intelligent traffic information systems have enabled people to forecast traffic conditions before hitting the road. These convenient systems operate on the basis of data reflecting current road and traffic conditions as well as distance-based data between locations. Thanks to the rapid development of ubiquitous computing, tremendous context data have become readily available making vehicle route planning easier than ever. Previous research in relation to optimization of vehicle route planning merely focused on finding the optimal distance between locations. Contexts reflecting the road and traffic conditions were then not seriously treated as a way to resolve the optimal routing problems based on distance-based route planning, because this kind of information does not have much significant impact on traffic routing until a a complex traffic situation arises. Further, it was also not easy to take into full account the traffic contexts for resolving optimal routing problems because predicting the dynamic traffic situations was regarded a daunting task. However, with rapid increase in traffic complexity the importance of developing contexts reflecting data related to moving costs has emerged. Hence, this research proposes a framework designed to resolve an optimal route planning problem by taking full account of additional moving cost such as road traffic cost and weather cost, among others. Recent technological development particularly in the ubiquitous computing environment has facilitated the collection of such data. This framework is based on the contexts of time, traffic, and environment, which addresses the following issues. First, we clarify and classify the diverse contexts that affect a vehicle's velocity and estimates the optimization of moving cost based on dynamic programming that accounts for the context cost according to the variance of contexts. Second, the velocity reduction rate is applied to find the optimal route (shortest path) using the context data on the current traffic condition. The velocity reduction rate infers to the degree of possible velocity including moving vehicles' considerable road and traffic contexts, indicating the statistical or experimental data. Knowledge generated in this papercan be referenced by several organizations which deal with road and traffic data. Third, in experimentation, we evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed context-based optimal route (shortest path) between locations by comparing it to the previously used distance-based shortest path. A vehicles' optimal route might change due to its diverse velocity caused by unexpected but potential dynamic situations depending on the road condition. This study includes such context variables as 'road congestion', 'work', 'accident', and 'weather' which can alter the traffic condition. The contexts can affect moving vehicle's velocity on the road. Since these context variables except for 'weather' are related to road conditions, relevant data were provided by the Korea Expressway Corporation. The 'weather'-related data were attained from the Korea Meteorological Administration. The aware contexts are classified contexts causing reduction of vehicles' velocity which determines the velocity reduction rate. To find the optimal route (shortest path), we introduced the velocity reduction rate in the context for calculating a vehicle's velocity reflecting composite contexts when one event synchronizes with another. We then proposed a context-based optimal route (shortest path) algorithm based on the dynamic programming. The algorithm is composed of three steps. In the first initialization step, departure and destination locations are given, and the path step is initialized as 0. In the second step, moving costs including composite contexts into account between locations on path are estimated using the velocity reduction rate by context as increasing path steps. In the third step, the optimal route (shortest path) is retrieved through back-tracking. In the provided research model, we designed a framework to account for context awareness, moving cost estimation (taking both composite and single contexts into account), and optimal route (shortest path) algorithm (based on dynamic programming). Through illustrative experimentation using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, we proved that context-based route planning is much more effective than distance-based route planning., In addition, we found that the optimal solution (shortest paths) through the distance-based route planning might not be optimized in real situation because road condition is very dynamic and unpredictable while affecting most vehicles' moving costs. For further study, while more information is needed for a more accurate estimation of moving vehicles' costs, this study still stands viable in the applications to reduce moving costs by effective route planning. For instance, it could be applied to deliverers' decision making to enhance their decision satisfaction when they meet unpredictable dynamic situations in moving vehicles on the road. Overall, we conclude that taking into account the contexts as a part of costs is a meaningful and sensible approach to in resolving the optimal route problem.

A Study on Significance Testing of Driver's Visual Behavior due to the VMS Message Display Forms on the Road (도로상 VMS 표출방식별 운전자 유의성 검증에 관한 연구)

  • Kum, Ki-Jung;Son, Young-Tae;Bae, Deok-Mo;Son, Seung-Neo
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.151-162
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    • 2005
  • Variable Message Sign (VMS), which provides drivers with direct information about state of traffic congestion and for prevent an accident, is the most effective method among the methods of providing information in Advanced Transportation Management System. Currently establishment and the VMS which is operated foundation lets in Guidelines on the use of Variable message sign (a book of the VMS) of 1999 November the Ministry Construction & Transportation, these contents mean main viewpoint on physical part such as message special quality variable (font, character size and line space, word interval) and position mainly among standard about establishment in general. But, it is true that using without effect verification on the character of VMS display and that using mode of stationary-centered. In this paper, it executed significance test to effort verification on the character of VMS display for more practical and effective information transmission based on the driver viewpoint For the researches; develop 3D-Simulation, select characteristics of driver's visual cognition behavior (the conspicuity, the legibility and the comprehensibility), evaluation each issue (day or night, 80km/h or 100km/h). Especially, that used the Eye Marker Recorder to measure of reading-time (legibility) thus, confirmed objectivity and reduce an observational error. The results showed that the conspicuity is Flashing> Stationary>Scroll. The legibility is not deference that Flashing between stationary form. Also the comprehensibility result showed that Flashing> Stationary>Stroll form.

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The Budget of Nutrients in the Estuaries Near Mokpo Harbor (목포항 주변 하구역의 영양염 수지)

  • Kim, Yeong-Tae;Choi, Yoon-Seok;Cho, Yoon-Sik;Oh, Hyun-Taik;Jeon, Seung-Ryul;Choi, Yong Hyeon;Han, Hyoung-Kyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.708-722
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    • 2016
  • Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) models for nutrient budgets were used to estimate the seasonal capacity of the Youngsan Estuary and Youngam-Geumho Estuary to sink and/or supply nutrients such as dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and nitrogen (DIN) to provide an understanding of the behavior of the coupled biogeochemical cycles of phosphorus and nitrogen in the estuaries (Youngsan Estuary, Youngam-Geumho Estuary) near Mokpo Harbor. During non-stratified periods (May, September, and November, 2008), simple three-box models were applied in each sub-region of the system, while a two-layer box model was applied during on-site observation of stratification development (July, 2008). The resulting mass-balance calculation indicated that even after large discharges from artificial lakes (in May and July), DIP influxes due to a mixing exchange ($V_{X-3}$, or $V_{deep}$) were more than terrigenous loads, indicating the backward transportation of nutrients from a marine source. The model results also indicated that for nutrient loads (DIP and DIN fluxes) in September, an extreme congestion of nutrients occurred around the mouths (sub-region III of the model) of the estuaries, possibly due to an imbalance in physical circulations between the estuaries and offshore locations. In November, the Youngam-Geumho Estuary, into which freshwater was discharged from artificial lakes (Youngam and Geumho Lake), showed nutrient enrichment in the water column, but the Youngsan Estuary showed nutrient depletion. In conclusion, to efficiently control water quality in the estuaries near Mokpo Harbor, integrated environmental management programs should be implemented. I.e., the reduction of nutrient loads from land basins as well as the deposit of nutrient loads into adjacent coastal lines.