• Title/Summary/Keyword: Conservative treatment

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Effect of Bronchial Artery Embolization in the Treatment of Massive Hemoptysis (대량객혈의 치료에 있어서 기관지동맥색전술의 효과)

  • Lee, Sang-Kyeong;Chun, Ho-Kee;Yoon, Ki-Heon;Yoo, Jee-Hong;Kang, Hong-Mo;Yoon, Yup
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.677-682
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    • 1993
  • Background: Massive hemoptysis is a major clinical problem with high mortality. Bronchial artery embolization is well accepted and widely used for treatment of massive and recurrent hemoptysis, especially in patients with chronic diffuse pulmonary disease who are poor candidates for surgery. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of transcatheter arterial embolization for immediate control and prevention of recurrent hemoptysis. Method: We reviewed 20 cases(M:F=13:7) of bronchial artery embolization for the management of massive hemoptysis from Jun 1989 to Aug 1992 retrospectively. Results: Underlying causes of hemoptysis were pulmonary tuberculosis(n=14), bronchiectasis(n=3), aspergilloma(n=2) and paragonimiasis(n=1). Embolization material was choosed randomly gelfoam(n=7) or Ivalon(n=11) and in 2 cases both were used simultaneously. Target arteries of embolization were bronchial artery only in 15 cases, non-bronchial systemic arteries with or without bronchial artery in 5 cases. After the arterial embolization, immediate cessation of hemoptysis was achieved in 17 cases(85%) and total recurrence rate including 3 cases of immediate treatment failure was 50%. Among recurrences 3 cases were achieved lobectomy, 1 case was expired by asphyxia due to massive hemoptysis and remained 6 were managed by medical conservative treatment with no further recurrence of hemoptysis during follow up periods. Conclusion: Bronchial artery embolization for treatment of massive or recurrent hemoptysis was effective in immediate bleeding control. Despite high recurrence rate the rebleeding after embolization was less severe and controllable by conservative management. Bronchial artery embolization is valuable as primary trial to massive hemoptysis.

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Bronchial Artery Embolization(BAE) for Hemoptysis of Small Amount : A Comparative Study with Conservative Management (소량객혈 환자에서 동맥색전술과 보존적치료의 비교연구)

  • Ryu, Jeong-Seon;Song, Kwang-Seon;Yong, Suk-Joong;Lee, Hong-Lyeol;Chang, Joon;Shin, Kye-Chul;Kim, Sung-Kyu;Lee, Won-Young
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.629-638
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    • 1997
  • Background : Surgical intervention is known as the principle management for hemoptysis of significant amount. But surgical procedure is applicable to only small number of patients because of increased mortality in emergency surgery and various functional and structural problems after lung resection. Bronchial artery embolization(BAE) has been used as an alternative interventional technique for immediate control of patients with increased risk for surgery due to recurrent or massive hemoptysis. BAE also has limitations such as recurrent bleeding after procedure and its role for the application to small amount of hemoptysis is still not established. Method : To evaluate immediate and long term effectiveness of BAE, we analysed 65 patients with hemoptysis according to therapeutic modalities they received ; BAE versus conservative management. Results : The success rate for immediate control of hemoptysis was significantly higher in BAE group with 43 cases(100%) among 43 cases compared with 17 cases(77%) among 22 cases in conservative group (p < 0.001). The disease control duration was $19.5{\pm}8.06$ months in BAE group and $18.8{\pm}6.06$ months in conservative group(p > 0.05). The therapeutic response in BAE group was 82%(36/43 cases) and 95%(21/22 cases) in conservative group (p > 0.05). According to the amount of hemoptysis, the therapeutic response were seen in 91%(29/32 cases) in less than 100ml and 85%(28/33 cases) in 100~400ml (p > 0.05). According to the manifestation of hemoptysis, the therapeutic response in groups of recurrent and nonrecurent were 87%(20/23 cases) and 88%(37/42 cases)(p > 0.05). Conclusion : The difference of therapeutic response between BAE and conservative group in patients with small amounts of hemoptysis was not found except for immediate control of hemoptysis.

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Clinical Study on Laryngo - Microscopic Surgery For Vocal Nodules and Polyps (후두결절 및 폴립의 후두미세 수술에 관한 임상연구)

  • 문영일
    • Proceedings of the KOR-BRONCHOESO Conference
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    • 1983.05a
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    • pp.11.2-11
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    • 1983
  • Vocal nodules and polyps are much more frequent in singers, public speakers, teachers and actors. Voice trauma and voice misuse, at times associated with mild inflammatory reaction, appear to be important in their etiology. It is generally agreed that vocal cord nodules and polyps are inflammatory in nature and they arise in the subepithelial layer of loose connective tissue of the vocal cord. Since the junction of anterior and middle thirds of the membranous cord and has the greatest amplitude of vibration. This is the site of predilection for vocal cord nodules. The author performed laryngomicrosurgery for 70 cases of vocal nodules and polyps at Ewha Womans University Hospital during the period of 5 years. The result obtained were as follows ; 1) Surgical excision is not necessarily the best approach because vocal nodules in the early stages will resolve with the simplest voice therapy. 2) In children, surgery is rarely indicated because most nodules in children regress during adolescence. 3) For patients who use their voices professionally, voice therapy is indicated for three months. 4) If after three month of conservative treatment the cord lesion does not improve and the patient it still dissatisfied with his voice, laryngomicrosurgery can then be considered. 5) The small cuffed endotracheal tube in the interarytenoid space helps to keep the cords immobile and in an abducted position. 6) Removal of the nodule shoule be started by gentle retraction posteriorly and as soon as a tear appears anterior to the nodule. 7) On occasion it is preferable to start the dissection with a siccle knife while the nodule is held on the stretch. 8) Voice rest should be maintained for a week following which the free edges of the cords are usually healed.

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Results of Arthroscopic Debridement of the Elbow Osteoarthritis (주관절 골관절염에서 관절경적 변연절제술 후 결과)

  • Chun, Churl-Hong;Kim, Jung-Woo;Lim, Jae-Chang
    • Clinics in Shoulder and Elbow
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.53-60
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: Primary osteoarthritis on the elbow is the result of the growth of osteophytes and contracture of the capsule. It often causes disability on joint motion and pain while exercising. As arthroscopy has developed, the arthroscopic diagnosis and treatment of the elbow have recently become more generalized as well. Therefore, we like to report on arthroscopy for treating elbow arthritis and its results. Materials and Methods: This study includes 23 cases of elbow arthritis that were seen between 2005 June to 2007 June and these patients didn't response to conservative treatment. From this we excluded 18 cases that underwent arthroscopic surgery and among these 18 cases, 6 cases underwent ulnar nerve transfer. The average observation time was 21.3 months and the average age was 48.4 years (range: 22-66 years). The pre and post operative pain was evaluated with using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and functional evaluation was done with using the Mayo elbow Performance Score (MEPS) with the range of joint motion. Results: The VAS score at the last follow up was significantly decreased from 3.4 to 1.9 compare to the preoperative score. The range of joint motion was improved by 25 (0-40) to 8.5 (0-20) in extension and 101.7 (80-140) to 125.2 (85-140) in flexion (p<0.05). The MEPS always showed significant improvement by showing an increase from 65.4 (40-85) to 87.9 (55-100). However, 3 cases showed a decreased range of motion after the operation. One case showed ulnar nerve symptoms after surgery. Conclusion: An arthroscopic procedure can treat the pathologic processes associated with arthritis of the elbow and it was safe and effective in this series.

Analysis of Prognostic Factors in Esophageal Perforation. (식도 천공의 예후 인자 분석)

  • 정인석;송상윤;안병희;오봉석;김상형
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.477-484
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    • 2001
  • Background: Initial symptoms for esophageal perforation have not been clarified, but when there is no early diagnosis and proper treatment to follow immediately after the diagnosis, it is fatal for the patients. Therefore, this study attempted to discover the factors that influence the prognosis of esophageal perforation to contribute to the improvement of the treatment result. Material and Method: The subjects of this study are 32 patients who came to the hospital with esophageal perforation from October, 1984 to June, 2000. This study examined the items for clinical observation such as patients' sex, age, cause of the perforation, perforation site, the time spent until the beginning of the treatment, symptoms caused by the perforation and its complication, and treatment methods. This study tried to find out the relationship between the survival of patients and each item. Result: There were 24 male and 8 female patients and their mean age was 49.7+16.4. For the causes of perforation, there were 14 cases(43%) of iatrogenic perforation, which ranked first, caused by the medical instrument operation and surgical damage. As for the perforation sites, thoracic esophagus was the most common site(26 cases of 81.2%) and chest pain was the most frequent symptom. The complication caused by esophageal perforation showed the highest cases in the order of mediastinitis, empyema, sepsis and peritonitis. After the treatment, there were 23 cases of survival and 9 cases of mortality. The total mortality rate was 28.1% and the main causes of mortality were sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS). As for the treatment, 8 cases(25.0%) treated the perforation successfully using conservative treatment only. As for the surgical treatment, there were 5 cases(15.6%) of cervical drainage, 7 cases (21.8%) of primary repair and 12 cases(37.5%) of esophageal reconstruction after performing an exclusion-diversion. There were 18 cases(56.2%) of complete treatment of esophageal perforation at its initial treatment and in 14 cases(43.8%) of treatment failure at its initial treatment, patients were completely cured in the next treatment stage or died during the treatment. The cases of perforation in thoracic esophagus, complication into severe mediastinitis or sepsis and the cases of failure at initial treatment showed a statistically significant mortality rate (p<0.05).

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Coronary Artery Bypass Graft in Patient with Advanced Left Ventricular Dysfunction (중등도 이상의 좌심실 기능 부전 환자에서의 관상동 우회술의 임상 분석)

  • 정종필;김승우;신제균
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.34 no.12
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    • pp.901-908
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    • 2001
  • Background : Coronary artery bypass graft(CABG) in patients with advanced left ventricular dysfunction has often been regarded as having high mortality rate, despite the great improvement in operative result of CABG. With recent advances in surgical technique and myocardial protection, surgical revascularization improved the symptom and long-term survival of these high risk patients more than the medical conservative treatment. Material and Methold : Clinical data of 31(4.1%) patients with preoperative ejection fraction less than 30% among 864 CABGs performed between January 1995 and March 1999 were retrospectively analyzed and pre- and postoperative changes of the ejection fraction on echocardiography were analyzed. There were 26 men and 5 women. The mean age was 60.7 years(range 41 to 72 years). History of myocardial infarction(30 cases, 98%) was the most common preoperative risk factor. There were seven irreversible myocardial infarction on thallium scan. Most patients had triple vessel diseases(26 cases, 84%) and first degree of Rentrop classification(16 cases, 52%) on coronary angiography. The mean number of distal anastomosis during CABG was per patient was 4.9${\pm}$0.8 sites in each patient. In addition to long saphenous veins, the internal mammary artery was used in 20 patients. Total bypass time was 244.7${\pm}$3.7 minutes(range, 117 to 567 minutes), and mean aortic cross-clamp time was 77.9 ${\pm}$ 1.6 minutes(range, 30 to 178 minutes). There were five other reparative procedures such as two left ventricular aneurysrmectomy, two mitral repair, and one aortic valve replacement. There were twelve postoperative complications such as three cardiac arrhythmia, two bleeding(re-operation), one delayed sternal closure, eleven usage of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation for low cardiac output. Two patients died, postoperative mortality was 6.5% . Twenty-nine patients were relieved of chest pain and left ventricular ejection fraction after operation was significantly higher(38.5${\pm}$11.6%, p 0.001) as compared with preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction(25.3${\pm}$2.3%). The follow up period of out patient was 25. 3 months. Conclusion: In patients with coronary artery disease and advanced left ventricular dysfunction, coronary artery bypass grafting can be performed relatively safely with improvement in left ventricular function, but it will be necessary to study long term results.

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Clinical Analysis of Primary Varicose Vein - review of 209 cases - (원발성 하지정맥류의 임상적 고찰 - 209례 보고 -)

  • Lee, Yuen-Jae;Park, Chul;Kim, Jong-Seok;Kim, Han-Yong;Yoo, Byung-Ha
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.34 no.12
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    • pp.909-916
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    • 2001
  • Background : Varicose vein is a very common vascular disease and has recently become a matter of concern for thoracic and cardiovascular surgens. Material and Method : We analyzed 209 cases or 269 feet with varicose vein retrospectively, which had been treated in our hospital from April 1999 to December 2000. Result : Male : Female ratio was 1:3(Male : 52 cases, Female : 157 cases), mean age was 42.2$\pm$9.7 years old, mean duration of varicosities was 12.2$\pm$9.7 years, and mean follow up was 14.8$\pm$6.1 months from July 2001. Most common symptom was leg pain(122 cases, 58.4%). Long standing job(44 cases), pregnancy(37 cases), and family history related to varicose vein came to 79.9% as the major predisposing or precipitating factors. Anatomic classifications of main lesion were GSV (greater saphenous vein,126 cases), LSV(lesser saphenous vein,18 cases), and reticular veins and telangiectasias(65 cases). Main treatments were stripping of GSV, stab avulsion, ligation of saphenofemoral junction, sclerotherapy, and conservative treatment. Comparing A group (stripping of GSV) with B group(sclerotherapy of GSV), A group had more complications than B group; however, A group had less recurrences than B group(p 0.05). Comparing C group(stab avulsion of LSV) with D group(sclerotherapy of LSV), there were 2 cases of recurrence in D group; however, there were no statistical differences between the two groups in complication and recurrence(p>0.05). Comparing B group(sclerotherapy of GSV) with E group(sclerotherapy of reticular vein and telangiectasia), there were no differences in complication; however, B group had more recurrences than E group. Post-stripping complications were ankle numbness and tingling(2 cases), ankle pain(2 cases),ankle swelling(2 cases), and wound pain(1 case). Postsclerotherapy complications were thrombophlebitis(1 case) and skin ulcer(1 case). Conclusion: Sclerotherapy for varicose vein involving GSV had more recurrences than stripping for lesions involving GSV. Sclerotherapy for reticular vein and telangiectasia had less recurrences than sclerotherapy for lesion involving GSV. Sclerotherapy is a very convenient method without operation and admission, thus further research is demanded in case of varicose vein involving GSV.

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The Results of Combined Modality Treatment with Transurethral Resection, Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy for Invasive Bladder Cancer (침윤성 방광암에서 경요도적절제술 및 Cisplatin과 방사선의 병용치료의 효과)

  • Oh, Yoon-Kyeong
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.311-317
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    • 1991
  • Ten patients with deep muscle-invading bladder carcinoma (clinical stages T3a to T4b) who were not candidates for cystectomy were treated with combined modality treatment with transurethral resection, cisplatin chemotherapy and pelvic irradiation from 1989 through 1990, and were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were not candidates for cystectomy because the tumors were judged unresectable or they were not fit for a radical cystectomy. Of the patients 5 had clinical stage T3a, 3 stage T3b and 2 stage T4b disease. The minimum follow-up was 16 months. The complete response rate is 60$\%$ for all patients. The complete responses were achieved in 4 of 5(80$\%$) with stage cT3a, in 2 of 3(67$\%$)with stage cT3b and in none of 2(0$\%$) with stage cT4b. The partial responses were achieved in 2, so an overall response rate was 80$\%$. All six patients with grade I or II transitional cell carcinoma showed complete responses. Four patients with higher grade tumors showed partial responses in 2 and no response in 2, and all died of their bladder cancer. Six patients who showed complete responses after treatment are alive and only one of them showed a local recurrence 10 months after treatment. Distant metastases developed in 3 patients: lungs in 2(cT4b) of those who were never locally free of disease and spine in 1 patient (cT3b) among those with a partial response. Two patients died of metastases to lungs. During the follow-up diarrhea occurred in one which was improved after conservative treatment. On the basis of this analysis it is suggested that combined modality treatment seems to be a tolerable regimen and can be offered with a relatively high probability of success and conservation of bladder function in those with less advanced tumors by clinical stage and low grade.

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The Results of Arthroscopic Double-Row Rotator Cuff Repairs with Combined Knot-tying and Knotless Suture Anchors (매듭 결속과 비매듭 봉합나사를 이용한 관절경적 이열 회전근개 봉합술의 결과)

  • Ku, Jung-Hoei;Lee, Choon-Key;Cho, Hyung-Lae;Choi, Seung-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Arthroscopy Society
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.172-179
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: To evaluate the functional and structural results of arthroscopic double-row repair using combined knot-tying and knotless suture anchors in rotator cuff tears. Materials and Methods: From March 2006 to June 2007, twenty-one patients (15 males, 6 females; mean age 55.6 years; range 48 to 67) were included who underwent arthroscopic double-row repair for full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff following conservative treatment for a mean of 6.5 months (range 3 to 11). The tear size was carefully inspected arthroscopically and we found 2 small, 13 medium and 6 large-sized rotator cuff tears, with a mean tear size of 2.5cm(range 1.8 to 3.2). The repair constructs were consisted of horizontal mattress sutures using conventional knot-tying suture anchors medially and simple suture at the same level of medial row stitch with Bioknotless RC anchors (DePuy Mitek, Norwood, MA) as lateral row. Clinical and functional evaluations were made according to the range of motion, the ASES, UCLA scale and the isokinetic strength testing. Postoperative cuff integrity was determined through magnetic resonance imaging. The mean follow-up was 15 months (range 13 to 24). Results: The average clinical outcome scores and strength were all improved significantly at the time of the final follow-up (p < 0.01). Nineteen patients (90%) were satisfied with the result of the treatment. In 17 of 21 patients (81%) were judged to reveal healed tendon on magnetic resonance imaging at a mean of 7 months postoperatively. There were no significant functional differences according to the preoperative tear size (p<0.01), but large-sized tear shows less favorable structural results in 3 out of 6 cases(50%). Conclusion: Our results document the usefulness and variability of arthroscopic double-row rotator cuff repairs comparable to the results of the other types of double-row repairs.

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A Clinical Study for Gall Bladder Stones in Children (소아 담석증에 대한 임상적 연구)

  • Eun, Ho Seon;Baek, Seoung Yon;Chung, Ki Sup
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.194-201
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: Gall bladder (GB) stones in children are rarely observed, and so reports of them have been quite limited in Korea. Therefore, we tried to assess the epidemiology and clinical features of children with GB stone diagnosed at Severance Hospital. Methods: A clinical study was performed on 18 patients below 15 years of age diagnosed with GB stone by abdominal ultrasonography or CT scan at Severance hospital from January 1999 to May 2005. Results: Concerning patients' profile, their sex ratio of male to female in total 18 cases was 2 : 1 with the mean age of $6{\pm}4.3years$. 15 patients (83.3%) were asymptomatic. Inducing factors were found in 14 children (77.8%) including ceftriaxone therapy in 6 cases (33.3%), infection in 4 cases (22.2%), spherocytosis in 3 cases (16.7%), Down syndrome and abdominal operation in 1 case (5.6%) respectively. Single stone was found in 13 cases (76.5%) and multiple in 4 cases (23.5%). 15 cases (88.2%) had the stones less than 5 mm in size, and 2 cases (11.8%) between 5 and 10 mm. 17 patients received conservative treatment, and one patient had cholecystectomy due to Meckel diverticulum. Conclusion: In this report, Pediatric GB stones are predominant in male children, without typical symptoms, having inducing factors, single and small. Recently the diagnosis of them has been increased because of the development of imaging study. But the reports for them were still rare in Korea. Therefore the study for them is more necessary to find it's clinical characteristics.

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