• Title, Summary, Keyword: Constraint

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A GA-based Floorplanning method for Topological Constraint

  • Yoshikawa, Masaya;Terai, Hidekazu
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.1098-1100
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    • 2005
  • The floorplanning problem is an essential design step in VLSI layout design and it is how to place rectangular modules as density as possible. And then, as the DSM advances, the VLSI chip becomes more congested even though more metal layers are used for routing. Usually, a VLSI chip includes several buses. As design increases in complexity, bus routing becomes a heavy task. To ease bus routing and avoid unnecessary iterations in physical design, we need to consider bus planning in early floorplanning stage. In this paper, we propose a floorplanning method for topological constraint consisting of bus constraint and memory constraint. The proposed algorithms based on Genetic Algorithm(GA) is adopted a sequence pair. For selection control, new objective functions are introduced for topological constraint. Studies on floor planning and cell placement have been reported as being applications of GA to the LSI layout problem. However, no studies have ever seen the effect of applying GA in consideration of topological constraint. Experimental results show improvement of bus and memory constraint.

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Relationships between Leisure Constraint, Leisure Constraint Negotiation, Participation for Chinese Students Studying in Korea (중국인 유학생의 여가제약, 여가제약 협상 및 여가참가의 관계)

  • Kim, Jong-Ho;Jo, Woog-Yeon;Xing, Cao;Hwang, Sun-Hwan
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.11 no.8
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    • pp.428-437
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between leisure constraint, leisure constraint negotiation and leisure participation of Chinese students studying in Korea. A total of 210 respondents, participating in the athletic competition for Chinese students, were selected to conduct this study, using the purposive sampling method. Finally, 194 surveys except 17 respondents, were used for this study. The reliability of the questionnaire was analyzed using Cronbach's ${\alpha}$ with SPSS 18.0 and the Simple Regression Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis were conducted. As a result, Main findings were as follows; First, leisure constraint had a positive relationship with leisure constraint negotiation. Specifically, leisure constraint had an influence on 'leisure activity partner search' and 'leisure activity intensity control effort' out of leisure constraint negotiation strategies. Second, leisure constraint had a negative relationship with leisure participation. Third, leisure constraint negotiation had no significant influence on leisure participation.

A study of the impact of constraint factors of festival participation and negotiation efforts of festival participant on festival satisfaction (축제의 참여제약 요인과 관람객의 협상노력을 통한 축제만족에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Han-Joo
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.205-223
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    • 2014
  • A study of the impact of constraint factors of festival participation and negotiation efforts of festival participant on festival satisfaction. This study reviewed earlier studies about festival and verified an impact of the leisure constraint factors of festival participant and the negotiation efforts on festival satisfaction by considering previous literature. Hypotheses based on literature reviews were analyzed emprically. According to the result of study, in aspect of the relationship between constraint factors of festival participation(intrapersonal constraint, interpersonal constraint, structural constraint) and negotiation efforts of festival participation, both interpersonal constraint and structural constraint have positive influence on constraint negotiation efforts. However, intrapersonal constraint factor influenced negatively. Also, the results revealed that in aspect of the relationship among festival participation, festival experience recognition, and satisfaction, festival participation have positive influence on cognitive and emotional experience and finally satisfaction.

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A Study on the SNS Advertising's Word-of-Mouth Constraint Factors in the Social Network Service (소셜 네트워크 서비스에서 SNS광고 구전 제약요인에 대한 연구)

  • Yun, Dae-Hong;Kang, Yong-Soo
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.69-84
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    • 2016
  • This study set the research model to examine the correlation between Word-of-Mouth constraint factors, efforts to negotiate pertaining to these, Flow and Word-of-Mouth intent based on the theory of leisure constrain when it comes to the correlation between consumers' Word-of-Mouth constraint factors and Word-of-Mouth. Correlation among the variables were verified in an empirical manner. Results of this study are summarized as follows. After verifying the hypotheses, all the hypotheses were adopted excluding the hypotheses of two results (Hypothesis 1, hypotheses 5). Detailed results regarding this are as follows. First, the following is the effect of the Intrapersonal Constraint and Word-of-Mouth constraint factors on the Word-of-Mouth constraint negotiation effort. Interpersonal Constraint and Structural Constraint exert positive (-) effect on the Word-of-Mouth constraint negotiation effort. In case of Intrapersonal Constraint, negative (-) effect was demonstrated. Thus, this was statistically significant although dismissed from hypothesis verification. Second, the following is the result of examining the structural correlation between Word-of-Mouth constraint negotiation effort, Flow and Word-of-Mouth. Word-of-Mouth constraint negotiation effort exerts positive (-) effect on the Flow, but it was not statistically effective in case of the Word-of-Mouth. Lastly, it is possible to see that the Flow plays the role of a medium since it exerted positive (-) effect on the Word-of-Mouth. Results of this study are expected to provide key theoretical and working level implications as well as general understanding of the Word-of-Mouth constraint factors, consumers' Flow and Word-of-Mouth.

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Constraint Operator for the Kinematic Calibration of a Parallel Mechanism

  • Lee, Min-Ki;Kim, Tae-Sung;Park, Kun-Woo;Kwon, Sung-Ha
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.23-31
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    • 2003
  • This paper introduces a constraint operator for the kinematic calibration of a parallel mechanism. By adopting the concept of a constraint operator, the movement between two poses is constrained. When the constrained movements are satisfied, the active joint displacements are taken and inputted into the kinematic model to compute the theoretical movements. A cost function is derived by the errors between the theoretical movement and the actual movement. The parameters that minimize the cost function are estimated and substituted into the kinematic model for a kinematic calibration. A single constraint plane is employed as a mechanical fixture to constrain the movement, and three digital indicators are used as the sensing devices to determine whether the constrained movement is satisfied. This calibration system represents an effective, low cost and feasible technique for a parallel mechanism. A calibration algorithm is developed with a constraint operator and implemented on a parallel manipulator constructed for a machining center tool.

Study on the Observability of Calibration System with a Constraint Oprerator (구속연산자에 의한 보정 시스템의 관측성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Min-Ki;Kim, Tae-Sung;Park, Kun-Woo
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.647-655
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    • 2003
  • This paper studies the observability of calibration system with a constraint movement by a constraint operator. The calibration system with the constraint movement need only simple sensing device to check whether the constraint movements are completed within an established range. However, it yields the concern about the poor parameter observability due to the constraint movements. This paper uses the QR-decomposition to find the optimal calibration configurations maximizing the linear independence of rows of a observation matrix. The number of identifiable parameters are examined by the rank of the observation matrix, which represents the parameter observability. The method is applied to a parallel typed machining center and the calibration results are presented. These results verify that the calibration system with low-cost indicators and simple planar table is accurate as well as reliable.

Fine structure of Alkali Treated Hemp Cellulose (국산 대마섬유의 Alkali처리에 의한 미세구조에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, Dong-Ho;Kim, Tae-Hun;Lee, Gyeong-Hui
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.17-24
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    • 1976
  • The crystallinity, crystallite sizes and orientation of hemp fibers treated in caustic soda of various concentration with and without constraint were measured by wide angle X-ray diffraction method. It was found that, 1) The crystallinity monotonously decreased with the increase of caustic soda in the samples treated with constraint, whereas it decreased and again increased with the increase of alkali concentrations in the samples treated without constraint. 2) Crystallite sizes of 002 plane decreased with increase of alkali concentrations, more remarkable decrease occured in the samples treated with constraint, And there were no significant changes on the crystallite sizes of 040 plane in the samples treated with and without constraint. 3) The orientation increased in the samples treated with constraint, whereas it decreased in the samples treated without constraint. The foregoing observations indicate that it is advisible to avoid high alkali concentration and excess tension.

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A Study on the Subtask Performance Using Measure Constraint Locus for a Redundant Robot (여유자유도 로봇에 있어서 성능지수 제한궤적을 이용한 부작업의 성능에 관한 연구)

  • 최병욱;원종화;정명진
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Telematics and Electronics B
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    • v.28B no.10
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    • pp.761-770
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    • 1991
  • This paper suggests a measure constraint locus for characterization of the performance of a subtask for a redundant robot. The measure constraint locus are the loci of points satisfying the necessary constraint for optimality of measure in the joint configuration space. To uniquely obtain an inverse kinematic solution, one must consider both measure constraint locus and self-motion manifolds which are set of homogeneous solutions. Using measure constraint locus for maniqulability measure, the invertible workspace without singularities and the topological property of the configuration space for linding equilibrium configurations are analyzed. We discuss some limitations based on the topological arguments of measure constraint locus, of the inverse kinematic algorithm for a cyclic task. And the inverse kinematic algorithm using global maxima on self-motion manifolds is proposed and its property is studied.

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A Timing Constraint Search Technique for a TMO based Real-time Process

  • Jeong, Yoon-Seok;Kim, Tae-Wan;Han, Sun-Young;Chang, Chun-Hyon
    • Journal of Information Processing Systems
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2006
  • Finding a valid timing constraint is one of the most important issues in the real-time monitoring area. To get the valid timing constraint, a developer executes a real-time process and changes the constraint on a regular basis. This is an exhaustive and time-consuming process. To improve this approach, we propose a timing constraint search technique. This technique uses two load models and one condition proposed in this paper to support the developer in determining the valid timing constraint range in an easy and systematic manner.

Constraint Programming Approach for a Course Timetabling Problem

  • Kim, Chun-Sik;Hwang, Junha
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.22 no.9
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2017
  • The course timetabling problem is a problem assigning a set of subjects to the given classrooms and different timeslots, while satisfying various hard constraints and soft constraints. This problem is defined as a constraint satisfaction optimization problem and is known as an NP-complete problem. Various methods has been proposed such as integer programming, constraint programming and local search methods to solve a variety of course timetabling problems. In this paper, we propose an iterative improvement search method to solve the problem based on constraint programming. First, an initial solution satisfying all the hard constraints is obtained by constraint programming, and then the solution is repeatedly improved using constraint programming again by adding new constraints to improve the quality of the soft constraints. Through experimental results, we confirmed that the proposed method can find far better solutions in a shorter time than the manual method.