• Title, Summary, Keyword: Constraint

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A Template-based Interactive University Timetabling Support System (템플릿 기반의 상호대화형 전공강의시간표 작성지원시스템)

  • Chang, Yong-Sik;Jeong, Ye-Won
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.121-145
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    • 2010
  • University timetabling depending on the educational environments of universities is an NP-hard problem that the amount of computation required to find solutions increases exponentially with the problem size. For many years, there have been lots of studies on university timetabling from the necessity of automatic timetable generation for students' convenience and effective lesson, and for the effective allocation of subjects, lecturers, and classrooms. Timetables are classified into a course timetable and an examination timetable. This study focuses on the former. In general, a course timetable for liberal arts is scheduled by the office of academic affairs and a course timetable for major subjects is scheduled by each department of a university. We found several problems from the analysis of current course timetabling in departments. First, it is time-consuming and inefficient for each department to do the routine and repetitive timetabling work manually. Second, many classes are concentrated into several time slots in a timetable. This tendency decreases the effectiveness of students' classes. Third, several major subjects might overlap some required subjects in liberal arts at the same time slots in the timetable. In this case, it is required that students should choose only one from the overlapped subjects. Fourth, many subjects are lectured by same lecturers every year and most of lecturers prefer the same time slots for the subjects compared with last year. This means that it will be helpful if departments reuse the previous timetables. To solve such problems and support the effective course timetabling in each department, this study proposes a university timetabling support system based on two phases. In the first phase, each department generates a timetable template from the most similar timetable case, which is based on case-based reasoning. In the second phase, the department schedules a timetable with the help of interactive user interface under the timetabling criteria, which is based on rule-based approach. This study provides the illustrations of Hanshin University. We classified timetabling criteria into intrinsic and extrinsic criteria. In intrinsic criteria, there are three criteria related to lecturer, class, and classroom which are all hard constraints. In extrinsic criteria, there are four criteria related to 'the numbers of lesson hours' by the lecturer, 'prohibition of lecture allocation to specific day-hours' for committee members, 'the number of subjects in the same day-hour,' and 'the use of common classrooms.' In 'the numbers of lesson hours' by the lecturer, there are three kinds of criteria : 'minimum number of lesson hours per week,' 'maximum number of lesson hours per week,' 'maximum number of lesson hours per day.' Extrinsic criteria are also all hard constraints except for 'minimum number of lesson hours per week' considered as a soft constraint. In addition, we proposed two indices for measuring similarities between subjects of current semester and subjects of the previous timetables, and for evaluating distribution degrees of a scheduled timetable. Similarity is measured by comparison of two attributes-subject name and its lecturer-between current semester and a previous semester. The index of distribution degree, based on information entropy, indicates a distribution of subjects in the timetable. To show this study's viability, we implemented a prototype system and performed experiments with the real data of Hanshin University. Average similarity from the most similar cases of all departments was estimated as 41.72%. It means that a timetable template generated from the most similar case will be helpful. Through sensitivity analysis, the result shows that distribution degree will increase if we set 'the number of subjects in the same day-hour' to more than 90%.

Optimal Selection of Classifier Ensemble Using Genetic Algorithms (유전자 알고리즘을 이용한 분류자 앙상블의 최적 선택)

  • Kim, Myung-Jong
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.99-112
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    • 2010
  • Ensemble learning is a method for improving the performance of classification and prediction algorithms. It is a method for finding a highly accurateclassifier on the training set by constructing and combining an ensemble of weak classifiers, each of which needs only to be moderately accurate on the training set. Ensemble learning has received considerable attention from machine learning and artificial intelligence fields because of its remarkable performance improvement and flexible integration with the traditional learning algorithms such as decision tree (DT), neural networks (NN), and SVM, etc. In those researches, all of DT ensemble studies have demonstrated impressive improvements in the generalization behavior of DT, while NN and SVM ensemble studies have not shown remarkable performance as shown in DT ensembles. Recently, several works have reported that the performance of ensemble can be degraded where multiple classifiers of an ensemble are highly correlated with, and thereby result in multicollinearity problem, which leads to performance degradation of the ensemble. They have also proposed the differentiated learning strategies to cope with performance degradation problem. Hansen and Salamon (1990) insisted that it is necessary and sufficient for the performance enhancement of an ensemble that the ensemble should contain diverse classifiers. Breiman (1996) explored that ensemble learning can increase the performance of unstable learning algorithms, but does not show remarkable performance improvement on stable learning algorithms. Unstable learning algorithms such as decision tree learners are sensitive to the change of the training data, and thus small changes in the training data can yield large changes in the generated classifiers. Therefore, ensemble with unstable learning algorithms can guarantee some diversity among the classifiers. To the contrary, stable learning algorithms such as NN and SVM generate similar classifiers in spite of small changes of the training data, and thus the correlation among the resulting classifiers is very high. This high correlation results in multicollinearity problem, which leads to performance degradation of the ensemble. Kim,s work (2009) showedthe performance comparison in bankruptcy prediction on Korea firms using tradition prediction algorithms such as NN, DT, and SVM. It reports that stable learning algorithms such as NN and SVM have higher predictability than the unstable DT. Meanwhile, with respect to their ensemble learning, DT ensemble shows the more improved performance than NN and SVM ensemble. Further analysis with variance inflation factor (VIF) analysis empirically proves that performance degradation of ensemble is due to multicollinearity problem. It also proposes that optimization of ensemble is needed to cope with such a problem. This paper proposes a hybrid system for coverage optimization of NN ensemble (CO-NN) in order to improve the performance of NN ensemble. Coverage optimization is a technique of choosing a sub-ensemble from an original ensemble to guarantee the diversity of classifiers in coverage optimization process. CO-NN uses GA which has been widely used for various optimization problems to deal with the coverage optimization problem. The GA chromosomes for the coverage optimization are encoded into binary strings, each bit of which indicates individual classifier. The fitness function is defined as maximization of error reduction and a constraint of variance inflation factor (VIF), which is one of the generally used methods to measure multicollinearity, is added to insure the diversity of classifiers by removing high correlation among the classifiers. We use Microsoft Excel and the GAs software package called Evolver. Experiments on company failure prediction have shown that CO-NN is effectively applied in the stable performance enhancement of NNensembles through the choice of classifiers by considering the correlations of the ensemble. The classifiers which have the potential multicollinearity problem are removed by the coverage optimization process of CO-NN and thereby CO-NN has shown higher performance than a single NN classifier and NN ensemble at 1% significance level, and DT ensemble at 5% significance level. However, there remain further research issues. First, decision optimization process to find optimal combination function should be considered in further research. Secondly, various learning strategies to deal with data noise should be introduced in more advanced further researches in the future.

Validation of Korean Diagnostic Scale of Multiple Intelligence (한국형 다중지능 진단도구의 타당화)

  • Moon, Yong-Lin;Yu, Gyeong-Jae
    • (The) Korean Journal of Educational Psychology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.645-663
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to develop and verify a Korean Diagnostic Scale of Multiple Intelligence(MI), which will be an alternative test to avoid problems with former Shearer's MI test and to adopt H. Gardner's suggestions to develop MI assessment. The test is developed 5 types; kindergartner, elementary lower grader, elementary upper grader, middle schooler, high schooler test. A form of test is diversified with 3 types; multiple-choice items for accomplishment, true or false items for ability, and self-reported items with likert scale for interest and ability. According to H. Gardner's suggestions, we have tried to reanalyze key component of MI, analyze an overlapping or hierarchical relationship between intelligences, develop intelligences-fair items, diversify form of item. We have developed a final standardized test through a primary, secondary preliminary-test analysis, and sampled 5,585 students by age, gender, and regional groups. As a result of this sampling test, we can get a norm score and compare individuals with other's score relatively. To verify this test, we analyzed behavior observation, mean, standard deviation, a percentage of correct answers, reliability of each test type, correlation between intelligence scales, Kruskal-Wallis test of mean rank of career choice by intelligences. As a result of correlation analysis between sub-intelligence scales, we can conclude that this MI test is satisfied with intelligence independent assumption. Besides, as non-parametric statistics test(Kruskal-Wallis) of career choice by intelligences, we can identify that MI is related with domain of career choice. This test is not a linguistic and logical-mathematical biased test but a intelligences-fair test. It makes us compare individual's potential with a norm score. Besides, it could be useful as a means of educational prescription or counsel in comparison with ability, interest, and accomplishment of individual. But this test is limited to do factor or correlation analysis between types of sub-test, because items are minimized for a time-constraint and a heavy burden of test receiver. But if it could be tested with increased items by two sessions, further research could be expected to get over this constraints and do a further validation analysis.

Solid Waste Disposal Site Selection in Rural Area: Youngyang-Gun, Kyungpook (농촌지역 쓰레기 매립장 입지선정에 관한 연구 -경상북도 영양군을 사례로-)

  • Park, Soon-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.63-80
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    • 1997
  • This study attempts to establish the criteria of site selection for establishing solid waste disposal facility, to determine optimal solid waste disposal sites with the criteria, and to examine the suitability of the selected sites. The Multi-Criteria Evaluation(MCE) module in Idrisi is used to determine optimal sites for solid waste disposal. The MCE combines the information from several criteria in interval and/or ratio scale to form a single index of evaluation without leveling down the data scale into ordinal scale. The summary of this study is as follows: First, the considerable criteria are selected through reviewing the literature and the availability of data: namely, percent of slope, fault lines, bedrock characteristics, major residential areas, reservoirs of water supply, rivers, inundated area, roads, and tourist resorts. Second, the criteria maps of nine factors have been developed. Each factor map is standardized and multiplies by its weight, and then the results are summed. After all of the factors have been incorporated, the resulting suitability map is multiplied by each of the constraint in turn to "zero out" unsuitable area. The unsuitable areas are discovered in urban district and its adjacencies, and mountain region as well as river, roads, resort area and their adjacency districts. Third, the potential sites for establishing waste disposal facilities are twenty five districts in Youngyang-gun. Five districts are located in Subi-myun Sinam-ri, nine districts in Chunggi-myun Haehwa-ri and Moojin-ri, and eleven districts in Sukbo-myun Posan-ri. The first highest score of suitability for waste disposal sites is shown at number eleven district in Chunggi-myun Moojin-ri and the second highest one is discovered at number twenty one district in Sukbo-myun Posan-ri that is followed by number nine district in Chunggi-myun Haehwa-ri, number seventeen and twenty three in Sukbo-myun Posan-ri, and number two in Subi-myun Sinam-ri. The first lowest score is found in number six district in Chunggi-myun Haehwa-ri, and the second lowest one is number five district in Subi-myun Sinam-ri. Finally, the Geographic Information System (GIS) helps to select optimal sites with more objectively and to minimize conflict in the determination of waste disposal sites. It is important to present several potential sites with objective criteria for establishing waste disposal facilities and to discover characteristics of each potential site as a result of that final sites of waste disposal are determined through considering thought of residents. This study has a limitation of criteria as a result of the restriction of availability of data such as underground water, soil texture and mineralogy, and thought of residents. To improve selection of optimal sites for a waste disposal facility, more wide rage of spatial and non-spatial data base should be constructed.

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Three-dimensional magnetotelluric surveys for geothermal development in Pohang, Korea (포항지역 지열 개발을 위한 3 차원 자기지전류 탐사)

  • Lee, Tae-Jong;Song, Yoon-Ho;Uchida, Toshihiro
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.89-97
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    • 2007
  • A three-dimensional (3D) magnetotelluric (MT) survey has been carried out to delineate subsurface structures and possible fractures, for development of low-temperature geothermal resources in Pohang, Korea. Quite good quality MT data could be obtained throughout the survey region by locating the remote reference in Kyushu, Japan, which is ${\sim}480\;km$ from the centre of the field site. 3D modelling and inversion are performed taking into account the sea effect in MT measurements near the seashore. The nearby sea in the Pohang area affects MT data at frequencies below $1\;Hz{\sim}0.2\;Hz$, depending on the distance from the seashore. The most severe sea effects were observed in the south-east parts of the survey area, closer to Youngil Bay. 3D inversion with and without the seawater constraint showed very similar results at shallow depths, roughly down to 2 km. At greater depths, however, a strong sea effect seems to form a fictitious conductive structure in ordinary 3D inversion, especially in the south-eastern part of the survey region. Comparison between drilling results and the resistivity profiles from inversions showed that five layered structures can be distinguished the subsurface beneath the target area. They are: (a) semi-consolidated mudstones with resistivity less than $10\;{\Omega}m$, which are ${\sim}300\;m$ thick in the northern part and ${\sim}600\;m$ thick in the southern part of the survey area; (b) occasional occurrence of trachybasalt and lapilli tuff within the mudstone layer has resistivity of a few tens of${\Omega}m$, (c) intrusive rhyolite ${\sim}400\;m$ thick has resistivity of several hundreds of ${\Omega}m$, (d) alternating sandstone and mudstone down to 1.5 km depth shows resistivity of ${\sim}100\;{\Omega}m$, (e) a conductive structure was found at a depth of ${\sim}3\;km$, but more geological and geophysical study should be carried out to identify this structure.

An Empirical Analysis of Fixed Asset Investment Smoothing Effects of Working Capital (운전자본의 고정자산투자 스무딩효과의 실증적 분석)

  • Shin, Min-Shik;Kim, Soo-Eun;Kim, Gong-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Financial Management
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.25-51
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    • 2008
  • In this paper, we analyse empirically the fixed asset investment smoothing of working capital of firms listed on Korea Securities Market. The main results of this study can be summarized as follows. Firms will seek to lower long-term cost by smoothing fixed asset investment and maintaining stationary investment with working capital. Working capital is not only an important use of fund, but also a source of liquidity that should be used to smooth fixed asset investment relative to cash flow shocks if firms face financial constraints. Working capital investment is more sensitive than fixed asset investment to cash flow fluctuations. If firms face financial constraints, working capital investment will compete with fixed asset investment for the limited pool of available cash flows. So, fixed asset investment will have negative relationship with working capital investment. However, criticism that the positive correlation between cash flows and fixed asset investment could arise simply because cash flows is proxy variable for investment demand. Finally, controlling for the fixed asset investment smoothing effects of working capital results in a much larger estimate of the long run impact of financial constraints. Financial constraints is measured by dividend payout ratio and market access level. Fazzari et al. (1988), Fazzari and Petersen (1993), and Faulkender et al. (2008) emphasize that low dividend firms or market unaccessible firms are more likely to face financial constraints, and rarely make use of new equity issuing. The results from empirical analysis show that financial constraints can be better explained using 'adjustment cost' concept. Specifically, the results show that financial constraints exist and that in order to measure financial constraint effects more succinctly, fixed asset investment smoothing effects with working capital should be considered.

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Index-based Searching on Timestamped Event Sequences (타임스탬프를 갖는 이벤트 시퀀스의 인덱스 기반 검색)

  • 박상현;원정임;윤지희;김상욱
    • Journal of KIISE:Databases
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.468-478
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    • 2004
  • It is essential in various application areas of data mining and bioinformatics to effectively retrieve the occurrences of interesting patterns from sequence databases. For example, let's consider a network event management system that records the types and timestamp values of events occurred in a specific network component(ex. router). The typical query to find out the temporal casual relationships among the network events is as fellows: 'Find all occurrences of CiscoDCDLinkUp that are fellowed by MLMStatusUP that are subsequently followed by TCPConnectionClose, under the constraint that the interval between the first two events is not larger than 20 seconds, and the interval between the first and third events is not larger than 40 secondsTCPConnectionClose. This paper proposes an indexing method that enables to efficiently answer such a query. Unlike the previous methods that rely on inefficient sequential scan methods or data structures not easily supported by DBMSs, the proposed method uses a multi-dimensional spatial index, which is proven to be efficient both in storage and search, to find the answers quickly without false dismissals. Given a sliding window W, the input to a multi-dimensional spatial index is a n-dimensional vector whose i-th element is the interval between the first event of W and the first occurrence of the event type Ei in W. Here, n is the number of event types that can be occurred in the system of interest. The problem of‘dimensionality curse’may happen when n is large. Therefore, we use the dimension selection or event type grouping to avoid this problem. The experimental results reveal that our proposed technique can be a few orders of magnitude faster than the sequential scan and ISO-Depth index methods.hods.

Main Causes of Delayed Marriage among Korean Men and Women; Contingent Joints of Status Homogamy, Gender Role Divisions, and Economic Restructuring (남녀 결혼시기 연장의 주요 원인: 계층혼, 성역할분리규범, 경제조정의 우발적 결합)

  • Park, Keong-Suk;Kim, Young-Hye;Kim, Hyun-Suk
    • Korea journal of population studies
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.33-62
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    • 2005
  • This study aims to explain the current upheaval in marriage that many young Korean men and women postpone or deny their marriage. In order to explain the delayed marriage, we need to understand the taste by which men and women choose their partners, the opportunity by which they find their ideational half in reality, and the context in which these values and opportunities of marriages intersect. This study examines the way in which the value and opportunities of marriage among Korean men and women have intersected differently in the changing economic conditions. Using KLIPS(Korea Labor Income Panel Survey, 1998-2002), differential effects of education and occupational status on marital time according to marriage cohort and gender are analyzed. Results find that the opportunity of marriage among men turns out to have been stratified significantly according to their educational achievement and labor status since the 1990s. For women, education and economic activities are likely to influence marriage decision in a discordant way; during the period of 1990-997, highly educated women are more likely than their counterparts to be married earlier while there is no significant difference according to economic activities. This implies that status homogamy has been intensified since the 1990s and many women with high motivation for social status are able to achieve a vicarious social status through marriage in a prosperous economy. For women married after 1998, however, the educational effect is insignificant but economic activity contributes to delaying marriage. This suggests that under the economic restructuring since the late 1990s, the constraint of opportunities finding decent jobs particularly for men results in the contingent change in women's perception about family roles and economic activities by reducing their expectation to achieve a vicarious status through marriage, but increasing their motive for their own economic activities.

Predictive Clustering-based Collaborative Filtering Technique for Performance-Stability of Recommendation System (추천 시스템의 성능 안정성을 위한 예측적 군집화 기반 협업 필터링 기법)

  • Lee, O-Joun;You, Eun-Soon
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.119-142
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    • 2015
  • With the explosive growth in the volume of information, Internet users are experiencing considerable difficulties in obtaining necessary information online. Against this backdrop, ever-greater importance is being placed on a recommender system that provides information catered to user preferences and tastes in an attempt to address issues associated with information overload. To this end, a number of techniques have been proposed, including content-based filtering (CBF), demographic filtering (DF) and collaborative filtering (CF). Among them, CBF and DF require external information and thus cannot be applied to a variety of domains. CF, on the other hand, is widely used since it is relatively free from the domain constraint. The CF technique is broadly classified into memory-based CF, model-based CF and hybrid CF. Model-based CF addresses the drawbacks of CF by considering the Bayesian model, clustering model or dependency network model. This filtering technique not only improves the sparsity and scalability issues but also boosts predictive performance. However, it involves expensive model-building and results in a tradeoff between performance and scalability. Such tradeoff is attributed to reduced coverage, which is a type of sparsity issues. In addition, expensive model-building may lead to performance instability since changes in the domain environment cannot be immediately incorporated into the model due to high costs involved. Cumulative changes in the domain environment that have failed to be reflected eventually undermine system performance. This study incorporates the Markov model of transition probabilities and the concept of fuzzy clustering with CBCF to propose predictive clustering-based CF (PCCF) that solves the issues of reduced coverage and of unstable performance. The method improves performance instability by tracking the changes in user preferences and bridging the gap between the static model and dynamic users. Furthermore, the issue of reduced coverage also improves by expanding the coverage based on transition probabilities and clustering probabilities. The proposed method consists of four processes. First, user preferences are normalized in preference clustering. Second, changes in user preferences are detected from review score entries during preference transition detection. Third, user propensities are normalized using patterns of changes (propensities) in user preferences in propensity clustering. Lastly, the preference prediction model is developed to predict user preferences for items during preference prediction. The proposed method has been validated by testing the robustness of performance instability and scalability-performance tradeoff. The initial test compared and analyzed the performance of individual recommender systems each enabled by IBCF, CBCF, ICFEC and PCCF under an environment where data sparsity had been minimized. The following test adjusted the optimal number of clusters in CBCF, ICFEC and PCCF for a comparative analysis of subsequent changes in the system performance. The test results revealed that the suggested method produced insignificant improvement in performance in comparison with the existing techniques. In addition, it failed to achieve significant improvement in the standard deviation that indicates the degree of data fluctuation. Notwithstanding, it resulted in marked improvement over the existing techniques in terms of range that indicates the level of performance fluctuation. The level of performance fluctuation before and after the model generation improved by 51.31% in the initial test. Then in the following test, there has been 36.05% improvement in the level of performance fluctuation driven by the changes in the number of clusters. This signifies that the proposed method, despite the slight performance improvement, clearly offers better performance stability compared to the existing techniques. Further research on this study will be directed toward enhancing the recommendation performance that failed to demonstrate significant improvement over the existing techniques. The future research will consider the introduction of a high-dimensional parameter-free clustering algorithm or deep learning-based model in order to improve performance in recommendations.

The Influence of the Restrictions in Chinese economic growth on Korean commercial environment (중국 경제성장의 제약요인이 한국 통상환경에 미치는 영향)

  • Shong, Il-Ho;Lee, Gye-Young
    • International Commerce and Information Review
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.457-479
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    • 2013
  • Through a Chinese rise, Chinese dream is actualizing as the world's great power. According to outlook of World Bank and IMF, Around 2030 China will be a great power bigger than America's economic power. The rise of China will give a huge impact to the whole world. China expands her influence through a global manufacturing base and a global market. To actualize 'Peaceful Rise' Strategy, China has many constraints. Chinese society is facing many difficult social problem due to side effects of a rapid development. Such as the spread of corruption, the severity of wealth gap, environmental degradation and energy shortage. Internationally there are containment from hegemon so-called 'China threat' dispute, Taiwan issue and territorial disputes. Western countries are hostile to China for two reasons. Based on expectations, one is China's socialist system and the other is the rising China which will compete for supremacy with Europe and America. Recent emergence of Chinese nationalism and the containment of the neighboring countries are also serious limiting factors. Domestically they have the rampant corruption in the bureaucracy, weakened capacity of Communist rule, wealth disparity due to the discriminatory economic development strategy, seriousness of rural problem, social instability, lack of social security systems and the development gap between the eastern coastal areas and western inland areas, ethnic minorities problems, the constraint of sustainable development issues due to lack of resources, environmental pollution and energy constraints. Like the former Soviet Union, China may face a dismantlement. After the rise, China may encounter possibilities of a war between great powers or a collapse of Chinese society caused by deepening internal conflict. Serious economic polarization would make peasants and urban workers, who are social vulnerable people, to turn their back to communist party and threaten the justification and the appropriateness of the ruling communist party. Chinese government will think internal system security threat is more formidable risk factor than a system security threat from the hegemon. The decline of great country comes from internal reasons rather than external reasons. To achieve peaceful rise, unification with Taiwan is an essential prerequisite. Taiwan issues are complex problems which equipped with international and domestic factors. Lack of energy resources, environmental pollution in China will bring economic crisis to Korean enterprises. Important influence to Korean economy will be a changeover of the method in economic development. It will turn the balance of investment and consumption, GDP-centered growth to consumption and environment-centered growth. Services industries including finance, environment, culture, education, health care and social welfare will grow. Change in China's growth model will give a great challenge upon the intermediate goods industry in Korea. Korea should reduce the portion of machinery, automotive, semiconductor, steel and chemical-centered export industry to China, and should increase the proportion of the service industry.

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