• Title, Summary, Keyword: Constraint

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Participation Types of Private Security Guards in Leisure Activities and the Effect of Leisure Constraint on Life Quality (민간경호원의 여가활동 참여유형 및 여가제약이 삶의 질에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Joon-Ho;Choi, Pan-Am;Jo, Sung-Gu
    • Journal of the Society of Disaster Information
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.161-171
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    • 2011
  • This research puts the purpose in elucidating the effect of participation types of leisure activity and leisure restraints on life quality. To achieve research purpose, questionnaire survey was conducted on 200 subjects who are engaged in private guard companies with ages over 20. Using the collected data, frequency analysis was conducted in order to identify demographic characteristics with SPSS/WIN 17.0V program. In addition, multiple regression analysis was conducted for solving research questions. As a result, sports related participation type had a positive effect on time constraint factor. Meanwhile, hobby related participation type had a positive effect on time and cost constraint, participation type of watching has a positive effect on individual and social constraint. Tour and play related participation type had a positive effect on individual constraint factor. Meanwhile participation type of sociality had a positive effect on individual constraint and hobby factor, but had a negative effect on familial and social constraint. Sports related participation type had a positive effect on social relationship factor. Participation type of watching and play related participation type had a negative effect on family relationship. Finally, time constraint factor had a positive effect on family relationship, and cost constraint factor had a positive effect on entire quality of life. Individual and family constraint factors had a negative effect on leisure relationship factor. Also, social constraint factor had a positive effect on family relationship, but had a negative effect on leisure relationship.

A study on the determination of the number of mobility cluster (적정 이동군집수 결정에 관한 연구)

  • ;Ham, Sung Hun
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.120-131
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    • 1995
  • To analyze mobility patterns, this study used three Constraint (Capability Constraint, Coupling Constraint, Authority Constraint) models which were proposed in Dr. Hagerstrand's Time-space theory. This paper shows that three constraint models have some effects upon mobility by age. In this study, Capability Constraint means a certain special constraint that is what we can't do during proceeding basic natural urges like sleep, fare, etc. Coupling constraint is a physical one. Each person limits the action range for staying on a special place in special time. For instance, students have to stay in school so that they have mobility constraints. Authority Constraint is a social one. When we use urban facilities or traffic, we may be controlled by mobility sphere by an agreement or a social position. It is social agreement that the opening hour of a store, the time table of mass-transportation and a social positional control that the personal income, the standard of education. In this study it has been in a process of determination of the cluster number that degree of influences a social constraint to mobility. Considering the mobility constraint of characteristics of space divides urban and rural, people in urban area have higher mobility rate than in rural area. Resuets of determination of the cluster, show similar mobility pattern. People in urban area are connected verity of mobility which related to urban space structures with determination of cluste-number. That is to say, mobility patterns can be changed by space charactcristics. Constraints by sex and age are also social constraints and they are influenced by mobility patterns. For instance, females at the age of twenties have similar mobility pattern to the same age male but they have sudden changes after thirty's age. Male entertains a similar pattern without restriction of age. That is to say, management by sex as a social constraint affects mobility. To establish more realistic traffie policy, mobility formation should be reflected to the space in a view of social-behavioral science. To embody this, some problems should be investigated as follows. 1. As a problem of methodology, if sufficient samples ensured, we could subdivide clusters and could open up a new method of analyzing the mobility clusters by using the neuro-network. 2. Extracting actions connected with mobility and finding life cycle which is classified by daily cluste-characteristics, suitable counterproposal could be presented to the traific policy.

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An efficient Ambiguity searching method with constraints for attitude finding GPS receivers

  • Nam, Sung-Il;Son, Seok-Bo;Park, Chan-Sik;Lee, Sang-Jeong
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.61.1-61
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    • 2001
  • This paper describes an efficient ambiguity searching method using additional constraints in 3-dimentional attitude finding GPS receiver design. For determining the integer ambiguity, the baseline length constraint, the angle constraint, the velocity constraint and the attitude constraint can be used for reducing the searching space. This paper describes the searching space algebraically and graphically. It is confirmed that the described restrictions are reasonable and the speed and the probability of ambiguity fixing are improved when the restricted searching spaces are applied Moreover, it is possible to design receivers of better quality by applying the method proposed in this paper.

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Issues Involved In The Study Of The Voltage Stability of A Power System Network Modeled By DAE

  • Lee, Byong-Jun;Song, Kil-Yeong;Kwon, Sae-Hyuk
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.6-8
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    • 1994
  • In this paper an attempt is made to understand the voltage stability when the power system networks are represented by the differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) form. The problem is analyzed by interpreting the shape of constraint manifold, based on the singular perturbation model. The global picture or constraint manifold is given to show how the local shape or constraint manifold can be used to guess for the system behavior. The gradient analysis is used systematically to obtain a local shape or the constraint manifold.

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Numerical method to impose constraint conditions in phase transformation (상변태의 구속 조건을 부가하기 위한 수치 방법)

  • Yang, Seung-Yong;Goo, Byeong-Choon
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.706-709
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    • 2004
  • A numerical method was developed that imposes constraint condition on the order parameters in martensitic phase transformation. In the method, an amplitude function having values of 1 or 0 was multiplied to transformation rates. The merit of the method is that the imposition of the constraint condition is more straightforward than a method with Lagrangian multiplier and easy to implement in the tangent modulus method. The developed method is applied to three-dimensional finite element analyses of single and poly crystalline shape memory alloys.

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A Systematic Review of Modified Constraint- Induced Movement Therapy in Children With Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy (뇌성마비 유형 중 편마비 아동을 위한 수정된 강제유도 운동치료의 효과에 대한 체계적 고찰)

  • Hong, So-Young;Kim, Kyeong-Mi
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Sensory Integration
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.11-22
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    • 2012
  • Objective : This research investigated the intervention effects, protocol of modified constraint-induced movement therapy in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Methods : For the key words of a database search, "Cerebral Palsy", "Hemiplegia", "Constraint Induced Movement Therapy", "modified Constraint Induced Movement Therapy" were used. We examined papers published in journals from January 2001, when the modified Constraint Induced Movement Therapy was first suggested, to May 2011, using PubMed, Medline. Ovid. Results : A total of 10 papers were analyzed and results of modified Constraint Induced Movement Therapy were an effective therapeutic method to improve motor function, quality of movement and that they also increased the frequency of functional use of the affected hands of hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Conclusion : This paper conducted a systematic review of the research literature reporting on the effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Analysis of the fewer number of papers, there was limitation that we consider studies at all levels of evidence. However the restraint methods should be decided according to the characteristics of the individually and apply a variety of therapeutic activities, there is positive support for the use of modified constraint-induced movement therapy to improve the recovery of the paretic upper extremity with cerebral palsy.

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A Study on the Fracture Behavior of a Two Dimensional Crack in Gas Pipelines Considering Constraint Effects (구속효과를 구려한 가스배관 결함의 2차원적 파괴거동 해석에 관한 연구)

  • Sim, Do-Jun;Jang, Yeong-Gyun;Choe, Jae-Bung;Kim, Yeong-Jin;Kim, Cheol-Man
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 2001
  • EFP(Fitness For Purpose) type defect assessment methodologies based on ECA(Engineering Critical Analysis) have been established and are in use for the structural integrity evaluation of gas pipelines. ECA usually includes the fracture mechanics analysis, and it is assumed that the J-integral uniquely characterizes the crack-tip stress-strain field. However, it has been proven that the J-integral alone can not be sufficient to characterize the crack-tip field under low levels of constraint with a single parameter. Since pipeline structures are made of ductile material, locally loaded in tension, cracks may experience low level of constraint, and therefore, J-dominance will be lost. For this reason, the level of constraint must be quantified to establish a precise assessment procedure for pipeline defects. The objective of this paper is to investigate the fracture behavior of a crack in gas pipeline(KS D 3507) by quantifying the level of constraint. For this purpose, tensile tests and CTOD tests were performed at room temperature(24$\^{C}$) and low temperature(-40$\^{C}$) to obtain the material properties. J-Q analyses were performed for SENB and SENT specimens based on 2-D finite element analyses, in order to investigate the in-plane constraint effects on pipeline defects. For precise assessment of cracks, especially shallow cracks, in KS D 3507 pipeline, constraint effect must be considered.

Cloth Modeling using Implicit Constraint Enforcement (묵시적 제한방법을 이용한 옷 모델링 방법)

  • Hong, Min;Lee, Seung-Hyun;Park, Doo-Soon
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.516-524
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    • 2008
  • This paper presents a new modeling technique for the simulation of cloth specific characteristics with a set of hard constraints using an implicit constraint enforcement scheme. A conventional explicit Baumgarte constraint stabilization method has several defects. It requires users to pick problem-dependent coefficients to achieve fast convergence and has inherent stabilization limits. The proposed implicit constraint enforcement method is stable with large time steps, does not require problem dependent feed-back parameters, and guarantees the natural physics-based motion of an object. In addition, its computational complexity is the same as the explicit Baumgarte method. This paper describes a formulation of implicit constraint enforcement and provides a constraint error analysis. The modeling technique for complex components of cloth such as seams, buttons, sharp creases, wrinkles, and prevention of excessive elongation are explained. Combined with an adaptive constraint activation scheme, the results using the proposed method show the substantial enhancement of the realism of cloth simulations with a corresponding savings in computational cost.

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Geometric Constraint Management for Sweeping and Boolean Operations (스위핑과 불리언 연산에 대한 형상 구속조건 관리)

  • 김웅주;정채봉;김재정
    • Korean Journal of Computational Design and Engineering
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.301-311
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    • 2000
  • For effective part modifications which is necessary in the design process frequently, variational geometric modeling with constraint management being used in a wide. Most variational geometric modeling methods, however, manage just the constraints about sketch elements used for generation of primitives. Thus, not only constraint propagation but also re-build of various modeling operations stored in the modeling history is necessary iota part geometry modifications. Especially, re-build of high-cost Boolean operations is apt to deteriorate overall modeling efficiency abruptly. Therefore, in this paper we proposed an algorithm that can handle all geometric entities of the part directly. For this purpose, we introduced eight type geometric constraints to the various geometric calculations about all geometric entities in sweepings and Boolean operations as well as the existing constraints of the sketch elements. The algorithm has a merit of rapid part geometric modifications through only constraint propagation without rebuild of modeling operations which are necessary in the existing variational geometric modeling method.

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A Constraint Programming-based Automated Course Timetabling System

  • Hwang, Junha
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 2019
  • The course timetabling problem is a kind of very complex combinatorial optimization problems, which is known as an NP-complete problem. Sometimes a given course timetabling problem can be accompanied by many constraints. At this time, even if only one constraint is violated, it can be an infeasible timetable. Therefore, it is very difficult to make an automated course timetabling system for a complex real-world course timetabling problem. This paper introduces an automated course timetabling system using constraint programming. The target problem has 26 constraints in total, and they are expressed as 24 constraints and an objective function in constraint programming. Currently, we are making a timetable through this system and applying the result to the actual class. Members' satisfaction is also much higher than manual results. We expect this paper can be a guide for making an automated course timetabling system.