• Title, Summary, Keyword: Constraints

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Hierarchical Process of Leisure Activity Constraints (여가활동참여에 있어서 제약유형의 위계적 과정에 관한 연구)

  • 김유일;강석희
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 2000
  • Leisure constraints mean the factor to constrain individual's leisure activity. Leisure constraints are composed of interpersonal constraints, interpersonal constraints and structural constraints. The purposes of this study are to show that intrapersonal leisure constraints have a strong effect on leisure preference, and leisure constraints are sequential and hierachical process. Intrapersonal constraints effect on leisure constraints in first step. And then interpersonal constraints and structural constraints effect on leisure participation. Those three leisure constraints are all linked together and come out step by step. Regarding adults as a population, who are more than 20-year-old and live in Seoul, 9 dongs were chose after dividing into upper and lower classes according to the value of their residence. The questionnaire consists of 4 parts: intrapersonal constraints, interpersonal constraints, structural constraints, and demographic characteristics. Results of this paper is that people who have strong intrapersonal constraints normally have problems caused from social structure. Intrapersonal constraints and structural constrains come out not seperately but together. Then, it can be said that structural constraints have an influence over intrapersonal constraints. So, it's necessary to solve structural problems to increase preferences and participations of them.

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The Effects of Leisure Constraints and Leisure Sufficiency of Late Middle-Aged Adults on Their Life Satisfaction (중년후기 성인이 지각하는 여가제약 및 여가충족이 생활만족도에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Ji-Soo;Park, Kyung-Rhan
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.689-703
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships among 'leisure constraints', 'leisure sufficiency' and 'life satisfaction' perceived by late middle-aged adults. The subjects of this research were 275 adults from 50 to 64. The results are as follows: 1) Among 5 categories of 'leisure constraints', the subjects perceive' financial constraints' as the most important, and in order of importance, 'social constraints', 'physical constraints', and 'familial constraints' followed. 2) Among five 'leisure activities', a factor perceived most sufficiently by middle-aged adults is 'simple relaxation' and followed by 'social activities', 'activities with family'. 'learning activities', and 'play-recreation activities'. 3) The factors influencing life satisfaction perceived by late-middle aged adults are 'religion', 'financial constraints', 'education', 'familial constraints', 'physical constraints', 'learning activities', and 'play-recreation activities'. These 7 factors explain 38.9% of total variation. Also, the 'leisure constraints' has a greater impact on their 'life satisfaction' than on their 'leisure sufficiency'.

Differences in Leisure Participation by Types of Leisure Constraints for Married employees (기혼취업자의 여가제약유형에 따른 여가활동참여의 차이)

  • Kim, Oi-Sook;Park, Eun Jung
    • Korean Family Resource Management Association
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.241-263
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    • 2013
  • Time pressure and financial burden have been reported as the main constraints on leisure participation. The purpose of this study was to explore a typology of leisure constraints, investigate the characteristics of leisure constraint types, and analyze the differences in leisure participation by the types of leisure constraints for married employees. The data source for this research was the 2009 Time Use Survey conducted by the Korea National Statistical Office (KNSO). Married employees aged 20 to 59 years completed 13,476 time diaries (7,984 for male, 5,492 for female), which were analyzed using chi-square, cluster analysis, and ANOVA analysis. Leisure constraints were classified into five types in two categories, working time per week and personal income for both males and females respectively. The three types for both males and females were time-income constraints, income constraints, and general constraints, with an additional type for men, $time^+$-income constraints, and an additional type for women, time constraint. The most common type was general constraints, for both males and females. Each type was further differentiated by the following socio-economic variables: age, educational level, job type, and weekly day-off. The study found that participation in study, sports, and religious activities varied with the types of leisure constraints.

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A PROPAGATION ALGORITHM FOR INTERVAL-BASED CONDITIONAL CONSTRAINTS (Interval을 이용한 Conditional Constraints의 Propagation 알고리듬)

  • Kim, Kyeong-Taek
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.133-146
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    • 1994
  • Conditional constraints are frequently used to represent relations. To use these conditional constraints, it is necessary to develop an appropriate logic in which these conditional constraints can be represented and manipulated. Nevertheless, there has been little research that addresses interval-based conditional constraints. The proposed approach addresses the use of conditional constraints involving intervals in constraint networks. Two algorithms are presented: (1) a propagation algorithm for an interval-based conditional constraint, which is similar to one for an exact-value conditional constraint; (2) a propagation algorithm for interval-based conditional constraints which satisfy some conditions. The former can be applied to any conditional constraint. However, with the former algorithm, conditional constraints are usually categorized into the cases that they cannot be propagated. After investigating several methods in which most conditional constraints can be propagated, we propose the latter algorithm under certain condition that usually results in smaller resulting design space comparing to the former.

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The Admissible Multiperiod Mean Variance Portfolio Selection Problem with Cardinality Constraints

  • Zhang, Peng;Li, Bing
    • Industrial Engineering and Management Systems
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.118-128
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    • 2017
  • Uncertain factors in finical markets make the prediction of future returns and risk of asset much difficult. In this paper, a model,assuming the admissible errors on expected returns and risks of assets, assisted in the multiperiod mean variance portfolio selection problem is built. The model considers transaction costs, upper bound on borrowing risk-free asset constraints, cardinality constraints and threshold constraints. Cardinality constraints limit the number of assets to be held in an efficient portfolio. At the same time, threshold constraints limit the amount of capital to be invested in each stock and prevent very small investments in any stock. Because of these limitations, the proposed model is a mix integer dynamic optimization problem with path dependence. The forward dynamic programming method is designed to obtain the optimal portfolio strategy. Finally, to evaluate the model, our result of a meaning example is compared to the terminal wealth under different constraints.

A Handling Method of Linear Constraints for the Genetic Algorithm (유전알고리즘에서 선형제약식을 다루는 방법)

  • Sung, Ki-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Operations Research and Management Science Society
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.67-72
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    • 2012
  • In this paper a new method of handling linear constraints for the genetic algorithm is suggested. The method is designed to maintain the feasibility of offsprings during the evolution process of the genetic algorithm. In the genetic algorithm, the chromosomes are coded as the vectors in the real vector space constrained by the linear constraints. A method of handling the linear constraints already exists in which all the constraints of equalities are eliminated so that only the constraints of inequalities are considered in the process of the genetic algorithm. In this paper a new method is presented in which all the constraints of inequalities are eliminated so that only the constraints of equalities are considered. Several genetic operators such as arithmetic crossover, simplex crossover, simple crossover and random vector mutation are designed so that the resulting offspring vectors maintain the feasibility subject to the linear constraints in the framework of the new handling method.

A Cross-Cultural Study of the Family Leisure Motivation and Family leisure Constraints Between German and Korean Families

  • Cheon Hyejung;Leonhauser Ingrid-Ute;Moon Sook-Jae
    • International Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.29-39
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the differences of family leisure motivation and family leisure constraints between German families and Korean families, and analyze the relationship among family leisure motivation, family leisure constraints, and family strengths. The sample in this study consisted of 102 Korean two-parent families with teenagers and 147 German two-parent families with teenagers. The results were as follows: 1) family bonding motivation and rest motivation did not differ significantly between German families and Koran families while educational motivation and obligatory motivation differ significantly between the two. 2) While Korean families were more constrained to intrapersonal constraints, German families were more constrained to interpersonal constraints. 3) Educational motivation, family bonding motivation, rest motivation, interpersonal constraints, and structural constraints were found to be significantly correlated with German family strength while educational motivation, family bonding motivation, rest motivation, and interpersonal constraints were found to be significantly correlated with Korean family strength.

A Study of Leisure Constraints, Leisure Activities Participation and Life Satisfaction of the Elderly (노인의 여가제약, 여가활동참여와 생활만족도의 관계 분석)

  • Yi, Yeong-Sug;Park, Kyung-Rhan
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to find out leisure constraints of the elderly and to examine how these constraints influence their participation in leisure activities and life satisfaction. The data analysis of 291 senior citizens over 60 years old were conducted, the research results are as follows: first, leisure constraints of senior citizens stem from individual, societal, economic, family constraints. It indicates that anyone of constraints did not exclusively determine leisure constraints. Rather, the result implies that leisure constraints for the elderly is from multifaceted levels of social system. Second, participation in leisure activities positively worked on life satisfaction. Third, leisure constraints of the elderly directly influenced their participation in leisure activities and life satisfaction. In conclusion, to revitalize senior citizens' participation in leisure activities is critical in advancing their life satisfaction. Nationwide positive and supportive social environment for their leisure participation should be established first, on which social and legal systems should be consequently organized. At the same time, social supports to provide opportunities for their leisure participation are required for the future senior citizens.

Application of OPF algorithm with changing inequality constraints to equality constraints to real systems (부등호의 등호화를 통한 OPF 해석 알고리즘의 실계통 적용)

  • Choi, J.H.;Kim, K.J;Rhee, B.;Eum, J.S.;Jhu, O.P.;Jeon, D.H.
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.7-9
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    • 2000
  • This paper deals with optimal power flow, which is optimal problem with equality constraints and inequality constraints. An a1gorithm of changing inequality constraints problem to equality constraints problem is applied to real systems.

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A Decentralized Task Structure for Cooperative Transportation Missions (협업 수송 임무을 위한 분산 임무 구조)

  • Kim, Keum-Seong;Choi, Han-Lim
    • The Journal of Korea Robotics Society
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.133-138
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    • 2015
  • This paper presents a modified task structure of coupled-constraints consensus based bundle algorithm especially to resolve the cooperative transportation problem. The cooperative transportation mission has various types of constraints. A modified framework to generate activities and subtasks to solve time and task constraints of the transportation mission by using coupled-constraints consensus based bundle algorithm is suggested. In this paper modifications on task structure, reward function and arrival time calculation are suggested to handle the constraints of cooperative transportation mission.