• Title, Summary, Keyword: Contamination

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Building a Classification Scheme of Soil and Groundwater Contamination Sources in Korea: 2. Construction of Classification System and Applications of Attribute Data (토양.지하수오염원 분류체계 구축방안: 2. 분류체계 구축 및 속성자료 활용방안)

  • An, Jeong-Yi;Shin, Kyung-Hee;Hwang, Sang-Il
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.122-127
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    • 2010
  • Constructing the national inventory that can be used as a tool to identify and assess existing or potential contamination is necessary for efficiently managing the soil and groundwater contamination. In order to start this construction, the first step is how we define and classify potential contamination sources of soil and groundwater. After selecting the basic classification model of contamination sources from developed countries, we suggested the classification and list of the potential contamination sources of soil and groundwater which are appropriate for specific conditions of South Korea. In addition, we investigated several databases to confirm the existence of available data sources and then examined established attribute data through chemical accident response information system (CARIS) and water information system (WIS) in National Institute of Environmental Research and mine geographic information system (MGIS) in Mine Reclamation Corporation. All sorts of attribute data in the existing databases can be utilized as significant assessment factors for determining the management priority of potential contamination sources in the future. Therefore, it is required the expanded investigation of additional database sources and the continual modification so that the classification system of potential contamination sources can be improved.

Blood culture contamination in hospitalized pediatric patients: a single institution experience

  • Min, Hyewon;Park, Cheong Soo;Kim, Dong Soo;Kim, Ki Hwan
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.57 no.4
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    • pp.178-185
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: Blood culture is the most important tool for detecting bacteremia in children with fever. However, blood culture contamination rates range from 0.6% to 6.0% in adults; rates for young children have been considered higher than these, although data are limited, especially in Korea. This study determined the contamination rate and risk factors in pediatric patients visiting the emergency room (ER) or being admitted to the ward. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of blood cultures obtained from children who visited Yonsei Severance Hospital, Korea between 2006 and 2010. Positive blood cultures were labeled as true bacteremia or contamination according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Healthcare Safety Network definitions for laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection, after exclusion of cultures drawn from preexisting central lines only. Results: Among 40,542 blood cultures, 610 were positive, of which 479 were contaminations and 131 were true bacteremia (overall contamination rate, 1.18%). The contamination rate in the ER was significantly higher than in the ward (1.32% vs. 0.66%, P<0.001). The rate was higher in younger children (2.07%, 0.94%, and 0.61% in children aged <1 year, 1-6 years, and >6 years, respectively). Conclusion: Overall, contamination rates were higher in younger children than in older children, given the difficulty of performing blood sampling in younger children. The contamination rates from the ER were higher than those from the ward, not accounted for only by overcrowding and lack of experience among personnel collecting samples. Further study to investigate other factors affecting contamination should be required.

Mortality risk factor analysis in colonic perforation: would retroperitoneal contamination increase mortality in colonic perforation?

  • Yoo, Ri Na;Kye, Bong-Hyeon;Kim, Gun;Kim, Hyung Jin;Cho, Hyeon-Min
    • Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
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    • v.93 no.4
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    • pp.203-208
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Colonic perforation is a lethal condition presenting high morbidity and mortality in spite of urgent surgical treatment. This study investigated the surgical outcome of patients with colonic perforation associated with retroperitoneal contamination. Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed for 30 patients diagnosed with colonic perforation caused by either inflammation or ischemia who underwent urgent surgical treatment in our facility from January 2005 to December 2014. Patient characteristics were analyzed to find risk factors correlated with increased postoperative mortality. Using the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) audit system, the mortality and morbidity rates were estimated to verify the surgical outcomes. Patients with retroperitoneal contamination, defined by the presence of retroperitoneal air in the preoperative abdominopelvic CT, were compared to those without retroperitoneal contamination. Results: Eight out of 30 patients (26.7%) with colonic perforation had died after urgent surgical treatment. Factors associated with mortality included age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, and the ischemic cause of colonic perforation. Three out of 6 patients (50%) who presented retroperitoneal contamination were deceased. Although the patients with retroperitoneal contamination did not show significant increase in the mortality rate, they showed significantly higher ASA physical status classification than those without retroperitoneal contamination. The mortality rate predicted from Portsmouth POSSUM was higher in the patients with retroperitoneal contamination. Conclusion: Patients presenting colonic perforation along with retroperitoneal contamination demonstrated severe comorbidity. However, retroperitoneal contamination was not found to be correlated with the mortality rate.

Survey of Staphylococcus epidermidis Contamination on the Hands of Dental Hygienists and Equipment Surface of Dental Clinics (치과의료기관 의료장비 표면 및 치과위생사 손의 Staphylococcus epidermidis 오염도 조사)

  • Kim, Seol-Hee
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.472-480
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate Staphylococcus epidermidis contamination on hands of 20 dental hygienists and 140 equipment surface of 20 dental clinics in a local area, from July to August 2017. The degree of S. epidermidis contamination was measured using a hand plate and a rodac plate and then cultured at $35^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours. Based on hand plate criteria, hand contamination was classified into low, middle, and high groups. Analysis of the variance (ANOVA) of the contamination level of the hand parts of the group surface contamination level of the dental clinic equipment was descriptive statistics after clustering lock count. S. epidermidis contamination was moderate in 55% of the hands of dental hygienists. The area of contamination was 29.45 colony-forming units (CFU) on the palm, followed by the middle finger 7.8 CFU, ring finger 6.4 CFU, and thumb 6 CFU. Medical equipment surface contamination was showed that 3-way handle 4.45 CFU, computer mouse 3.37 CFU, mirror handle 1.60 CFU were higher than other areas. The group with high hand contamination had a high positive correlation with the S. epidermidis contamination of the hand. S. epidermidis contamination level was higher on hands than on the medical equipment surface contamination. Therefore, medical staff should recognize the importance of hand hygiene which should be practiced in the manner suggested by World Health Organization. In addition, the medical team needs to be responsible for performing infection control tasks, implementing infection management guidelines and providing systematic education on infectious disease management.

Influence upon electrical properties of outdoor insulators with non-uniformity contamination (국부오손이 옥외절연물의 전기적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 이원영;최남호;박강식;한상옥
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of IIIuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers Conference
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    • pp.203-206
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    • 2001
  • Since th three sides of korea peninsula are surrounded by the sea, electric apparatus are greatly contaminated by the salt generated by the typhoon, seasonal wind, sea wind and sea fog. This contamination causes electric power apparatus to fail. Thus in this paper, we investigated to influence upon electrical properties of outdoor insulators with non-uniformity contamination in the experimental condition because The contamination of outdoor insulator highly depended wind property In the service condition, insulator was not uniformly contaminated. From the flashover test for the 254 mm suspension insulator, we could determine the influence non-uniform contamination on the electrical property of insulators. Through the experiment, we convinced to occur flashover from non-uniform contamination region of outdoor insulator. Contaminated area and pattern has a close relationship with the electrical properties of outdoor insulator.

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A study of the pollution of ground water in the basin of the river Baem Nae Chun, Sorae-Myun, Shihoong-gon, Kyonggi-Do, Korea (경기도 시흥군 소래면 뱀내하천 유역의 지하수 오염에 관한 연구)

  • 김윤종;정봉일
    • Water for future
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.19-29
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    • 1973
  • The progressive contamination of water resulted from man's activity and the use of fertilizers is not restricted only to surface water, but also the shallow groundwater is affected. This type of groundwater contamination is mainly restricted to areas composed of permeable, nonconsolidated sediments forming a shallow aquifer. The chloride and the sulfate resulted from man's activity and the use of fertilizers were measured to study the variations of the groundwater contamination. In general, (1) When water level rises, the rate of groundwater contamination becomes less and when water level declines, the rate of contamination is increased. (2) The highly contaminated season is the early-summer and the less contaminated season is the winter or after rainy season. (3) The groundwater in weathering zone without covering layer. (4) The degree of contamination of wells is increased with the increase of well depth and lowing the water table, because of increasing contaminated water from enlargement of the area of influence of the well.

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Research and development of advanced COS for anti-contamination (염진해 특성이 향상된 COS의 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, L.S.;Han, D.H.;Ahn, M.S.;Cho, H.G.;Kang, D.P.;Hwang, D.S.
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.1599-1602
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    • 1994
  • Recently, failure of COS(cut out switch) due to contamination has been increased. This paper is on the development of the contamination COS. 1 We designed a porcelain insulator of alternate shed for anti-contamination COS. 2 The COS was coated with HVIC(silicone) to improve resistivity to contamination. 3 The FOV characteristics of COS were examined to obtain dry FOV, wet FOV and contamination FOV.

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A Study on the Soil Contamination in the Heaped Soil Dredged from Bottom of the Storage Pond in Pohang Industrial Complex (포항 공단유수지 준설토의 문덕리 성토에 따른 토양오염 조사)

  • Jang, Won;Kim, Dong-Gil
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.57-60
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    • 1999
  • Geochemical study was carried out to find out soil contamination at the heaped soil, moved from bottom of the storage pond in Pohang industrial complex, in Moondug, Chemical analysis showed that contents of heavy metals in the soil were higher than those of the ordinary soil. Contents of Cu and Cd in the soil exceeded Korean standard of soil contamination. Especially content of Cu exceeded Korean standard of soil contamination(50ppm) at the six points and at one point content of Cu was 113.3ppm. Contents of Be were so higher than U.S RCRA standard(0.2ppm) that they can affect soil environment. The followed research about relation between pollutant and soil and proper measures are required to prevent soil contamination from affecting environment of Moondug.

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Influence of Radioactive Contamination to Agricultural Products Due to Rain During a Nuclear Accident

  • Won Tae Hwang;Eun Han Kim;Kyung Suk Suh;Moon Hee Han;Han Soo Lee
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.415-420
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    • 2002
  • The previous dynamic food chain model was improved for the consideration of the influence of radioactive contamination to agricultural products due to rain during the environmental releases of radionuclides in a nuclear accident Wet interception coefficients for the agricultural plants were derived as a function of radionuclide and rainfall amount, and mathematical formulations of the previous model were modified. As a result, rain during accidental releases was influential in agricultural contamination. The contamination level of agricultural products decreased dramatically according to increasing rainfall amount. It means that predictive concentrations in agricultural products using the previous model, in which dry interception to the agricultural plants is only considered, can be overestimated. The influence of rainfall in agricultural contamination was the most sensitive for $^{131}$ I, and the least sensitive for $^{90}$ Sr among the radionuclides considered in this study.

Ecological study for The control of Green Contamination in Korean Show Caves

  • Kim, Byoung-Woo
    • Journal of the Speleological Society of Korea
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    • no.85
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    • pp.21-24
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    • 2008
  • The chlorophyta and thebryophyta are became extinct by the shutting out the light and low temperature in caves. Whenever they get the conditions, they grow again immediately. It is necessary to keep the illumination distance over 2m and use the indirect light. The effect of lamp light and temperature is very important in the control of green contamination but the water and moisture in caves are essential factors in green contamination in the show caves. It's better to get rid of green alae and mosses at early stage for the control of the increase of green contamination. They must be isolated completely without the dispersion with moist pieces of cloth or sponge. It is necessary to shut out the cave route periodically for the restoration of cave environments and ecosystem. It's better to use the lamp keeping illumination and restricting the ascension of heat for the control of green contamination.