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The Effects of pH Change in Extraction Solution on the Heavy Metals Extraction from Soil and Controversial Points for Partial Extraction in Korean Standard Method (용출액의 pH 변화가 토양내 중금속 용출에 미치는 영향과 그에 따른 국내 토양 오염 공정시험방법의 문제점)

  • 오창환;유연희;이평구;이영엽
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.159-170
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    • 2003
  • Heavy metals are extracted from Chonju stream sediment, roadside soils and sediments along Honam expressway, soils and tailings from mining area using three different methods (partial extraction in Standard Method, partial extraction method with maintaining 0.1 N of extraction solution and Sequential Extraction Method). In samples having buffer capacity against acid, pH 1 (0.1 N HCl) of extraction solution can not be maintained and pH of extraction solution increases up to 8.0 when partial extraction in Standard Method is used. The averages and ranges of HPE(heavy metals extracted using partial extraction in Standard Method)/HPEM(heavy metals extracted using partial extraction method with maintaining 0.1 N of extraction solution) values are 0.479 and 0.145~0.929 for Cd, 0.534 and 0.078~0.928 for Zn, 0.432 and 0.041~0.992 for Mn, 0.359 and 0.011~0.874 for Cu, 0.150 and 0.018~0.530 for Cr, 0.219 and 0.003~0.853 for Pb, and 0.088 and 1.73${\times}$10$^{-5}$~0.303 for Fe. These data indicate that the difference between HPE and HPEM is large in the order of Fe, Cr, Pb, Cu, Mn, Cd and Zn. The amounts of heavy metals extracted decreases in the follow order; Sum III(sum of fraction I, II, III in sequential extraction)>HPEM>Sum III (sum of fraction I and II)>HPE for Zn, Cd and Mn and Sum III>HPEM>HPE for Cr and Fe. In the case Cr, Sum II is lower than HPEM and higher than HPE. In case of Cu, extracted heavy metals is large in the order Sum IV>HPEM>Sum III HPE. HPE/HPEM value decreases with increasing the amount of HCl used for maintaining 0.1 N of extraction solution. For samples with high buffer capacity, HPE/HPEM value in all elements is lower than 0.2. On the other hand, for samples with low buffer capacity, HPE/HPEM value are over 0.2 and many samples have values higher than 0.6 for Zn, Cd Mn and Cu due to the small difference between Sum II and Sum III, and relatively higher mobility. However, for Fe and Cr, HPE/HPEM value is below 0.2 even for samples with low buffer capacity due to their low mobility and big difference between Sum II and Sum III. This study indicates that the partial extraction method in Korean Standard Method of soil is not suitable for an assessment of soil contamination in area where buffer capacity of soil can be decreased or lost because of a long term exposure to environmental damage such as acidic rain.

A Study on Public Nuisance in Han River and Nackdong River Part II. Survey on Water Pollution (공해(公害)에 관(關)한 조사연구(調査硏究) 제이편(第二編) 한강(漢江), 낙동강(洛東江) 수질오염도(水質汚染度)에 관(關)한 비교(比較) 조사(調査) 연구(硏究))

  • Cha, Chul-Hwan;Shin, Young-Soo;Park, Soon-Young;Cho, Kwang-Soo;Choo, Chong-Yoo;Kim, Kyo-Sung;Choi, Dug-Il
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.65-76
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    • 1971
  • In view of ever rising water pollution problems of river in the vicinity of large urban communities, the author has made an investigation on the pollution of water sampled from Han River (Seoul area) and Nakdong River (Daegu city area) during the period from July to December, 1970. The water samples were taken twice a month during the study period of 6 months from 7 points (locations) along the main stream of Han River at Seoul city and 5 points of Nakdong River at Daegu city. The samples ware measured and analyzed in accordance with the recognized methods in the 'Standard Methods for Examination of Water and waste' by American Public Health Association. The obtained results are as follows : I. Han River. 1. Average turbidity was 5.1 units ranging from 1 to 10 units and the turbidity of down stream was higher than that of the upper stream. 2. pH value showed slight alkalinity (mean;7.2) except Yunchang-Dong (6.9). 3. The mean value of Dissolved Oxygen contents (D.O) was 7.2 ppm. (range of 3.4-10.5ppm.). D.O. of the upper stream (8.2 ppm. at Walker Hill boating place, 8.0 ppm. at the Gwangzang Bridge and Ddookdo) was higher than that of he downstream (5.6ppm. at Yumchang-Dong, 6.4 ppm. at the 2nd Han River Bridge), and D.O. in the winter season was higher than that in the summer season, respectively. 4 The mean value of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (B.O.D.) was 28.3 ppm. (range of 6.2-64.8 ppm.). The mean value of B.O.D. was 48.7 ppm. at Yumchang-Dong, 42.3 ppm. at the 2nd Han River Bridge, 34.0 ppm. at the 1st nan River Bridge, 28.5 ppm. at the 3rd Han River Bridge, 19.2 ppm. at Dookdo, 13.2 ppm. at the Gwangzang Bridge, and 10.2 ppm. at the Walker Hill boating place in order of value. B.O.D. in July and August (35.6 and 34.5 ppm.) were the highest and that in November and December (18.6 and 21.2 ppm.) were the lowest. 5. Suspended Solids (SS) were from 15.0 to 667.0 ppm. with the mean of 222.1 ppm. 'Suspended Solids' of the water samples at Yumchang-Dong and the 2nd Han River Bridge were found to be 378.1 ppm. and 283.9 ppm. respectively which were higher than at the Gwangzang Bridge (134.1 ppm.) and at Walker Hill boating place (79.3ppm.). 6. Coliform colonies counting of the water samples ranged from $0-2,500{\times}10/100ml$. with the mean value of $205.6{\times}10/100ml$. The most contaminated water sample by coliform were from the point of the 2nd Han River Bridge with $640.8{\times}10/100ml$ while the lowest ones were from Walker Hill boating place with $17.2{\times}10/100ml$. There was also a seasonal variation in coliform contamination that is the higher in summer and the lower in winter. II. Nakdong River 1. The mean value of turbidity was 2.3 units with range of 0 to 9.0 units. The highest point was at Geumho River (7.2 units). and the lowest point was at Gangzung and Moonsan (0.45 and 0.41 units). 2. The mean value of pH was 7.5 (range of 7.1-8.5) and highest point was Geumho River with 8.5. 3. The mean value of D.O. was 8.1 ppm. (range of 3.4-11.2 ppm.). D.O. of the upper stream showed higher value than that of the down stream, and the winter season than the summer season. 4. B.O.D. ranged from 2.6 to 57.0 ppm. (mean; 20.4ppm.). The water sample at Geumho River showed the highest value (41.5 ppm.) while at Moonsan and Gangzung showed the lowest (4.6 and 4.7 ppm.). 5. The mean value of suspended solids was 48.7 ppm. (range of 4.0-182.0 ppm.). The highest month was July (63.7ppm.) and August (62.1 ppm.) and the lowest month was October (37.0 ppm.) and December (24.4 ppm.). 6. The mean value of the coliform colonies was $22.7{\times}10/100ml$. (range of $0-243{\times}10/100ml$.). The highest number of the colonies was found in the sample water at the Whawon recreation area ($50.5{\times}10/100ml$.) followed by the Geumho River ($33.9{\times}10/100ml$.), the Goryung Bridge ($28.3{\times}10/100ml$.), Gangzung($0.7{\times}10/100ml$), and Moonsan ($0.6{\times}10/100ml$.).

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Shielding for Critical Organs and Radiation Exposure Dose Distribution in Patients with High Energy Radiotherapy (고 에너지 방사선치료에서 환자의 피폭선량 분포와 생식선의 차폐)

  • Chu, Sung-Sil;Suh, Chang-Ok;Kim, Gwi-Eon
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2002
  • High energy photon beams from medical linear accelerators produce large scattered radiation by various components of the treatment head, collimator and walls or objects in the treatment room including the patient. These scattered radiation do not provide therapeutic dose and are considered a hazard from the radiation safety perspective. Scattered dose of therapeutic high energy radiation beams are contributed significant unwanted dose to the patient. ICRP take the position that a dose of 500mGy may cause abortion at any stage of pregnancy and that radiation detriment to the fetus includes risk of mental retardation with a possible threshold in the dose response relationship around 100 mGy for the gestational period. The ICRP principle of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) was recommended for protection of occupation upon the linear no-threshold dose response hypothesis for cancer induction. We suggest this ALARA principle be applied to the fetus and testicle in therapeutic treatment. Radiation dose outside a photon treatment filed is mostly due to scattered photons. This scattered dose is a function of the distance from the beam edge, treatment geometry, primary photon energy, and depth in the patient. The need for effective shielding of the fetus and testicle is reinforced when young patients ate treated with external beam radiation therapy and then shielding designed to reduce the scattered photon dose to normal organs have to considered. Irradiation was performed in phantom using high energy photon beams produced by a Varian 2100C/D medical linear accelerator (Varian Oncology Systems, Palo Alto, CA) located at the Yonsei Cancer Center. The composite phantom used was comprised of a commercially available anthropomorphic Rando phantom (Phantom Laboratory Inc., Salem, YN) and a rectangular solid polystyrene phantom of dimensions $30cm{\times}30cm{\times}20cm$. the anthropomorphic Rando phantom represents an average man made from tissue equivalent materials that is transected into transverse 36 slices of 2.5cm thickness. Photon dose was measured using a Capintec PR-06C ionization chamber with Capintec 192 electrometer (Capintec Inc., Ramsey, NJ), TLD( VICTOREEN 5000. LiF) and film dosimetry V-Omat, Kodak). In case of fetus, the dosimeter was placed at a depth of loom in this phantom at 100cm source to axis distance and located centrally 15cm from the inferior edge of the $30cm{\times}30cm^2$ x-ray beam irradiating the Rando phantom chest wall. A acryl bridge of size $40cm{\times}40cm^2$ and a clear space of about 20 cm was fabricated and placed on top of the rectangular polystyrene phantom representing the abdomen of the patient. The leaf pot for testicle shielding was made as various shape, sizes, thickness and supporting stand. The scattered photon with and without shielding were measured at the representative position of the fetus and testicle. Measurement of radiation scattered dose outside fields and critical organs, like fetus position and testicle region, from chest or pelvic irradiation by large fie]d of high energy radiation beam was performed using an ionization chamber and film dosimetry. The scattered doses outside field were measured 5 - 10% of maximum doses in fields and exponentially decrease from field margins. The scattered photon dose received the fetus and testicle from thorax field irradiation was measured about 1 mGy/Gy of photon treatment dose. Shielding construction to reduce this scattered dose was investigated using lead sheet and blocks. Lead pot shield for testicle reduced the scatter dose under 10 mGy when photon beam of 60 Gy was irradiated in abdomen region. The scattered photon dose is reduced when the lead shield was used while the no significant reduction of scattered photon dose was observed and 2-3 mm lead sheets refuted the skin dose under 80% and almost electron contamination. The results indicate that it was possible to improve shielding to reduce scattered photon for fetus and testicle when a young patients were treated with a high energy photon beam.

Microbiological Studies on Feed Supplements (사료첨가제(飼料添加劑)의 미생물오염(微生物汚染)에 관(關)하여)

  • Park, Su Kyung;Tak, Ryun Bin
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.4
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    • pp.132-140
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    • 1986
  • Eighty one products from 36 kinds of vitamin and mineral feed supplement collected during August, 1984 to February, 1985 were examined for microbiological contamination. In addition, 83 strains of coliform isolated from the samples were tested for the resistance to 8 kinds of antimicrobial drugs and distribution of R plasmid. General bacteria were detected in all of samples tested. Bacterial population was varied from less than 10 per gram of the sample to 1,400,000 per gram and 34 (42%) of 81 samples were contaminated with 100 to 1,000 cells per gram. Coliform isolation, which was more frequent in samples with larger number of general bacteria, was possible in 14 (17.3%) out of 81 samples tested and 6 (33.3%) out of 18 companies were coliform positive in their products. Forty one (49.4%) out of 83 coliform isolates were fecal coliform. The frequency of resistant strains was the highest to sulfadimethoxine (Sa) with 92.8% and followed by streptomycin (Sm, 67.5%), tetracycline (Tc, 50.6%), kanamycin (Km, 26.5%), chloramphenicol (Cm, 18.1%) and ampicillin (Am, 15.7%). No strain was resistant to nalidixic acid (Na) and gentamicin (Gm). The resistance frequency of fecal coliform strains were higher compare to non-fecal coliform strains. There were minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of $3,200{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ or higher in 7 strains to Am, 3 to Sm and 3 to Km, and 70 strains had MIC of $1,600{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of higher to Sa while Tc had MICs from $1.6{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ to $400{\mu}g/m{\ell}$. All strains had MICs of $6.3{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of lower to Na and $3.1{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of lower to Gm. Seventy nine (95.2%) of 83 strains were resistant to one or more drugs tested. The most frequent resistance patterns were SaSm (14.5%) and followed by SaSmTc(12%), SaSmTcKm(8.4%) SaTc (8.4%) and SaSmKm (7.2%) ; total 19 different patterns were noted. Thirty two (40.5%) of 79 resistant strains were transferred all of a part of their resistance to Escherichia coli ML 1410. The frequency of transferable resistance was high in Am (100%) and Cm (80%) while low in Tc (38.1%), Sa (18.2%), Sm (17.9%) and Km (4.5%).

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The Content and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Herbal Pills (유통 환제의 유해 중금속 함량 및 위해도 평가)

  • Lee, Sung-Deuk;Lee, Young-Ki;Kim, Moo-Sang;Park, Seok-Ki;Kim, Yeon-Sun;Chae, Young-Zoo
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.375-387
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study is investigation of contamination levels and assessment of health risk effects of heavy metals in herbal pills. 31 Items and 93 samples were obtained for this investigation from major herbal medicine producing areas, herbal markets and on-line supermarkets from Jan to Jun in 2010. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer method was conducted for the quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd and As. In addition, the mercury analyzer system was conducted for that of Hg without sample digestion. The average contents of heavy metals in samples were as follows : 0.87 mg/kg for Pb, 0.08 mg/kg for Cd, 2.87 mg/kg for As and 0.16 mg/kg for Hg, respectively. In addition, the average contents of heavy metals in different parts of plants, including cortex, fructus, herba, radix, seed, algae and others were 0.63 mg/kg, 3.94 mg/kg, 1.42 mg/kg, 1.05 mg/kg, 0.16 mg/kg, 22.31 mg/kg and 10.17 mg/kg, respectively. After the estimations of dietary exposure, the acceptable daily intake (ADI), the average daily dose (ADD), the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) and the relative hazard of heavy metals were evaluated. As the results, the relative hazards compared to PTWI in samples were below the recommended standard of JECFA as Pb 3.1%, Cd 0.9%, Hg 0.5%. Cancer risks through slope factor (SF) by Ministry of Environment Republic Korea and Environmental Protection Agency was $4.24{\times}10^{-7}$ for Pb and $3.38{\times}10^{-4}$ for As (assuming that the total arsenic content was equal to the inorganic arsenic). Based on our results, possible Pb-induced cancer risks in herbal pills according to parts used including cortex, fructus, herba, radix, seed, algae and others were $1.95{\times}10^{-7}$, $1.45{\times}10^{-6}$, $2.14{\times}10^{-7}$, $6.27{\times}10^{-7}$, $1.99{\times}10^{-8}$, $3.61{\times}10^{-7}$ and $9.64{\times}10^{-8}$, respectively. Possible As-induced cancer risks in herbal pills by parts used including cortex, fructus, herba, radix, seed, algae and others were $1.54{\times}10^{-5}$, $7.24{\times}10^{-5}$, $1.23{\times}10^{-4}$, $2.02{\times}10^{-5}$, $3.25{\times}10^{-6}$, $2.18{\times}10^{-3}$ and $5.67{\times}10^{-6}$ respectively. Taken together, these results indicate that the majority of samples except for some samples with relative high contents of heavy metals were safe.

Effect of Cooking Processes on the Amount of Salmonella typhimurium in Pork and Korean Japchae and Identification of Critical Control Point in the Processes (조리과정에 따른 살모넬라(Salmonella typhimurium) 식중독균수의 변화 및 중점 관리점 (CCP)의 관찰 - 돼지고기와 잡채를 중심으로 -)

  • 김종규
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.441-447
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    • 1998
  • This study was performed to investigate the changes of amount of S. typhimurium during cooking processes using pork and japchae (a Korean food which is made from meat, vegetables and noodles), and to support a practical application to develop a hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) model. The pork was purchased in a retail shop, cut ($0.5\;cm\;{\times}\;10\;cm\;{\times}\;10\;cm$, 25 g), tested for Salmonella contamination (results: negative), inoculated with S. typhimurium ($10^{7}\;CFU/g$), then treated in various conditions related to cooking. Mter thawing for 24 hours in various conditions, the number of S. typhimurium was increased to $10^{10}\;CFU/g$ at a refrigerated temperature ($4~10^{\circ}C$), and to $10^{21}\;CFU/g$ at room temperature ($22~29^{\circ}C$). Mter thawing in a microwave oven for 40 seconds, the number of S. typhimurium increased to $10^{8}\;CFU/g$. During the thawing period, the number of S. typhimurium increased over time. At the refrigerated temperature, the number of the bacteria was $10^{10}\;CFU/g$ after 24 hours, $10^{13}\;CFU/g$ after 48 hours, and $10^{20}\;CFU/g$ after 72 hours. At room temperature the number of bacteria reached $10^{11}\;CFU/g$ in 2 hours, $10^{15}\;CFU/g$ in 4 hours, $10^{16}\;CFU/g$ in 8 hours, $10^{18}\;CFU/g$ in 12 hours, and $10^{21}\;CFU/g$ in 24 hours. Mter cooking in a frying pan (150{\pm}7^{\circ}C$) for 3 minutes, the bacterial count was $10^{16}\;CFU/g$. After cooking in hot water for 20 minutes, the bacterial count was $10^{7}\;CFU/g\;at\;60^{\circ}C,\;10^{6}\;CFU/g\;at\;63^{\circ}C,\;and\;10^{4}\;CFU/g\;at\;65^{\circ}C$. The fried pork was mixed with cooked vegetables, noodles, sesame oil, sesame seeds, and seasonings to make Korean japchae. This process took $10{\pm}2$ minutes. The bacterial count in the japchae increased to $10^{7}\;CFU/g$ from the count of $10^{6}\;CFU/g$ of the fried pork before it was mixed with the other ingredients. These results indicate that the amount of S. typhimurium is effected by various different cooking processes. This study can suggest that pork should be cooked in water at over $65^{\circ}C$ for 20 minutes in order to prevent food poisoning, if the pork is contaminated with S. typhimurium. The presence of S. typhimurium in the raw pork is identified in an HA for japchae, and the primary CCP for japchae is inadequate cooking (cooking method and time/temperature). We need to standardize time-temperature-size and amount of pork in cooking japchae, because pork is usually cooked in ordinary frying pans when we make this food.

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INFLUENCES OF DRY METHODS OF RETROCAVITY ON THE APICAL SEAL (치근단 역충전와동의 건조방법이 폐쇄성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jung-Tae;Kim, Sung-Kyo
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.166-179
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    • 1999
  • Apical sealing is essential for the success of surgical endodontic treatment. Root-end cavity is apt to be contaminated with moisture or blood, and is not always easy to be dried completely. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of dry methods of retrocavity on the apical seal in endodontic surgery. Apical seal was investigated through the evaluation of apical leakage and adaptation of filling material over the cavity wall. To investigate the influence of various dry methods on the apical leakage, 125 palatal roots of extracted human maxillary molar teeth were used. The clinical crown of each tooth was removed at 10 mm from the root apex using a slow-speed diamond saw and water spray. Root canals of the all the specimens were prepared with step-back technique and filled with gutta-percha by lateral condensation method. After removing of the coronal 2 mm of filling material, the access cavities were closed with Cavit$^{(R)}$. Two coats of nail polish were applied to the external surface of each root. Apical three millimeters of each root was resected perpendicular to the long axis of the root with a diamond saw. Class I retrograde cavities were prepared with ultrasonic instruments. Retrocavities were washed with physiologic saline solution and dried with various methods or contaminated with human blood. Retrocavities were filled either with IRM, Super EBA or composite resin. All the specimens were immersed in 2% methylene blue solution for 7 days in an incubator at $37^{\circ}C$. The teeth were dissolved in 14 ml of 35% nitric acid solution and the dye present within the root canal system was returned to solution. The leakage of dye was quantitatively measured via spectrophotometric method. The obtained data were analysed statistically using one-way ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple Range Test. To evaluate the influence of various dry methods on the adaptation of filling material over the cavity wall, 12 palatal roots of extracted human maxillary molar teeth were used. After all the roots were prepared and filled, and retrograde cavities were made and filled as above, roots were sectioned longitudinally. Filling-dentin interface of cut surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscope. The results were as follows: 1. Cavities dried with paper point or compressed air showed less leakage than those dried with cotton pellet in Super EBA filled cavity (p<0.05). However, there was no difference between paper point- and compressed air-dried cavities. 2. When cavities were dried with compressed air, dentin-bonded composite resin-filled cavities showed less apical leakage than IRM- or Super EBA-filled ones (p<0.05). 3. Regardless of the filling material, cavities contaminated with human blood showed significantly more apical leakage than those dried with compressed air after saline irrigation (p<0.05). 4. Outer half of the cavity showed larger dentin-filling interface gap than inner half did when cavities were filled with IRM or Super EBA. 5. In all the filling material groups, cavities contaminated with blood or dried with cotton pellets only showed larger defects at the base of the cavity than ones dried with paper points or compressed air.

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Field Studios of In-situ Aerobic Cometabolism of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

  • Semprini, Lewts
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.3-4
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    • 2004
  • Results will be presented from two field studies that evaluated the in-situ treatment of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) using aerobic cometabolism. In the first study, a cometabolic air sparging (CAS) demonstration was conducted at McClellan Air Force Base (AFB), California, to treat chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) in groundwater using propane as the cometabolic substrate. A propane-biostimulated zone was sparged with a propane/air mixture and a control zone was sparged with air alone. Propane-utilizers were effectively stimulated in the saturated zone with repeated intermediate sparging of propane and air. Propane delivery, however, was not uniform, with propane mainly observed in down-gradient observation wells. Trichloroethene (TCE), cis-1, 2-dichloroethene (c-DCE), and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration levels decreased in proportion with propane usage, with c-DCE decreasing more rapidly than TCE. The more rapid removal of c-DCE indicated biotransformation and not just physical removal by stripping. Propane utilization rates and rates of CAH removal slowed after three to four months of repeated propane additions, which coincided with tile depletion of nitrogen (as nitrate). Ammonia was then added to the propane/air mixture as a nitrogen source. After a six-month period between propane additions, rapid propane-utilization was observed. Nitrate was present due to groundwater flow into the treatment zone and/or by the oxidation of tile previously injected ammonia. In the propane-stimulated zone, c-DCE concentrations decreased below tile detection limit (1 $\mu$g/L), and TCE concentrations ranged from less than 5 $\mu$g/L to 30 $\mu$g/L, representing removals of 90 to 97%. In the air sparged control zone, TCE was removed at only two monitoring locations nearest the sparge-well, to concentrations of 15 $\mu$g/L and 60 $\mu$g/L. The responses indicate that stripping as well as biological treatment were responsible for the removal of contaminants in the biostimulated zone, with biostimulation enhancing removals to lower contaminant levels. As part of that study bacterial population shifts that occurred in the groundwater during CAS and air sparging control were evaluated by length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) fragment analysis. The results showed that an organism(5) that had a fragment size of 385 base pairs (385 bp) was positively correlated with propane removal rates. The 385 bp fragment consisted of up to 83% of the total fragments in the analysis when propane removal rates peaked. A 16S rRNA clone library made from the bacteria sampled in propane sparged groundwater included clones of a TM7 division bacterium that had a 385bp LH-PCR fragment; no other bacterial species with this fragment size were detected. Both propane removal rates and the 385bp LH-PCR fragment decreased as nitrate levels in the groundwater decreased. In the second study the potential for bioaugmentation of a butane culture was evaluated in a series of field tests conducted at the Moffett Field Air Station in California. A butane-utilizing mixed culture that was effective in transforming 1, 1-dichloroethene (1, 1-DCE), 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane (1, 1, 1-TCA), and 1, 1-dichloroethane (1, 1-DCA) was added to the saturated zone at the test site. This mixture of contaminants was evaluated since they are often present as together as the result of 1, 1, 1-TCA contamination and the abiotic and biotic transformation of 1, 1, 1-TCA to 1, 1-DCE and 1, 1-DCA. Model simulations were performed prior to the initiation of the field study. The simulations were performed with a transport code that included processes for in-situ cometabolism, including microbial growth and decay, substrate and oxygen utilization, and the cometabolism of dual contaminants (1, 1-DCE and 1, 1, 1-TCA). Based on the results of detailed kinetic studies with the culture, cometabolic transformation kinetics were incorporated that butane mixed-inhibition on 1, 1-DCE and 1, 1, 1-TCA transformation, and competitive inhibition of 1, 1-DCE and 1, 1, 1-TCA on butane utilization. A transformation capacity term was also included in the model formation that results in cell loss due to contaminant transformation. Parameters for the model simulations were determined independently in kinetic studies with the butane-utilizing culture and through batch microcosm tests with groundwater and aquifer solids from the field test zone with the butane-utilizing culture added. In microcosm tests, the model simulated well the repetitive utilization of butane and cometabolism of 1.1, 1-TCA and 1, 1-DCE, as well as the transformation of 1, 1-DCE as it was repeatedly transformed at increased aqueous concentrations. Model simulations were then performed under the transport conditions of the field test to explore the effects of the bioaugmentation dose and the response of the system to tile biostimulation with alternating pulses of dissolved butane and oxygen in the presence of 1, 1-DCE (50 $\mu$g/L) and 1, 1, 1-TCA (250 $\mu$g/L). A uniform aquifer bioaugmentation dose of 0.5 mg/L of cells resulted in complete utilization of the butane 2-meters downgradient of the injection well within 200-hrs of bioaugmentation and butane addition. 1, 1-DCE was much more rapidly transformed than 1, 1, 1-TCA, and efficient 1, 1, 1-TCA removal occurred only after 1, 1-DCE and butane were decreased in concentration. The simulations demonstrated the strong inhibition of both 1, 1-DCE and butane on 1, 1, 1-TCA transformation, and the more rapid 1, 1-DCE transformation kinetics. Results of tile field demonstration indicated that bioaugmentation was successfully implemented; however it was difficult to maintain effective treatment for long periods of time (50 days or more). The demonstration showed that the bioaugmented experimental leg effectively transformed 1, 1-DCE and 1, 1-DCA, and was somewhat effective in transforming 1, 1, 1-TCA. The indigenous experimental leg treated in the same way as the bioaugmented leg was much less effective in treating the contaminant mixture. The best operating performance was achieved in the bioaugmented leg with about over 90%, 80%, 60 % removal for 1, 1-DCE, 1, 1-DCA, and 1, 1, 1-TCA, respectively. Molecular methods were used to track and enumerate the bioaugmented culture in the test zone. Real Time PCR analysis was used to on enumerate the bioaugmented culture. The results show higher numbers of the bioaugmented microorganisms were present in the treatment zone groundwater when the contaminants were being effective transformed. A decrease in these numbers was associated with a reduction in treatment performance. The results of the field tests indicated that although bioaugmentation can be successfully implemented, competition for the growth substrate (butane) by the indigenous microorganisms likely lead to the decrease in long-term performance.

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Adsorption of Arsenic onto Two-Line Ferrihydrite (비소의 Two-Line Ferrihydrite에 대한 흡착반응)

  • Jung, Young-Il;Lee, Woo-Chun;Cho, Hyen-Goo;Yun, Seong-Taek;Kim, Soon-Oh
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.227-237
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    • 2008
  • Arsenic has recently become of the most serious environmental concerns, and the worldwide regulation of arsenic fur drinking water has been reinforced. Arsenic contaminated groundwater and soil have been frequently revealed as well, and arsenic contamination and its treatment and measures have been domestically raised as one of the most important environmental issues. Arsenic behavior in geo-environment is principally affected by oxides and clay minerals, and particularly iron (oxy)hydroxides have been well known to be most effective in controlling arsenic. Among a number of iron (oxy)hydroxides, for this reason, 2-line ferrihydrite was selected in this study to investigate its effect on arsenic behavior. Adsorption of 2-line ferrihydrite was characterized and compared between As(III) and As(V) which are known to be the most ubiquitous species among arsenic forms in natural environment. Two-line ferrihydrite synthesized in the lab as the adsorbent of arsenic had $10\sim200$ nm for diameter, $247m^{2}/g$ for specific surface area, and 8.2 for pH of zero charge, and those representative properties of 2-line ferrihydrite appeared to be greatly suitable to be used as adsorbent of arsenic. The experimental results on equilibrium adsorption indicate that As(III) showed much stronger adsorption affinity onto 2-line ferrihydrite than As(V). In addition, the maximum adsorptions of As(III) and As(V) were observed at pH 7.0 and 2.0, respectively. In particular, the adsorption of As(III) did not show any difference between pH conditions, except for pH 12.2. On the contrary, the As(V) adsorption was remarkably decreased with increase in pH. The results obtained from the detailed experiments investigating pH effect on arsenic adsorption show that As(III) adsorption increased up to pH 8.0 and dramatically decreased above pH 9.2. In case of As(V), its adsorption steadily decreased with increase in pH. The reason the adsorption characteristics became totally different depending on arsenic species is attributed to the fact that chemical speciation of arsenic and surface charge of 2-line ferrihydrite are significantly affected by pH, and it is speculated that those composite phenomena cause the difference in adsorption between As(III) and As(V). From the view point of adsorption kinetics, adsorption of arsenic species onto 2-line ferrihydrite was investigated to be mostly completed within the duration of 2 hours. Among the kinetic models proposed so for, power function and elovich model were evaluated to be the most suitable ones which can simulate adsorption kinetics of two kinds of arsenic species onto 2-line ferrihydrite.

Rice Safety and Heavy Metal Contents in the Soil on "Top-Rice" Cultivation Area (탑라이스 생산지역 논토양 중 중금속 함량과 쌀의 안전성)

  • Park, Sang-Won;Yoon, Mi-Yeon;Kim, Jin-Kyoung;Park, Byung-Jun;Kim, Won-Il;Shin, Joung-Du;Kwon, Oh-Kyung;Chung, Duck-Hwa
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.239-247
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    • 2008
  • Objective of this study was to investigate residual the levels of heavy metals in rice grain and soils of "Top-Rice" and common rice cultivation areas from 2005 to 2007. Soil and rice grain samples were taken from 33 "Top-rice" areas and neighboring paddies, and analyzed for the elements using ICP-OES and ICP-TOF-MS after acid digestion. A concentration of arsenic in paddy soil was 1.33 mg/kg which was below 1/5-1/11 fold of the threshold levels(concern: 4 mg/kg, action: 10 mg/kg), and paddy soil was 0.06 mg/kg of Cd(cadmium) being below 1/25-1/67 fold of the limits(concern: 1.5 mg/kg, action: 4 mg/kg). A level of Cu(copper) in paddy soil was 4.57 mg/kg which was below 1/11-1/27 fold of the threshold levels(concern: 50 mg/kg, action: 125 mg/kg), and Pb(lead) concentration in paddy soil was found to be a 4.68 mg/kg. In addition, Hg(mercury) concentration in paddy soil was to be a 0.03 mg/kg, which was below 1/131-1/328 fold of the threshold levels(concern: 4 mg/kg, action: 10 mg/kg). The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg in the polished rice samples were 0.037, 0.043, 0.280, 0.048 and 0.002 mg/kg, respectively. These levels are lower than those of other countries in rice grains. Assuming the rice consumption of 205.7 g/day by total dietary supplements in Korea, the amount of total weekly metal intake of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg by polished rice were estimated to be 0.0892, 1.035, 6.712, 1.161 and 0.054 ${\mu}g/kg$ body weigh/week, respectively. The PTWI(%) of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg were 5.95(inorganic arsenic), 0.26(total arsenic), 14.79, 0.19, 4.65 and 1.07% estimated to be 0.0892, 1.035, 6.712, 1.161 and 0.054 ${\mu}g/kg$ body weigh/week, respectively. In conclusion, it was appeared that the heavy metals contamination in the brown and polished rice should not be worried in Korea.