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Reduction in bitter taste and quality characteristics in pickled bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) by different pretreatment conditions (전처리 조건에 따른 여주(Momordica charantia L.) 초절임의 쓴맛 감소와 품질평가)

  • Park, HyoSun;Moon, BoKyung;Kim, Suna
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.466-473
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    • 2016
  • This study was performed to investigate the reduction in bitter taste and quality characteristics by pretreatments (brining; 1, 5% and blanching; 1, 3 min) in pickled bitter melon, respectively. We prepared picked bitter melon samples at 1%-1 min, 1%-3 min, 5%-1 min, 5%-3 min. Total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents were found to be the highest in 5%-1 min at $14.23{\pm}0.40mg\;CE/g$ (dry) and $4.46{\pm}0.10mg\;RE/g$ (dry), respectively. L-ascorbic acid level was the highest in control samples. Arginine and glutamic acid were increased by brining and blanching. ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity were found to be the highest at $43.60{\pm}0.40$ and $44.88{\pm}0.20%$ at 5%-1 min, respectively. ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ inhibitory activity was the highest at 5%-1 min. The a value was statistically different, whereas L and b values were similar among different pretreatments. Hardness in pretreated samples was decreased as compared to that in the control. Among sensory evaluations, 'color' did not indicate any statistical difference, while 'texture', 'bitterness preference' and 'overall preference' increased with pretreatments, and 'bitter intensity' decreased.

Effect of gomchwi (Ligularia fischeri) extract against high glucose- and H2O2-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells (PC12 신경세포에서 고당 및 과산화수소로 유도된 산화적 스트레스에 대한 곰취 추출물의 효과)

  • Park, Sang Hyun;Park, Seon Kyeong;Ha, Jeong Su;Lee, Du Sang;Kang, Jin Yong;Kim, Jong Min;Lee, Uk;Heo, Ho Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.508-514
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    • 2016
  • Effects of the ethyl acetate fraction from gomchwi (Ligularia fischeri) extract against high $glucose/H_2O_2-induced$ oxidative stress and in vitro neurodegeneration were investigated to confirm the physiological property of the extract. The ethyl acetate fraction of gomchwi extract showed the highest total phenolic contents than the other solvent fractions. An anti-hyperglycemic activity of the ethyl acetate fraction was evaluated using the ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ inhibitory assay, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration ($IC_{50}$) value for ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ was found to be $727.64{\mu}g/mL$. In addition, the ethyl acetate fraction showed excellent 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of malondialdehyde production. The ethyl acetate fraction also decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species, whereas neuronal cell viability against high glucose/$H_2O_2$-induced cytotoxicity was found to be increased. Finally, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid as a main phenolic compound in the ethyl acetate fraction was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. These results suggest that gomchwi might be a good natural source of functional materials to prevent diabetic neurodegeneration.

Effect of moisture content on terminal velocities of domestic wheat and foreign materials (함수율에 따른 우리밀과 이물의 종말속도에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Eun-Jung;Kim, Hoon;Kim, Sang-Suk;Kim, Oui-Woung
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.746-752
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    • 2016
  • This research was carried out to identify aerodynamic property as a function of moisture content for designing equipment such as for post-harvest management. Terminal velocity of two wheat varieties {Backjjung (B) and Jogyeong (J)} with selected sound, damaged kernel and foreign materials (Wheat stick, Wheat husks) were measured with a designed vertical wind column at different moisture contents from about 9 to 30% wet basis. The results showed that terminal velocity of wheat and foreign materials except of Jogyeong's husks (p<0.05) had a significant difference at p<0.001. With increasing moisture content, the aerodynamic property values of the kernels and foreign materials of the two wheat varieties increased linearly. In detail, terminal velocity of sound and damaged kernel increased from 5.46 to 7.13 m/sec (B) and 7.48 to 8.60 m/sec (J), damaged kernel from 5.91 to 7.00 m/sec (B) and 6.48 to 7.75 m/sec (J). For foreign materials the terminal velocity of wheat stick increased from 2.92 to 4.07 m/sec (B) and 3.74 to 5.22 m/sec (J) whereas that of husks from 1.07 to 1.85 m/sec (B) and 2.02 to 2.33 m/sec (J) each. For air separation of wheat and foreign materials, the air flow should be less than 5.22 m/sec due to the range (1.07~5.22 m/sec) of foreign materials in wheat.

Sensory properties of oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa) byquantitative descriptive analysis and consumer test (묘사분석 및 소비자 조사에 의한 참외의 관능특성)

  • Kim, Sang Seop;Choi, Eun Jeong;Choi, Jeong Hee;Ku, Kyung Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.727-737
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    • 2016
  • This study was carried out to determine the descriptive sensory profile of oriental melon. The sensory profile of oriental melons (cultivated in Seonju, Kyungsangbuk-do) were used quantitative descriptive analyses and twelve trained panel developed the total forty sensory attributes related appearance, aroma, texture etc. Six appearances attributes and two aromas attributes were derived from whole oriental melon with skin. Five aromas, six tastes and six textures were derived from the mesocarp of oriental melon. And also, oriental melons were analyzed for pH, titratable acidity, solid soluble contents and weight. The weight, titratable acidity and soluble solid content of oriental melons showed significant differences according to samples. And also, in the sensory attributes of these samples by trained panel and consumer test, there were significant differences between organic cultivated samples and conventional cultivated samples. Based on principal component analysis of sensory attributes data by trained panel and consumer, oriental melons were primary separated along the first principal component, which accounted for 27.73% (trained panel test) and 19.82% (consumer test) of total variance (trained panel test; 58.36%, consumer test; 46.18%) between the samples farm, cultivation method, total acidity, sweet aroma, bitterness, etc. Generally, whole oriental melon with skin showed significant differences in the sensory attributes according to cultivation method and farms. But, the mesocarp and endocarp part showed not certainly differences in the sensory attributes between organic cultivated samples except conventional cultivated samples.

Development of pallet-scale modified atmosphere packaging for 'Tabor' tomatoes (토마토 'Tabor' 품종의 파렛트 단위 MAP 적용 연구)

  • Park, Jong Woo;Kim, Jinse;Park, Seok Ho;Choi, Dong Soo;Choi, Seung Ryul;Kim, Yong Hoon;Lee, Soo Jang;Park, Chun Wan;Lee, Jung Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.614-622
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    • 2016
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality change of "Tabor" tomatoes during long-term exportation periods. Hydroponics tomatoes were harvested at the turning stage, sorted, and box packed and then packaged in nylon film with a pallet. The packaged pallet was filled with a gas composition (5% $O_2$, 1% $CO_2$, and 94% $N_2$) and stored at $10^{\circ}C$ for three weeks. The quality changes in weight loss, firmness, color, acidity, soluble solids, and microorganism growth were measured every 7 day interval. During the initial storage, the pallet-scale MAP showed slightly higher weight loss and firmness changes when compared to the conventional pallet. The total color change (${\Delta}E$) during ripening was delayed 10% under MAP storage. Acidity, soluble solids and phenolic compound contents decreased with increases in storage time regardless of the storage method; however, the quality changes of tomatoes were delayed in the MAP pallet. Furthermore, the decay rate of the pallet-scale MAP stored for 14 days was less than that of the conventional pallet, and the number of microorganisms was approximately 30% lower in the pallet-scale MAP, showing a positive effect on marketability. These results suggested that the pallet-scale MAP of tomatoes could ensure higher quality and longer storage periods than conventional pallet storage.

Physicochemical and Microbial Quality Characteristics of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) by Superheated Steam Treatment (과열증기 처리에 따른 마늘의 이화학적 및 미생물학적 품질 특성)

  • Park, Chan-Yang;Lee, Kyoyeon;Kim, Ahna;So, Seulah;Rahman, M. Shafiur;Choi, Sung-Gil
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.10
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    • pp.1438-1446
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    • 2016
  • The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of superheated steam (SHS) treatment on the physicochemical and microbial properties of garlic. The garlic was treated by SHS at temperatures of 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, and $350^{\circ}C$ for 60 s. The moisture content of raw garlic was lower than that of SHS-treated garlic. The total thiosulfinate and pyruvate contents were dramatically reduced by SHS treatments. The antioxidant activities of garlic measured by ferric reducing/antioxidant power, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical scavenging assay, and total phenolics content decreased by SHS. The major volatile sulfur compounds of garlic such as diallyl disulfide, allicin, allyl sulfide, diallyl sulfide, and diallyl trisulfide were significantly reduced by SHS. The antimicrobial effects of raw garlic were stronger than those of SHS-treated garlic against three strains of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus cereus. However, total aerobic bacteria in garlic were dramatically reduced by SHS from 8.6 to 2.9 log CFU/g. The results from the sensory evaluation show that SHS treatment of garlic above $200^{\circ}C$ provides better acceptably due to reduction of off-flavor and pungency of garlic. These results suggest that superheated steam treatment can used as an efficient process for reducing garlic off-flavor and pungency.

Effects of Addition of Gelatinized Wheat Flour Dough on Pan Bread (호화밀가루반죽의 첨가가 식빵 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Won-Mo;Kim, Kee-Hyuk;Lee, Gyu-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.10
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    • pp.1467-1475
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    • 2016
  • To make soft and less stale bread, various amounts of gelatinized wheat flour dough were added for making pan bread. In the dough process, higher gelatinized wheat flour dough showed higher consistency and dough development time but a lower dough stability time. Expansion during fermentation represented the highest value upon addition of 10% gelatinized wheat flour dough (GWFD), and this value decreased with increasing amount of gelatinized wheat flour dough. Volume of bread was the highest in the control and lowest in 30% GWFD, and there was no difference between 10% GWFD and 20% GWFD. Moisture contents of bread made with various amounts of gelatinized wheat flour dough increased with increasing gelatinized wheat flour dough amount. Color values of bread made with various gelatinized wheat flour dough were not significantly different. Chewiness, brittleness, and hardness of bread made with control and 10% GWFD showed low values, whereas bread made with 20% GWFD and 30% GWFD showed high values. During storage, chewiness, brittleness, and hardness increased with increasing storage period in whole breads, whereas breads made with 10% GWFD showed the lowest increasing rate. In the sensory strength test, chewy texture increased upon addition of gelatinized wheat flour dough. In the consumer acceptance test, 10% GWFD showed the most overall acceptance. In conclusion, bread made with 10% gelatinized wheat flour dough is desirable for increasing softness and decreasing bread staling.

Phytochemical Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (보검선인장의 Phytochemical 함량 분석 및 항산화 활성)

  • Jeong, Yun Sook;Lee, Sang Hoon;Song, Jin;Hwang, Kyung-A;Noh, Geon Min;Jang, Da Eun;Hwang, In Guk
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.767-776
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    • 2016
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate key properties of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OFI) ie, levels of key chemicals (carotenoids, flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds as well as phenolic acid) and its antioxidative potential, depending on where the plant had been cultivated in Korea. The levels of flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds in OFI were 55.45~65.32 mg (+)-catechin/g and 149.00~181.15 mg gallic acid/g, respectively. Protocatechuic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid in the ON1 and ON2 (161.90 and $196.25{\mu}g/g$ DW (dry weight)). Nineteen flavonoids were identified and analyzed by LC-ESI-MS in cladodes from OFI. Narcissin was the most abundant flavonoid in all of the samples ($1,241.89{\sim}1,775.10{\mu}g/g$ DW). Capxanthin and zeaxanthin were the most abundant carotenoids in OFI (64.88~128.08 and $48.10{\sim}93.82{\mu}g/g$ DW). The level of DPPH radical and ABTS radical scavenging activities in OFI were 10.78~25.35 and 16.85~34.16 mg AA eq/100 g, respectively. OFI by cultivar has different kind of phenolic acid, flavonoids, and carotenoids. Therefore, dietary intake of cladodes from OFI may be helpful for improving human health.

Mineralogical Characteristics of the Lower Choseon Supergroup in the Weondong Area (원동지역 하부 조선누층군의 광물학적 특성)

  • Kim, Ha;Sim, Ho;Won, Moosoo;Kim, Myeong-Ji;Lee, Ju-Ho;Song, Yun-Goo
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.349-360
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    • 2016
  • This study determined mineralogical characteristics and discussed the meaning of mineralogical changes of the lower Choseon Supergrouop in the Weondong area based on the field geological investigation and the drilling core description using X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineral quantification and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observation. 100 samples with depth were collected from the core (250 m long) at a site in the study area. Especially, to investigate the changes from the upper Daegi Formation to the lower Hwajeol Formation, the samples were collected closely with the interval of about 0.3 m at this section. All samples were made into power using mortar for XRD. Mineral quantitative analysis was executed using Relative Intensity Ratio (RIR) method with corundum as an internal standard phase. Calcite, $2M_1$ illite and quartz are main constituents in most of samples. Dolomite and siderite are significantly observed in the Sesong Formation. As the results of quantitative analysis for the major minerals, the upper Daegi Formation is dominated by calcite with over 80%. The Sesong Formation includes high percentage of dolomite and siderite with the intercalation of thin layers containing high calcite and $2M_1$ illite contents. Hwajeol Formation is characterized by the alternation between thin layers of $2M_1$ illite and quartz-dominated layer (IQDL) and calcite-dominated layer (CDL). IQDL is more frequent in the lower part, whereas CDL is more common in the upper part. The boundary between Daegi Formation and the Sesong Formation is distinct, whereas the boundary between the Sesong Formation and the Hwajeol Formation tends to be changed gradually in mineralogy. The result of SEM observation shows that quartz and $2M_1$ illite are detrital, and a significant amount of calcite also shows detrital form with some recrystallized one, indicating that the repeated influx of terrestrial materials had changed the mineralogy of the shallow sea depositional environment in the early Paleozoic era.

The Quality Characteristics of Wheat-Makgeolli Made from Different Cultivars and Milling Rates (국산 밀 품종 및 제분율에 따른 막걸리의 품질 특성)

  • Sim, Eun-Yeong;Lee, Seuk Ki;Woo, Koan Sik;Kim, Hyun-Joo;Kang, Chon-Sik;Kim, Si Ju;Oh, Sea-Kwan;Park, Hye-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.777-784
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    • 2016
  • This study aimed to evaluate the quality characteristics of wheat-Makgeolli (WM), a traditional Korean cereal alcoholic drink, using three varieties of wheat, namely Jokyoung (JK), Baegjoong (BJ) and Keumkang (KK). Samples of WM brewed from 100%, 85% and 70% milling rates of the three Korean wheat cultivars were analyzed for alcohol, pH, coloring degree, total acids, soluble solid, free sugars, and organic acids. As the milling rates in wheat decreased, total sugar content in WM increased while the pH of all samples decreased. The WM exhibited 0.95~1.27% in acidity, $10.2{\sim}12.5^{\circ}Brix$ in total sugar, and 14~16% in alcohol content. The most organic acids in WM was lactic acid, ranging in all the samples from 85.3~650.3 mg%. The results showed that BJ under a 70% milling rate had the highest reducing sugar contents and 15.97% in alcohol content. The carbohydrate content increased with the milling rate of wheat. Resulting in a positive correlation between carbohydrate content of wheat and total acids, reducing sugars (p<0.001), and alcohol content (p<0.05) in WM. Total sugar content is positively correlated with alcohol and reducing sugar content (p<0.001). Considering the yield, the milling rates will be adjusted to raw material prices.