• Title, Summary, Keyword: Control Volume

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A STUDY OF THE CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE TONGUE AND ORAL CAVITY VOLUME IN THE SKELETAL MANDIBULAR PROGNATHISM (골격성 하악전돌자의 혀와 구강용적의 상관관계에 대한 연구)

  • Choi, Yang-Sook;Son, Woo-Sung
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.275-282
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    • 1993
  • When mandibular prognathic patients are operated orthognathic surgery which reduce the oral cavity volume, tongue volume should be harmonized with oral cavity volume to be changed because prevent the relapse of malocclusion. To decide the need for tongue resection, the author measured the tongue volume and oral cavity volume with stone model which were taken by impression method and study the difference between the ratio of tongue and oral cavity volume in mandibular prognathic group and normal group. The samples were consisted of four groups, the 40 subjects of the control group, 40 subjects of the experimental group. Each group was subdivided into male and female group respectively. The results were as follows : 1. The tongue volume and oral cavity volume measurements are $20.7cm^3,\;32.7cm^3$ in the control group respectively, and $24.9cm^3,\;42.9cm^3$ in the experimental group respectively. 2. There is no difference in the ratio of the tongue volume to oral cavity volume in control group and experimental group. 3. Correlation coefficients between the tongue volume and oral cavity volume are 0.11, 0.29 in experimental group and control group respectively, and 0.43 in gross total group. 4. The tongue volume of male is larger than female(p<0.05).

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Nonlinear Analysis of RC Structures Using Volume Control Method (체적 제어법을 이용한 철근 콘크리트 구조물의 비선형 해석)

  • Song Ha-Won;Nam Sang-Hyeok;Lee June-Hee;Lim Sang-Mook
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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    • pp.891-897
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    • 2006
  • The volume control method which utilize a pressure node added into a finite shell element can overcome the drawbacks of conventional load control method and displacement control method. In this study, an improved volume control method is introduced for effective analysis of path-dependant behaviors of RC structures subjected to cyclic loading. RC shell structures including RC hollow columns are anlayized by discretizing the structures with layered shell elements and by applying in-plane two dimensional constitutive equations for concrete layers and reinforcement layers of the shell elements. The so-called path dependant volume control method is verified by comparing analysis results with other data including experimental results.

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Shape Optimization of Three-Dimensional Cutouts in Laminated Composite Plates (삼차원 적층복합재 구멍의 형상 최적화)

  • 한석영;마영준
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Machine Tool Engineers Conference
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    • pp.275-280
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    • 2004
  • Shape optimization was performed to obtain the precise shape of cutouts including the internal shape of cutouts in laminated composite plates by three dimensional modeling using solid element. The volume control of the growth-strain method was implemented and the distributed parameter chosen as Tsai-Hill fracture index for shape optimization. The volume control of the growth-strain method makes Tsai-Hill failure index at each element uniform in laminated composites under the initial volume. Then shapes optimized by Tsai-Hill failure index were compared with those of the initial shapes for the various load conditions and cutouts. The following conclusions were obtained in this study. (1) It was found that growth-strain method was applied efficiently to shape optimization of three dimensional cutouts in a laminate composite, (2) The optimal shapes of the various load conditions and cutouts were obtained, (3) The maximum Tsal-Hill failure index was reduced up to 67% when shape optimization was peformed under the initial volume by volume control of growth-strain method.

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Injection volume control of carboxy-gun using a solenoid valve (솔레노이드 밸브를 이용한 카복시 건의 주입량 제어)

  • Tak, Tae-Oh;Han, Nam-Gyu;Shin, Young-Kyu
    • Journal of Industrial Technology
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    • v.32 no.A
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    • pp.65-70
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    • 2012
  • Carboxy-guns are used for rapid and precise injection of $CO_2$ gas to the target skin area using external power source. In the design of carboxy-gun, the most important thing is how to precisely control injection volume of $CO_2$ gas. This paper deals with the control scheme of injection volume of carboxy-gun using solenoid valve. First the amount of volume that passes through the solenoid valve under on-off time ratio control is estimated based on the assumption of compressible gas flow. The flow rate of gas is experimentally measured under the varying pressure of the gas reservoir. Two results showed good correlation to each other, thus demonstrating the validity of the volume control strategy.

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Guidelines for installing Traffic Signals at Diamond Interchanges (다이아몬드 입체교차에서의 신호등 설치기준)

  • ;Carroll J. Messer
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.75-92
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    • 1986
  • The paper contains the data collection methods and procedures employed in the study to evaluate the operational effects of stop sign and signal control at diamond interchanges. An assessment of traffic control alternatives is described in terms of operational effects of queues and travel speed. Guidelines for installing signal control at diamond interchanges are provided in terms of internal volume, left turn proportion within internal volume, and the sum of internal and external volume. The specific traffic volume guidelines were developed based on a combination of these variables affecting operational performance.

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Efficient Procedural Modeling of Trees Based on Interactive Growth Volume Control

  • Kim, Jinmo
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.7 no.9
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    • pp.2232-2245
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    • 2013
  • The present study proposes efficient procedural modeling methods for enabling the growth and creation of various trees with minimal user control. Growth volume algorithms are utilized in order to easily and effectively calculate many parameters that determine tree growth, including branch propagation. Procedural methods are designed so that users' interactive control structures can be applied to these algorithms to create unique tree models efficiently. First, through a two-line-based interactive growth volume control method, the growth information that determines the overall shape of the tree is intuitively adjusted. Thereafter, independent branch control methods designed to control individual branches are added to the growth deformation in order to enable the growth of unique trees. Whether the growth processes of desired trees can be easily and intuitively controlled by the proposed method is verified through experiments. Methods that can apply the proposed methods are also verified.

Shape Optimization in Laminated Composite Plates by Volume Control (최적 제어를 통한 복합적층판의 형상최적화)

  • 한석영;백춘호;박재용
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Machine Tool Engineers Conference
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    • pp.277-282
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    • 2003
  • The growth-strain method was applied to cutout optimization in laminated composite plates. Since the growth-strain method optimizes a shape by generating the bulk strain to make the distributed parameter uniform, the distributed parameter was chosen as Tsai-Hill value. In this study, of particular interest is to see whether the growth-strain method developed for shape optimization in isotropic media would work for laminated composite Plates. In volume control of the growth-strain method, it makes Tsai-Hill value at each element uniform in laminated composite plates under the predetermined volume. The shapes optimized by Tsai-Hill fracture index were compared with those of the initial shapes for the various load conditions and predetermined volumes of laminated composite plates. As a result, it was verified that volume control of the growth-strain method worked very well for cutout optimization in laminated composite plates.

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Path-dependant Nonlinear Analysis of RC shell Structures using Volume Control Method (체적제어법을 이용한 철근콘크리트 쉘구조물의 경로의존 비선형 해석)

  • 송하원;이준희;변근부
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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    • pp.585-590
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    • 2003
  • To overcome the drawbacks of conventional load control method and displacement control method, the so-called volume control method was developed by utilizing a pressure node added into a finite shell element. In this study, an improved volume control method which can analyze path-dependant behaviors of RC shell structures subjected to cyclic loading effectively is developed. RC shell structures are discretized with layered shell elements and in-plane two dimensional constitutive equations for concrete and reinforcements are implemented for each layer of the shell elements. Validity of the so-called path dependant volume control method is also verified by comparing analysis results with other data including experimental results.

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Control Method to Ensure Uniform Exhaust Function by Household of Apartment House (공동주택의 세대별 균등 배기량을 확보 하는 제어방법에 관한 연구)

  • Kwon, Yong-Il
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.29 no.12
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    • pp.628-637
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to present an effective control method for the common duct system to uniformly discharge volume flow rate exhausted from the kitchen and bathroom of each household in an apartment regardless of the position of household. Since the common duct system is installed vertically and the ventilator is installed in the terminal, the static pressure of each household decreases when vertical height increases. Therefore, the volume flow rate exhausted from each household is different. In order to improve such a phenomenon, a constant air volume damper shall be installed in a branch duct coupled with a common vertical duct system. The selected ventilator should also be able to handle the maximum volume flow rate considering diversity factor. Therefore, a uniform volume flow rate must be exhausted from all households where the hood is operated. This paper mainly focuses on suggestion of an optimum exhaust control method by comparing exhaust performance of each household according to the presence or absence of a constant air volume damper.

Development of Short-Run Standardized Control Charts and Acceptance Control Charts Classified by the Demand Volume and Variety (수요량과 다양성 패턴에 의해 유형화된 단기간 표준화 관리도와 단기간 합격판정 관리도의 개발)

  • Choi, Sung-Woon
    • Journal of the Korea Safety Management and Science
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.255-263
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    • 2010
  • The research developes short-run standardized control charts(SSCC) and short-run acceptance control charts(SACC) under the various demand patterns. The demand patterns considered in this paper are three types such as high-variety and repetitive low-volume pattern, extremely-high-variety and nonrepetitive low-volume pattern, and high-variety and extremely-low-volume pattern. The short-run standardized control charts developed by extending the long-run ${\bar{x}}$-R, ${\bar{x}}$-s and I-MR charts have strengths for practioners to understand and use easily. Moreover, the short-range acceptance control charts developed in the study can be efficiently used through combining the functions of the inspection and control chart. The weighting schemes such as Shewhart, moving average (MA) and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) can be considered by the reliability of data sets. The two types according to the use of control chart are presented in the short-range standardized charts and acceptance control charts. Finally, process capability index(PCI) and process performance index(PPI) classified by the demand patterns are presented.