• Title, Summary, Keyword: Copper Sulfate

Search Result 279, Processing Time 0.044 seconds

Effect of Horizontal Pitch-to-Diameter Ratio on the Natural-Convection Heat Transfer of Two Staggered Cylinders (엇갈리게 배열된 두 개의 수평관에서 수평 피치-직경비에 따른 자연대류 열전달 영향)

  • Chae, Myeong-Seon;Heo, Jeong-Hwan;Chung, Bum-Jin
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
    • /
    • v.36 no.3
    • /
    • pp.259-268
    • /
    • 2012
  • This study measured the natural-convection heat transfer of two vertically staggered cylinders with varying vertical pitch-to-diameter ($P_v$/D) and horizontal pitch-to-diameter ($P_h$/D) ratios. The measured heat-transfer rates for the lower cylinder agreed well with the existing heat-transfer correlations for a single cylinder. At the smallest $P_v$/D, the rising plume from the lower cylinder provides the upper cylinder with a preheated flow, and the heat-transfer rates of the upper cylinder decrease, but increase very sensitively with $P_h$/D. However, at the largest $P_v$/D, the velocity effect dominates, and the heat-transfer rates of the upper cylinder are larger than that of a single cylinder, and decrease less sensitively with $P_h$/D. Even if $P_h$/D is increased, the heat-transfer rate of the upper cylinder is higher than that of the lower cylinder because of the chimney and side flow effects. This work expanded the flow ranges to turbulent flows. The cupric acid-copper sulfate ($H_2SO_4-CuSO_4$) electroplating system was adopted for the measurements of the mass-transfer rates instead of the heat-transfer experiments based on the analogy concept. The measurements were made by varying $P_v$/D (1.02-5) and $P_h$/D (0-2) in both laminar and turbulent flows. The Rayleigh number ranged from $1.5{\times}10^8$ to $2.5{\times}10^{10}$, and the Prandtl number was 2,014.

Endogenous Phenoloxidase Purified from an Earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus (붉은 지렁이(Lumbricus rubellus) 체내로부터 정제한 Phenoloxidase)

  • 백승렬;조은정;유경희;김유삼;서정진;장정순
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
    • /
    • v.39 no.1
    • /
    • pp.36-46
    • /
    • 1996
  • An endogenous phenoloxidase (EPO) from earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus, has been purified and characterized. The purified EPO using ammonium sulfate fractionation, Blue-2, Phenyl-, and Q-sepharose chromatography steps was revealed in SDS-PAGE as a single protein banri with Mr. of 59 kl)a. A native strudure of the enzyme was examined with an in situ staining of a nondenatudng-PAGE using DL-dopa as a substrate. The result showed that a single band due to the EPO activity was located siighdy above a standard polypeptide with Mr. of 210 kl)a. These fads indicate that the EPO is an oligomeric enzyme. The presence of a monophenolase activity of the purified EPO, which hydroxylates tyrosine to dopa, was confirmed by observing dopachrome accumulation at 475 nm at PH 8.0 with a typical lag phase during 60 mm. of meausrement. A series of inhibition study has been performed for the enzyme with several divalent cation chelators such as phenyithiourea (Flu), 1, lO-phenanthroline, EDTA, and EGTA. Among them, only V'flj inhibited the enzyme with 1C0.5 of 65 MM, which indicated that copper was critical for the catalysis of EPO. The enzyme was maximally active at 35'C and pH 8.0 when L-dopa to dopachrome conversion was spectrophotometricaily monitored at 475 nm. The apparent Km values of P0 for L-opa were obtained as 1.86 mM and 13.8 mM at pH 6.5 and 8.0, respectively. The catalytic efficiencies at both pH were almost identical [(kat/Km)pH8.0/(kcat/Km)pH6.5 = O.92] while the Vmax at p11 8.0 was 6.6-fold higher than that at pH 6.5. This fact may indicate that pH affeds the catalysis at substrate and/or enzyme-substrate complex level rather than the enzyme itself. Taken together, the EPO was an oligomeric enzyme which did not require proteolysis for its activation. These results also indicated that the enzyme can exist, at least, in part as a latent form In vivo, which might be distinct from the prophenoloxidase activating system. Therefore, it is pertinent to consider that there must be certain regulatory molecules or phenomena in L. rubellus which make the 1,0 in a latent form in vivo before the foreign invasions.

  • PDF

A Study on Contact Dermatitis-Causing Substances Concentration in Commercial Oxidative Hair-Coloring Products (유통 산화형 염모제의 접촉성피부염 유발물질 함량 연구)

  • Na, Young Ran;Koo, Hee Soo;Lee, Seung Ju;Kang, Jung Mi;Jin, Seong Hyeon
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
    • /
    • v.40 no.2
    • /
    • pp.203-214
    • /
    • 2014
  • We measured the contact dermatitis-causing substances concentrations in 28 commercial oxidative hair-coloring products. This study was aimed to provide the fundamental data about oxidative hair-coloring products. We selected 10 oxidation dyes (p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine, m-phenylenediamine, nitro-p-phenylenediamine, p-aminophenol, m-aminophenol, o-aminophenol, p-methylaminophenol, N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-p-phenylenediamine sulfate, 2-methyl-5-hydroxyethylaminophenol) and 4 heavy metal (nikel; Ni, chromium; Cr, cobalt; Co, copper; Cu) as contact dermatitis-causing substances. To identify 10 oxidation dyes, hexane-2% sodium sulfite was used for the rapid and simple extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis was used for simultaneous analysis in 12 minutes. 10 oxidative dyes were detected as indicated on the product packaging and each concentration was lower than prescribed upper concentration limit by pharmaceutical manufacturing standards. And we analysed inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) for content search of heavy metal after microwave digestion. The heavy metal average concentration in oxidative hair-coloring products was 0.572 ${\mu}g/g$ for Ni, 3.161 ${\mu}g/g$ for Cr, 2.029 ${\mu}g/g$ for Co, 0.420 ${\mu}g/g$ for Cu, respectively. The average of concentration in powder type (henna) was higher than those of other foam and cream type oxidative hair-coloring products as follows; 1.800 ${\mu}g/g$ for Ni, 10.127 ${\mu}g/g$ for Cr, 7.082 ${\mu}g/g$ for Co, 1.451 ${\mu}g/g$ for Cu. Hair coloring products were classified into the six colors - black, dark brown, brown, dark brown, light brown, red brown and analyzed. Brown color had the highest average concentration of Co and the others had the highest average concentration of Cr.

Studies on the Ecology of Occurrence and Identification of Typhula Snow Mold of Graminous Plants -II. Several Factors Affecting Growth of Typhula incarnata- (화본과식물에 발생하는 설부소입균핵병균(雪腐小粒菌核病菌)의 동정 및 발생상태에 관한 연구 -II. Typhula incarnata의 생육에 미치는 몇 가지 요인-)

  • Kim, Jin-Won;Lee, Du-Hyung;Shim, Gyu-Yul
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
    • /
    • v.20 no.1
    • /
    • pp.37-43
    • /
    • 1992
  • Typhula incarnata grew over a temperature range of -5 to $20^{\circ}C$ with maximum growth at 10 to $15^{\circ}C$. Sclerotial production for T. incarnata was greatest at the higher temperature. Maximum mycelial growth of this pathogen occurred from pH 5.4 to 6.2. When carbon sources were added to a basal salt medium (Czapek's dox agar) at 5 g carbon sources/l, inulin, soluble starch, galactose, glucose, mannose, manitol, sucrose, maltose, cellobirose, trehalose, raffinose, and dextrin supported growth better than other carbon sources did. Of the twenty-three nitrogen sources tested, glycine, serine, ammonium sulfate, asparagine, asparatic acid, and ${\beta}-alanine$ were the most favorable for mycelial growth of T. incarnata. Cystine and cysteine were poor nitrogen sources. Ammonium salt of nitrogen sources supported growth better than nitrate salt of nitrogen sources. Potato dextrose agar, oat meal agar, and V-8 juice agar were the most favorable for mycelial growth and sclerotial formation. Appropriate addition of pepton to PDA decreased mycelial dry weight, but sucrose supported good growth of T. incarnata. Percent viable sclerotia of T. incarnate buried in bentgrass soil decreased from 2 months after treatment remarkably. Trichoderma riride and bacteria were isolated from non-germinated sclerotia. Live orchard grass leaf pieces within the soil were colonized by T. incarnata better than sterile and unsterile dead leaf pieces at $0^{\circ}C$. Saprophytic ability of T. incarnate on sterile leaf sheath occurred better at $0^{\circ}C$ than at $10^{\circ}C$. Saprophytic microflora consisting of Cladosporium sp., Fusarium sp., Mucor sp., Pythium sp., and unidentified fungi were the competitors for the sterilized and unsterilized substrate, but their colonization was not find on live leaf sheath buried in the soil at $0^{\circ}C$. In the effect of fungicides to Typhula snow mold disease of creeping bentgrass, mixture of polyoxin and thiram was the most effective, followed by iprodione, mixture of iprodione and oxine copper, thiophanate-methyl, myclobutanil, and tolclofos-methyl.

  • PDF

Effect of New Foot-bath Facility and Solution on Foot Health in Lactating Dairy Cows (신개발 세족기 및 세족액의 젖소 적응효과)

  • Baek, K.S.;Kim, B.H.;Park, S.B.;Park, S.J.;Kim, H.S.;Lee, W.S.;Ki, K.S.;Jeon, B.S.;Ahn, B.S.;Kang, S.J.;Suh, G.H.
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
    • /
    • v.12 no.3
    • /
    • pp.107-114
    • /
    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of new foot-bath facility and detergent solution (sodium molylbdenate, citrate, potassium nitrate, tataric acid, sodium hypo-cholorite, and zinc sulfate) on claw health in lactating dairy cows. Minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of copper sulphate were 0.31% for E. coli and Bacillus isolated from cows claw. The MIC and MBC of new detergent for E. coli were 1.25% and 5%, respectively, however their respectively values for Bacillus were noticed 0.63% and 2.5%. Both 5E. coli and Bacillus populations in petri-dishes were significantly reduced (more than 95%) with the application of new detergent solution (5% or 16%). Locomotion score (LS 1-5; very good to severely bad) of lactating cows were significantly improved with in 30 days with the use of new detergent solution in foot bath. The LS2 (n=16), LS3 (n=16), and LS4 (n=7) were shown 100%, 43.8%, and 14.3% recovery rate within 30 days with the use of new detergent solution. However, LS5 (n=2) were not recovered to normal claw health and locomotion score within 30 days of new detergent application. Usage of new detergent solution for 60 days in a foot bath have shown 81.3%, 71.4% and 50.0% recovery rate in cows with LS3, LS4 and LS5, respectively. Abnormal claw incidence was reduced from 18.8% to 1.5% in overall herd (n=80) with the use of new detergent solution (16%) in a foot bath for 90 days. In conclusion, usage of 16% of our detergent solution for 60 days in a foot bath can significantly improve the cow claw health and thus mitigate the negative effects of abnormal claw on productivity of cows and dairy farm income.

  • PDF

Assessment of Water Pollution by Discharge of Abandoned Mines (휴폐광산 지역에서 유출되는 하천수의 오염도 평가)

  • Kim Hee-Joung;Yang Jay-E.;Ok Yong-Sik;Lee Jai-Young;Park Byung-Kil;Kong Sung-Ho;Jun Sang-Ho
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
    • /
    • v.10 no.5
    • /
    • pp.25-36
    • /
    • 2005
  • Several metalliferous and coal mines, including Myungjin, Seojin and Okdong located at the upper watershed of Okdong stream, were abandoned or closed since 1988 due to the mining industry promotion policy. Thus these disposed an enormous amount of mining wastes without a proper treatment facilities, resulting in water pollution in the downstream areas. Acid mine drainage (AMD) and waste water effluents from the closed coal mines were very strongly acidic showing pH ranges of 2.7 to 4.5 and had a high level of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) showing the ranges of 1,030 to 1,947 mg/L. Also heavy metal concentrations in these samples such as Fe, Cu, Cd and anion such as sulfate were very high. Concentrations of water soluble heavy metals in the Okdong streams were in the orders of Fe>Al>Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd, indicating Fe from the AMD and waste water effluents contributed greatly to the quality of water and soil in the lower watershed of Okdong stream. Copper concentrations in the effluents from the tile drainage of mine tailings dams were highest during the raining season. Water Pollution Index (WPI) of the surface water at the upper stream of Okdong river where AMD of the abandoned coal mines was flowed into main stream were in the ranges of 16.3 to 47.1. On the other hand, those at the mid stream where effluents from tailings dams and coal mines flowed into main stream were in the WPI ranges of 10.6 to 19.5. However, those at the lower stream were ranged from 10.6 to 14.9. These results indicated that mining wastes such as AMD and effluents from the closed mines were the major source to water pollution at the Okdong stream areas.

Comparison of Boiling Point and Distillaiion Ranige, Melting Range, and Identification Methods of Various Organizations on Synthetic Food Additives (식품첨가물에 대한 여러 기관의 비점 및 유분측정법, 융점측정법 및 확인시험법 비교)

  • Shin Dong-Hwa;Kim Yong-Suk;Lee Young-Hwan;Bang Jeong-Ho;Om Ae-Son;Shin Jae-Wook;Lee Tal-Soo;Jang Young-Mi;Hong Ki-Hyoung;Park Sung-Kwan;Kwon Yong-Kwan;Park Jae-Seok
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
    • /
    • v.20 no.3
    • /
    • pp.134-140
    • /
    • 2005
  • Boiling point and distillation range, melting range, and identification methods in general test method of Korea, Japan, Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee of Food Additives (JECFA), and USA on chemical food additives were compared. Boiling point of propylene glycol was indicated as boiling point in Korea, distillate in Japan, distillation range in JECFA and USA, and its value was up to the standard. Distillation range of propionic acid was indicated as distillate in Korea and Japan, distillation range in JECFA and USA, and its value was up to the standard. There is no standard on distillation range of isopropyl alcohol in Japanese method. Test method of melting range on synthetic food additives was identical in all organizations, and there are 28 items to which this test method applies in Korean Food Additives Code. The standards on molting range of D-mannitol were different in various organizations, and in USA method there are no standards to which L-ascorbic acid, calciferol, and fumaric acid apply. Synthetic food additives performing the identification test were 251 items in Korean Food Additives Code, but there are no items to which manganese, glycerophosphate, bromate, thiosulfate, and bromide apply. Calcium benzoate was dissolved by heating in benzoate test and we could not identify the citrate in ferric citrate by method (2) of Korea and Japan. Identification test methods for ammonium, lactate, magnesium, copper, sulfate, phosphate, and zinc were identical in all organizations, and these could be identifed by current identification methods.

Effect of Organic Materials and the Removal of Apical Shoot on Controlling Cucumber Downy Mildew (유기농업자재와 순지르기를 이용한 오이 노균병 방제)

  • Park, Jong-Won;Kim, Yong-Ki;Park, So-Hyang;Hong, Sung-Jun;Shim, Chang-Ki;Kim, Min-Jeong;Park, Jong-Ho;Han, Eun-Jung;So, Hyun-Gyu;Kim, Seok-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
    • /
    • v.24 no.4
    • /
    • pp.919-929
    • /
    • 2016
  • This study investigated the effect of organic materials (Bordeaux, Loess-sulfur) and the removal of apical shoot against downy mildew disease on cucumber cultivated in greenhouse. Five kinds of Bordeaux were made by adjusting mixing ratio of lime and copper sulfate in order to elucidate the optimal combination. The 4-6type Bordeaux was selected as the most effective combination for controlling cucumber downy mildew. Loess-sulfur showed inhibitory activity against cucumber downey mildew, but it was less effective than Bordeaux. It was confirmed that apical shoot cutting could reduce the incidence of cucumber downy mildew disease by 56.3%. When apical shoots of susceptible cucumber variety were cut at different leaf stages, disease incidence by early apical shoot cutting treatment was lower than that of late apical shoot cutting treatment. However in a resistant variety, 'Heukryungsamcheok', disease incidences of all cucumber apical shoot cutting treatments were lower than that of non-cutting treatment, but there was no differences between apical shoot cutting treatments due to low disease incidences. In addition, when organic materials and apical shoot cutting treatment were carried out in parallel, the combined treatments of organic materials and apical shoot cutting showed low disease incidence of cucumber downy mildew compared to untreated control. The lowest disease incidence of cucumber downy mildew was recorded in the combined treatment of 4-6type Bordeaux and apical shoot cutting. This study confirmed that apical shoot cutting can reduce the disease incidence of cucumber downy mildew and the combined treatment of apical shoot cutting and organic materials showed higher suppressive effect against cucumber downy mildew.

Studies on the physio-chemical properties and the cultivation of oyster mushroom(Pleurotus ostreatus) (느타리버섯의 생리화학적성질(生理化學的性質) 및 재배(栽培)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Hong, Jai-Sik
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
    • /
    • v.21 no.3
    • /
    • pp.150-184
    • /
    • 1978
  • Nutritional characteristics and physio-chemical properties of mycelial growth and fruitbody formation of oyster mushroom(Pleurotus ostreatus)in synthetic media, the curtural condition for the commerical production in the rice straw and poplar sawdust media, and the changes of the chemical components of the media and mushroom during the cultivation were investigated. The results can be summarized as follows: 1. Among the carbon sources mannitol and sucrose gave rapid mycelial growth and rapid formation of fruit-body with higher yield, while lactose and rhamnose gave no mycelial growth. Also, citric acid, succinic acid, ethyl alcohol and glycerol gave poor fruit-body formation, and acetic acid, formic acid, fumaric acid, n-butyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol and iso-butyl alcohol inhibited mycelial growth. 2. Among the nitrogen sources peptone gave rapid mycelial growth and rapid formation of fruit-body with higher yield, while D,L-alanine, asparatic acid, glycine and serine gave very poor fruit-body formation, and nitrite nitrogens, L-tryptophan and L-tyrosine inhibited mycelial growth. Inorganic nitrogens and amino acids added to peptone were effective for fruit-body growth, and thus addition of ammonium sulfate, ammonium tartarate, D,L-alanine and L-leucine resulted in about 10% increase fruit-body yield. L-asparic acid about 15%, L-arginine about 20%, L-glutamic acid, and L-lysine about 25%. 3. At C/N ratio of 15.23 fruit-body formation was fast, but the yield decreased, and at C/N ratio of 11.42 fruit-body formation was slow, but the yield increased. Also, at the same C/N ratio the higher the concentration of mannitol and petone, the higher yield was produced. Thus, from the view point of both yield of fruit-body and time required for fruiting the optimum C/N ratio would be 30. 46. 4. Thiamine, potassium dihydrogen phosphate and magnecium sulfate at the concentration of $50{\mu}g%$. 0.2% and 0.02-0.03%, respectively, gave excellent mycelial and fruit-body growth. Among the micronutrients ferrous sulfate, zinc sulfate and manganese sulfate showed synergetic growth promoting effect but lack of manganese resulted in a little reduction in mycelial and fruit-body growth. The optimum concentrati on of each these nutrients was 0.02mg%. 5. Cytosine and indole acetic acid at 0.2-1mg% and 0.01mg%, respectively, increased amount of mycelia, but had no effect on yield of fruit-body. The other purine and pyrimidine bases and plant hormones also had no effect on mycelial and fruit-belly yield. 6. Illumination inhibited mycelial growth, but illumination during the latter part of vegetative growth induced primordia formation. The optimum light intensity and exposure time was 100 to 500 lux and 6-12 hours per day, respectively. Higher intensity of light was injurous, and in darkness only vegetative growth without primordia formation was continued. 7. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth was $25^{\circ}C$ and for fruit-body formation 10 to $15^{\circi}C$. The optimum pH range was from 5.0 to 6.5. The most excellent fry it-body formation were produced from the mycelium grown for 7 to 10 days. The lesser the volume of media, the more rapid the formation of fruit-body; and the lower the yield of fruit-body; and the more the volume of media, the slower the formation of fruit-body, and the higher the yield of fruit-body. The primordia formation was inhibited by $CO_2$. 8. The optimum moisture content for mycelial growth was over 70% in the bottle media of rice straw and poplar sawdust. 10% addition of rice bran to the media exhibited excellent mycelial growth and fruit-body formation, and the addition of calciumcarbonate alone was effective, but the addition of calcium carbonate was ineffective in the presence of rice bran. 9. In the cultivation experiments the total yield of mushroom from the rice straw media was $14.99kg/m^2$, and from the sawdust media $6.52kg/m^2$, 90% of which was produced from the first and second cropping period. The total yield from the rice straw media was about 2.3 times as high as that from the sawdust media. 10. Among the chemical components of the media little change was observed in the content of ash on the dry weight basis, and organic matter content decreased as the cultivation progressed. Moisture content, which was about 79% at the time of spawning, decreased a little during the period of mycelial propagation, after which no change was observed. 11. During the period from spawning to the fourth cropping about 16.7% of the dry matter, about 19.3% of organic matter, and about 40% of nitrogen were lost from the rice straw media; about 7.5% of dry mallet, about 7.6% of organic matter, and about 20% of nitrogen were lost from the sawdust media. For the production of 1kg of mushroom about 232g of organic matter and about 7.0g of nitrogen were consumed from the rice straw media; about 235g of organic matter and about 6.8g of nitrogen were consumed from the sawdust media, 1㎏ of mushroom from either of media contains 82.4 and 82.3g of organic matter and 5.6 and 5.4g of nitrogen, respectively. 12. Total nitrogen content of the two media decreased gradually as the cultivation progressed, and total loss of insoluble nitrogen was greater than that of soluble nitrogen. Content of amino nitrogen continued to increase up to the third cropping time, after which it decreased. 13. In the rice straw media 28.0 and 13.8% of the total pentosan and ${\alpha}$-cellulose, respectively, lost during the whole cultivation period was lost during the period of mycelial growth; in the sawdust media 24.1 and 11.9% of the total pentosan and ${\alpha}$-cellulose, respectively, was lost during the period of mycelial growth. Lignin content in the media began to decrease slightly from the second cropping time, while the content of reduced sugar, trehalose and mannitol continued to increase. C/N ratio of the rice straw media decreased from 33.2 at spawining to 30.0 at ending; that of the sawdust media decreased from 61.3 to 60.0. 14. In both media phosphorus, potassium, manganese and zinc decreased, at magnesium, calcium and copper showed irregular changes, and iron had a tendency to be increased. 15. Enzyme activities are much higher in the rice straw media than in the sawdust media. CMC saccharifying and liquefying activity gradually increased from after mycelial propagation to the second cropping, after which it decreased in both media. Xylanase activity rapidly and greatly increased during the second cropping period rather than the first period. At the start of the third cropping period the activity decreased rapidly in the rice straw media, which was not observed in the sawdust media. Protease activity was highest after mycelial propagation, after which it gradually decreased. The pH of the rice straw media decreased from 6.3 at spawning to 5.0 after fourth cropping; that of the sawdust media decreased from 5.7 to 4.9. 16. The contents of all the components except crude fibre of the mushroom from the rice straw media were higher than those from the sawdust media. Little change was observed in the content of the components of mushroom cropped from the first to the third period, but slight decrease was noticed at the fourth cropping.

  • PDF