• Title, Summary, Keyword: Coptidis Rhizoma (CR)

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Anti-inflammatory effect of chloroform fraction of Coptidis rhizoma on the production of inflammatory mediators from LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells (황련 클로로포름 분획물의 뇌신경소교세포로부터 염증매개물질 생성억제 효능 연구)

  • Park, Yong-Ki;Lee, Kyuong-Yeol
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 2007
  • Objectives : In the present study, we investigated anti-inflammatory effects of chloroform fraction of Coptidis rhizoma (CR-C) on the production of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-${\alpha}$) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1${\beta}$) in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Methods : Copriditis rhizoma was extracted with 80% methanol, and then extracted with chloroform. BV2 cells were pre-treated with CR-C, and stimulated with LPS. The cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay. The production of NO and cytokines was measured by Griess assay and ELISA. The mRNA expression of inducible nirtic oxide synthase (iNOS) and cytokines were determined by RT-PCR. Results : CR-C significantly inhibited the production of NO. TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-1${\beta}$ in a dose-dependent manner in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. In addition, CR-C suppressed the mRNA expressions of iNOS and inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS stimulation. These results indicate that CR-C was involved in anti-inflammatory effects in activated microglia. Conclusion : The present study suggests that chloroform extract of Coptidis rhizoma can be useful as a potential anti-inflammatory agent for treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases.

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Studies on the Bioavailability of Berberine Preparations(II) : Antibacterial Activity and Bioavailability of Coprecipitate of Coptidis Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix (베르베린 제제의 생체이용율에 관한 연구(II): 황련과 감초 공침물의 항균효과 및 생체이용율)

  • Yang, Jae-Heon;Eun, Jae-Soon;Lee, Nam-Hee
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.185-192
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    • 1995
  • Precipitation reaction occured between berberine in Coptidis Rhizoma and glycyrrhizin in Glycyrrhizae Radix when they were boiled together in aqueous solution and the supernatant solution thus obtained did not show any antibacterial activity which was derived from berberine. The content of berberine in BG and CGP by HPLC analysis were 41.1%, 8.3% respectively. BG was occured mostly at pH 5.0. The solubility of berberine was 0.15%, while that of BG and CGP was 0.07%, 0.12%, respectively. CGP shown more increased antibacterial activity to gram positive bacteria, S. dysenteriae and K. pneumoniae than berberine. The absorption rates of CGP in stomach, duodenum and jejunum of rats were compared with those of Coptidis Rhizoma water extracts (CR), which were increased more than CR. The time required for the maximum serum concentration of berberine from CGP in mice was 90 minutes after oral administration. The maximum serum concentration of berberine from CGP was higher than that from CR. The dissolution of CGP was increased more than berberine and BG in both artificial gastric and intestinal fluids. The dissolution of CGP pill made from gelatin was 63.4% in artificial gastric fluids and that made from CMC was 76.0% in artificial intestinal fluids.

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Protective Effects of Coptidis Rhizoma on Ethanol-induced Gastric Ulcer in Mice (에탄올 유발 위점막 손상에 대한 황련 물 추출물의 방어효과)

  • Byun, Joon-Seok
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.67-73
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    • 2012
  • The exposure of gastric mucosa to ethanol produces acute ulcers mediated by inflammatory processes, hemorrhagic erosions and increase of reactive oxygen species. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of Coptidis Rhizoma(CR) aqueous extracts on hydrochloride (HCl)/ethanol induced gastric ulcer in mice as compared with rebamipide (30 mg/kg) and ranitidine (100 mg/kg). Stomach ulcers were induced by oral ingestion of HCl/ethanol. CR extracts (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) were orally administered, once a day for 7 continuous days, and 1 hr after last 7th treatment of CR extracts stomach ulcers were induced. Effects of CR extracts on HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcer were evaluated based on gross and microscopic observations with anti-oxidant activities. All three different dosages of CR extract significantly decreased HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcer compared with the HCl/ethanol control mice. CR extracts also strengthened the antioxidative defense systems - decreased the level of lipid peroxidation but increased the level of catalase, superoxide dismutase and nitrate/nitrite compared with the HCl/ethanol control. The effects of CR extract 500 mg/kg were similar to that of 30 mg/kg rebamipide, and CR extract 250 mg/kg showed similar anti-ulcer effects as compared with ranitidine 100 mg/kg. These results suggest that the gastroprotective effects of CR extracts on mice ulcer models can be attributed to its ameliorating effect on oxidative damages.

Effect of Coptidis Rhizoma Steamed with Rice Wine on Gastroduodenal Mucosa of Mouse through Inhibiting iNOS Activation (주증황련(酒蒸黃連)이 iNOS 활성 억제를 통해 생쥐 위.십이지장 점막에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Myung-Ho;Lim, Seong-Woo
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.262-273
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: This study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of Coptidis Rhizoma steamed with rice wine (CR) against gastroduodenal mucosal injury through inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activation. Methods: In in vitro experiment, LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with CR(0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 mg/ml) and iNOS mRNA expression and nitric oxide (NO) production were measured. In in vivo experiment normal group mice were treated with neither ethanol nor CR. Both control and sample group mice were orally administrated with ethanol. Five hours after ethanol administration control group mice were orally administrated with distilled water, sample group mice were orally administrated with CR. After three days administration, gastroduodenal mucosa of mice was observed histopathologically and iNOS, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-${\kappa}B$) activation were observed immunohistochemically. Results: In in vitro experiment iNOS mRNA expression and NO production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages were decreased by CR dose-dependently. In in vivo experiment, gastroduodenal mucosal injury was repaired by CR and iNOS, NF-${\kappa}B$ activation in gastroduodenal mucosa were decreased by CR. Conclusions: Coptidis Rhizoma steamed with rice wine has a protective effect against gastroduodenal mucosal injury through inhibiting iNOS activation.

Effects of Coptidis Rhizoma and Aconiti Lateralis Preparata Radix on the Change of Plasma Corticosterone Level and Rectal Temperature Induced by LPS (LPS에 의해 유발된 염증(炎症) 스트레스에 대한 황련(黃蓮)과 부자(附子)의 효과)

  • Cho, Eun-Ho;Lee, Tae-Hee
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.77-85
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    • 2006
  • Objectives : We investigated the effects of Coptidis Rhizoma and Aconiti Lateralis Preparata Radix on the LPS(Lipopolysaccharide) ICV(intracerebroventricular) injection. Methods : We measured plasma corticosterone level and rectal temperature in mice induced by I.C.V. injection of LPS (100ng/mouse). Results : The results were as follows.. 1. The plasma corticosterone levels in CR-1(0.5g/kg), CR-2(1.0g/kg), CR-3(3.0g/kg) were not decreased significant comparing with the control group.(P<0.05) 2. The plasma corticosterone level in AR-1(0.5g/kg) was decreased significant comparing with the control group.(P<0.05), but AR-2(1.0g/Kg) and AR-3(3.0g/kg) were not decreased significant comparing with the control group.(P<0.05). 3. The rectal temperature in CR-1(0.5g/kg), CR-2(1.0g/kg), CR-3(3.0g/kg) was decreased significant comparing with the control group.(P<0.05) 4. The rectal temperature in AR-1(0.5g/kg), AR-2(1.0g/kg), AR-3(3.0g/kg) was not decreased significant comparing with the control group.(P<0.05) Conclusion : These data revealed that Rhizoma Coptidis might have no significant effect on inflammation stress and Aconiti Lateralis Preparata Radix(0.5g/kg/mouse) might have significant effect on inflammation stress.

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Protective Effect of Coptidis Rhizoma on SNAP-Induced Cytotoxicity in Pancreatic RINm5F Cells (SNAP 유도성 RINm5F 세포 독성에 대한 황연 추출물의 방어효과)

  • 류도곤;권강범;양정예;김은경;김강산
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.159-165
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    • 2003
  • Objectives : Coptidis rhizoma (CR) is an oriental medicine that has been used in many traditional prescriptions against diabetes mellitus in Korea for centuries. Our purpose was to determine the protective effect and its action mechanism of CR on the cytotoxicity of pancreatic -cell line (RINm5F cell). Methods : In this experiment, we used methods such as MTT assay for detection of cytotoxicity, DNA fragmentation assay for detection of apoptotic cell death, LDH activity assay for detection of necrotic cell death, and measurement of $DiOC_{6}$ (3) retention for detection of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Background : Nitric oxide (NO) is believed to playa key role in the process of pancreatic -cell destruction leading to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Results : Exposure of RINm5F cells to chemical NO donor such as S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) induced cytotoxic events such as DNA fragmentation and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release into medium. However, pretreatment of RINm5F cells with CR extract ($10~50{\mu\textrm{g}}/ml$) for 3 hours prevented SNAP-induced DNA fragmentation and LDH release into medium through the inhibition of MMP disruption. Conclusions : These results suggest that CR may be a candidate for a therapeutic or preventing agent against IDDM.

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Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species Production by Water-extracts of Coptidis Rhizoma Enhances Neuronal Survival in a Hypoxic Model of Cultured Rat Cortical Cells. (흰쥐 대뇌세포의 저산소증 모델에서 황련의 활성산소 생성 억제와 신경세포사 억제)

  • Choi, Ju-Li;Shin, Gil-Jo;Lee, Won-Chul;Moon, Il-Soo;Jung, Seung-Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.311-317
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    • 2008
  • Pathophysiological oxidative stress results in neuronal cell death mainly due to the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS). In low oxygen situation such as hypoxia and ischemia, excessive ROS is generated. Coptidis Rhizoma (CR) is a traditional medicine used for the incipient stroke. In this report we show that CR water extracts $(1\;{\mu}g/ml)$ exhibited protective effects of neuronal cell death in a hypoxic model (2% $O_2/5%\;CO_2,\;37^{\circ}C,$ 3 hr) of cultured rat cortical cells. We further show that CR water extracts significantly reduced the intensity of green fluorescence after staining with $H_2DCF-DA$ on one hour and three days after hypoxic shock and in normoxia as well. Our results indicate that CR water extracts prevent neuronal death by suppressing ROS generation.

Therapeutic Effects of Coptidis Rhizoma and Berberine in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

  • Kweon, Kee-Tae;Ahn, Sang-Young;Ham, In-Hye;Lee, Kyung-Jin;Choi, Ho-Young
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: We performed this study to compare the antidiabetic effects of Coptidis Rhizoma (CR) and its major component berberine with gliclazide. Materials and Methods: Diabetic rats induced by injection of streptozotocin (STZ) 55mg/kg were treated with CR 100, 200, 400mg/kg and berberine 100mg/kg. After rats were treated for 5 days, serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, BUN, creatinine and antioxidant levels were determined. Results: The cytotoxic effects of CR (0.1, 0.01, and 0.001mg/mL), berberine and gliclazide ($0.1{\mu}M$, $1{\mu}M$, and $10{\mu}M$) were tested in rat insulinoma (RIN) cells induced with 5mM STZ. The levels of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, BUN and creatinine of CR and berberine treated groups were reduced as much as that of gliclazide group in comparison to control groups, whereas total antioxidant levels increased. In vitro experiments showed that CR and berberine have a cytoprotective effect on RIN cells.

The anti-inflammatory effects of Huang-Lyun (Coptidis Rhizoma, CR) on injured tissue after burn elicitation (황련이 화상조직에 미치는 항산화와 항염증 및 피부재생 효과)

  • Kim, Hee-Kyung;Hong, Seung-Ug
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2011
  • Background and Objective: Coptidis Rhizoma is a medicinal herb known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of CR on the experimental burn elicitation in vitro and in vivo. Material and Methods: In order to know the antioxidant effect on skin cell of mice after burn elicitation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was measured. In vitro, the RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were treated with lipopolysaccharides for experimental inflammation. iNOS mRNA expression was observed after CR-treatment. In order to know effects on the skin regeneration in the burned mice, we counted the nitric oxide (NO) in blood. We also observed the histological structure in the epidermal basal layer and the dermal section, and we studied changes of angiogenesis in the capillaries surrounding the basal layer and dermal papilla. The changes of transcription of iNOS mRNA (inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA) and changes of NF-${\kappa}$B (nuclear factor ${\kappa}$B) p65 positive reaction were also observed to investigate the changes of the stress in the skin. Results: The results indicated that CR has significant effects on the antioxidant effect on skin cells of mice after burn elicitation by increasing SOD activity in the in vitro test. It seemed that CR decreased the amount of NF-${\kappa}$B which induced the iNOS mRNA dose-dependently and suppress activating NO and angiogenesis. Furthermore, CR facilitated the process of skin recovery after experimental burn. Conclusion: CR can be applied for burned skin via antioxidant effect and skin regeneration.

Combined Treatment with Coptidis Rhizoma Extract and Arsenic Trioxide Enhanced Apoptosis through Diverse Pathways in H157 Cells

  • Youn, Myung-Ja;Kim, Yun-Ha;Kim, Hyung-Jin;Song, Je-Ho;Jeon, Ho-Sung;Yu, Dong-Hee;Sul, Jeong-Dug;So, Hong-Seob;Park, Rae-Kil
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.1449-1459
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    • 2009
  • Coptidis rhizoma (huanglian) is an herb that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine that has recently been shown to possess anticancer activity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the anticancer effects of this herb is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of a combination of CR extract and arsenic trioxide, as well as the apoptotic pathway associated with its mechanism of action in human lung cancer H157 cells. Combined treatment of H157 cells with CR extract and arsenic trioxide resulted in significant apoptotic death. In addition, combined treatment with CR extract and arsenic trioxide acted in concert to induce a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (${\Delta}{\Psi}$), the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and an increase in the expression of pro-apoptotic p53 and Bax protein, which resulted in activation of caspases and apoptosis. CR extract combined with arsenic trioxide also increased the lipid peroxidation, mRNA expression of DR4 and DR5 and caspase-8 activity. These data indicate that combined treatment with CR extract and arsenic trioxide enhanced apoptotic cell death in H157 cells through diverse pathways, including mitochondrial dysfunction and death receptors, particularly DR4 and DR5. Thus, this treatment may be an effective from of chemotherapy.