• Title, Summary, Keyword: Corncob

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Biosorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution by agricultural bioadsorbent corncob

  • Choi, Hee-Jeong;Yu, Sung-Whan
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.99-106
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    • 2019
  • Using the abandoned agricultural by-product corncobs, the most commonly used methylene blue (MB) dyestuffs were removed. This experiment is very meaningful because it is the recycling of resources and the use of environmentally friendly adsorbents. According to the Hauser ratio and porosity analysis, the corncob has a good flow ability of the adsorbent material and many pores, which is very advantageous for MB adsorption. As a result of the experiment, MB concentration of less than 0.005 g/L was very efficiently removed with 10 g/L of bioadsorbent corncob and the maximum adsorption capacity of corncob for MB dyes was obtained at 417.1 mg/g. In addition, adsorption process of MB onto corncob was a physical process according to adsorption energy analysis. Corncob can efficiently and environmentally remove MB in aqueous solution, and is very cost effective and can recycle the abandoned resources.

Treatment of Car Wash Wastewater Using Corncob (옥수수속대를 이용한 세차장 폐수 흡착 처리)

  • Choi, Hee-Jeong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.41-52
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    • 2017
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the car wash wastewater using corncob. Corncob was removed successfully the organic and anorgnic matters in the car wash wastewater at the following optimal parameters: 10 g/L of corncob, 150 rpm of mixing rate and from 6 to 7 of pH. The removal efficiency of turbidity, TDS (Total Dissolved Solid), and ABS (AlkylBenzene Sulfonates) were very high, more than 96%. However COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), TN (Total Nitrogen) and TP (Total Phosphorus) was found to be 63-65%, 83-87% and 83-84%, respectively, and was relatively low removal efficiency compared turbidity, TDS and ABS. In particular, COD and TP exceeded the wastewater discharge standard and it is considered that post-treatment is necessary for stable treatment of car wash wastewater. Despite the low COD removal, treating car wash wastewater using corncob is very attractive. Because corncob can be treated with abandoned agricultural by-products to treat wastewater, and environmentally friendly because they are not using chemicals. Especially, turbidity, TDS and ABS have high removal efficiency, so that it is possible to reduce the processing cost of wastewater treatment if they are used as pre-treatment.

Application of Corncob for Treatment of Cu(II) in Aqueous Solution (옥수수속대(Corncob)를 이용한 수용액의 Cu(II) 제거)

  • Choi, Hee-Jeong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.61-72
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    • 2017
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the Cu(II) removal using agricultural byproduct corncob adsorbent in the aqueous solution. The corncob was then successfully utilized for efficient removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Batch reactor studies showed that increase in sorptive pH, contact time, initial concentration and dose of adsorbents significantly favored the sorption of Cu(II). The equilibrium data obtained at various initial concentrations reasonably fit well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption process was fast and the kinetic data fit better to the Pseudo-second order kinetic model. Cu(II) removal was found to be spontaneous and uptake process was endothermic in nature. Further, the intra-particle diffusion was found to be the rate-limiting step in the sorption of Cu(II). Various parametric studies enabled to discuss the sorption mechanism of these contaminants at the solid/solution interface. Taking all the above results into consideration, corncob is an inexpensive and excellent adsorbent. In addition, corncob does not contaminate treated water, which can be recycled to reduce not only the cost and the demand for water but also the extra operational costs for reusing water.

Removal of Cadmium (II) from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption onto Agricultural Waste Biomass, Corncob (농업부산물인 옥수수속대(Corncob)를 이용한 수용액의 Cd(II) 제거)

  • Choi, Hee-Jeong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.35-47
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    • 2017
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the Cd(II) removal using agricultural byproduct corncob adsorbent in the aqueous solution. Effect of various process parameters, viz., initial Cd(II) concentration, pH and adsorbent dose has been studied for the removal of Cd(II). Batch experiments were carried out at various pH (2-7), adsorbent dose (2.5-20 g), Cd(II) concentration (5-500 mg/L) for a contact time of 60 min. The FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) spectra of the corncob indicated that the carbonyl and carboxylic groups were major binding sites with Cd(II) ions. Corncob removed successfully 99% of the Cd(II) ions in the aqueous solution at pH 6. The adsorption process was fast and isotherm data better fit to the Langmuir isotherm than the Freundlich isotherm models. In addition, thermodynamic parameters (${\Delta}G$, ${\Delta}H$, and ${\Delta}S$)were also calculated from data obtained from experiments performed to study the effect of temperatures. The negative values of change in Gibbs free nergy indicate the feasibility and spontaneous nature of the adsorptive treatment. Taking all the above results into consideration, corncob is an inexpensive and excellent adsorbent.

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of alkali-pretreated corncob under optimized conditions using cold-tolerant indigenous holocellulase

  • Sharma, Anamika;Nain, Vikrant;Tiwari, Rameshwar;Singh, Surender;Adak, Anurup;Nain, Pawan Kumar Singh;Nain, Lata
    • The Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.773-780
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    • 2017
  • The present investigation was aimed towards pretreatment optimization of corncob to maximize cellulose and hemicellulose recovery, followed by substrate selection for holocellulase production using psychrotolerant Aspergillus niger SH3. Dilute alkali pretreatment (1.5% NaOH) resulted in higher recovery of cellulose (59.66%) and hemicellulose (28.34%) from corncob, while corn stover proved to be the best substrate for holocellulase production. Further, saccharification was optimized by Box-Behnken design to select the suitable conditions for maximum sugar release from pretreated corncob. The optimum conditions for maximum sugar release were 8% (w/v) substrate loading, 11 FPU/gds enzyme loading at temperature $38^{\circ}C$ and pH 3.0 which resulted in 114.5% higher sugar yield (912 mg/gds of pretreated biomass) as compared with un-optimized conditions (425.35 mg/gds). Theoretical yield of 48.8% ethanol was achieved through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using pretreated corncob. This study illustrates the potential of different corn residues as a promising substrate for bioethanol production.

Preparation of Corncob Grits as a Carrier for Immobilizing Yeast Cells for Ethanol Production

  • Lee, Sang-Eun;Lee, Choon Geun;Kang, Do Hyung;Lee, Hyeon-Yong;Jung, Kyung-Hwan
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.22 no.12
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    • pp.1673-1680
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    • 2012
  • In this study, DEAE-corncobs [delignified corncob grits derivatized with 2-(diethylamino)ethyl chloride hydrochloride ($DEAE{\cdot}HCl$)] were prepared as a carrier to immobilize yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for ethanol production. The immobilized yeast cell reactor produced ethanol under optimized $DEAE{\cdot}HCl$ derivatization and adsorption conditions between yeast cells and the DEAE-corncobs. When delignified corncob grit (3.0 g) was derivatized with 0.5M $DEAE{\cdot}HCl$, the yeast cell suspension ($OD_{600}$ = 3.0) was adsorbed at >90% of the initial cell $OD_{600}$. This amount of adsorbed yeast cells was estimated to be 5.36 mg-dry cells/g-DEAE corncobs. The $Q_{max}$ (the maximum cell adsorption by the carrier) of the DEAE-corncobs was estimated to be 25.1 (mg/g), based on a Languir model biosorption isotherm experiment. When we conducted a batch culture with medium recycling using the immobilized yeast cells, the yeast cells on DEAE-corncobs produced ethanol gradually, according to glucose consumption, without cells detaching from the DEAE-corncobs. We observed under electron microscopy that the yeast cells grew on the surface and in the holes of the DEAE-corncobs. In a future study, DEAE-corncobs and the immobilized yeast cell reactor system will contribute to bioethanol production from biomass hydrolysates.

Enhanced Production of Cellulase-Free Thermoactive Xylanase Using Corncob by a Black Yeast, Aureobasidium pullulans CBS 135684

  • Bankeeree, Wichanee;Lotrakul, Pongtharin;Prasongsuk, Sehanat;Kim, Seung Wook;Punnapayak, Hunsa
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.54 no.6
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    • pp.822-829
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    • 2016
  • Our aim was to optimize the production of cellulase-free thermoactive xylanase by Aureobasidium pullulans CBS 135684 with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. Among eleven variables, the nutrient sources that had significant effect on xylanase production were corncob, $(NH_4)_2SO_4$, xylose, $KH_2PO_4$ and tween 80, identified by the initial screening method of Plackett-Burman. The optimum concentrations of these five components were subsequently investigated using response surface methodology. The optimal concentrations ($g{\cdot}l^{-1}$) for maximum production of xylanase were corncob, 39.0; $(NH_4)_2SO_4$, 3.0; xylose, 1.8; $KH_2PO_4$ 1.4; and tween 80, 1.4, respectively. An improved xylanase yield of $8.74{\pm}0.84U{\cdot}ml^{-1}$ was obtained with optimized medium which is 2.1-fold higher production than previously obtained results ($4.10{\pm}0.10U{\cdot}ml^{-1}$) after 48 h of cultivation. In addition, the xylanase production under optimal condition reached $10.09{\pm}0.27U{\cdot}ml^{-1}$ after 72 h of cultivation.

Enzymatic Hydrolysis Condition of Pretreated Corncob by Oxalic Acid to Improve Ethanol Production (에탄올 생산 향상을 위한 옥살산 전처리 옥수숫대의 효소가수분해 조건 탐색)

  • Lim, Woo-Seok;Lee, Jae-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.294-301
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    • 2012
  • In this study, we investigated the features of bioethanol fermentation of corncob biomass after oxalic acid pretreatment as well as enzymatic hydrolysis. The enzymatic hydrolysis was performed with Accellerase 1000 and the highest yield of monomeric sugars ($64.8g/{\ell}$) was obtained at $50^{\circ}C$ and pH 4.5 for 96 hrs hydrolysis period. For the ethanol fermentation the monomeric sugars obtained from pretreated corncob were subjected to the biological treatment using Pichia stipitis CBS 6054. It was turned out that ethanol production from oxalic acid pretreated corncob was the most feasible at 10~14% of biomass loading as well as 15 FPU enzyme amount. Under these fermentation condition, the ethanol yield was approached to 0.47 after 24 hrs fermentation period, which was corresponded to 92.2% of conversion rate.

Development of a Novel Spawn (Block Spawn) of an Edible Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, in Liquid Culture and its Cultivation Evaluation

  • Zhang, Wei-Rui;Liu, Sheng-Rong;Kuang, Yun-Bo;Zheng, Shi-Zhong
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 2019
  • Mushroom cultivation has gained increased attention in recent years. Currently, only four types of spawn, including sawdust spawn, grain spawn, liquid spawn, and stick spawn, are commonly available for mushroom cultivation. This limited spawn diversity has led to difficulty in selecting suitable inoculum materials in some cultivation. In this study, three small blocks of lignocellulosic agro-wastes and one block of a synthetic matrix were prepared as support for growing Pleurotus ostreatus in liquid medium. Mycelium-adsorbed blocks were then evaluated for their potential as block spawn for fructification. Our results indicated that the edible fungus was adsorbed and abundantly grew internally and externally on loofah sponge and synthetic polyurethane foam (PUF) supports and also has the ability to attach and grow on the surface of sugarcane bagasse and corncob supports. The mycelia of P. ostreatus adhered on corncob exhibited the highest metabolic activity, while those on the PUF showed the least activity. Mycelial extension rates of block spawns made of agro-waste materials were comparable to that of sawdust spawn, but the block spawn of PUF showed a significantly lower rate. No significant differences in cropping time and yield were observed among cultivations between experimental block spawns and sawdust spawns. Moreover, the corncob block spawn maintained its fruiting potential during an examined period of 6-month storage. The developed block spawn could be practically applied in mushroom cultivation.

Advances in microalgal biomass/bioenergy production with agricultural by-products: Analysis with various growth rate models

  • Choi, Hee-Jeong;Lee, Seo-Yun
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.271-278
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    • 2019
  • Mass cultivation of microalgae is necessary to achieve economically feasible production of microalgal biodiesel. However, the high cost of nutrients is a major limitation. In this study, corncob extract (CCE) was used as an inorganic and organic nutrient source for the mass cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris). Chemical composition analysis of CCE revealed that it contained sufficient nutrients for mixotrophic cultivation of C. vulgaris. The highest specific grow rate of C. vulgaris was obtained at pH of 7-8, temperature of $25-30^{\circ}C$, and CCE amount of 5 g/L. In the analysis using various growth models, Luong model was found to be the most suitable empirical formula for mass cultivation of C. vulgaris using CCE. Analysis of biomass and production of triacyglycerol showed that microalgae grown in CCE medium produced more than 17.23% and 3% more unsaturated fatty acids than cells cultured in Jaworski's Medium. These results suggest that growing microalgae in CCE-supplemented medium can increase lipid production. Therefore, CCE, agricultural byproduct, has potential use for mass cultivation of microalgae.