• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cost Efficiency

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The Cost Efficiency Analysis of JeollaNamdo Food Industry (전라남도 식품업체의 비용 효율성 분석)

  • Qing, Cheng Lin;Na, JuMong;Chang, Seog Ju;Im, Chang Uk
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Quality Management
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.533-544
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze the cost efficiency of food industry in JeollaNamdo. And this study is focused on the correlation between the economic efficiency of food industry and its cost efficiency, based on the analysis of 372 food companies' data in JeollaNamdo in 2012. Methods: DEA cost minimization is the measurement of the cost efficiency of JeollaNamdo food industry in 2012. In this study, the CCR and BBC models have been employed to analyze the decomposing cost efficiency-technical efficiency, allocative efficiency, and scale efficiency respectively. And the Spearman rank correlation and Wilcoxon signed rank test also have been employed to check the correlation and difference between the ranking orders based on the efficiency scores respectively. Results: For the CCR model, mean cost efficiency was found to be 0.084(0.54 for allocative efficiency and 0.19 for technical efficiency). For the BCC model, mean cost efficiency was found to be 0.252(0.453 for allocative efficiency and 0.564 for technical efficiency). Average scale efficiency was found to be 0.38. In analyzing the results, this study argues that the optimal way to improve cost efficiency is by reducing inputs proportionally and changing their combination. Conclusion: The efficiency scores of the two models show high correlation, whereas, the differences between them are also found to be significant. Hence, it should be cautious to select a suitable model when we do the research.

Cost and Profit Efficiency of Banks: Stochastic Frontier Analysis vs Data Envelopment Analysis

  • Baten, Md. Azizul;Kasim, Maznah Mat;Rahman, Md. Mafizur
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2015
  • This study compares the most widely used parametric and non-parametric techniques to measure cost and profit efficiency of banks, namely the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). We formulate the specification form of both stochastic cost and profit frontier models and constant return to scale Cost DEA and Profit DEA models and provide an empirical assessment of the cost and profit frontiers based on a panel dataset of National Commercial Banks (NCBs) and Private Banks (PBs) in Bangladesh over the 2001-2010 period. The cost inefficiency and profit efficiency are slightly higher for PBs than NCBs in case of both SFA and DEA. The coefficients of advance and off-balance sheet items are significant that positively influence the banks in stochastic cost frontier model while the advance, other earning assets, price of borrowed fund are significant and negative effects on the banks in stochastic profit frontier model. The average cost inefficiency and average profit efficiency are recorded with 16.3% and 91% respectively. The highest and lowest cost inefficiency are observed for Janata Bank and United Commercial Bank Limited whilst the highest and lowest profit efficiency are recorded for Eastern Bank Limited and Janata Bank respectively. The average technical and allocative efficiency are 68.8% and 35.9%, respectively in case of CRS cost-DEA model whereas they are 70.3% and 31.8% in case of CRS profit-DEA model. The average cost inefficiency is recorded 6.3% by SFA whereas it is 24.5% by DEA. The average profit efficiency is found 91% by SFA while it is 22.1% by DEA, and SFA method shows better bank efficiency than DEA.

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Does Omission of Pharmacy Cost Affect Cost-Efficiency Rankings in Medical Clinics? (약제비 제외가 의원의 진료비 효율성 순위에 영향을 미치는가?)

  • Kang, Hee-Chung;Hong, Jae-Seok
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.45-57
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    • 2010
  • Background : If different cost efficiency indexes were informed to the same clinic depending on the inclusion or exclusion of pharmacy cost, it may impair the reliability of provider-profiling system. This study aimed to investigate whether the omission of pharmacy cost affects cost-efficiency rankings in medical clinics. Methods : Data for ambulatory care cost at 23,112 medical clinics were collected from the claims database, which was constructed after review by the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) of Korea in April 2007. We calculated two types of cost efficiency indexes by inclusion or exclusion of pharmacy cost for a medical clinic. The agreement between the decile rankings of the two indexes was also assessed using the weighted kappa statistic of Landis and Koch. Results : When the cost efficiency index for total cost including pharmacy cost was compared with the index for total cost excluding it, the agreement between the two indexes was only 55%. The agreements between the two indexes were relatively low within specialties which have larger pharmacy volume of total cost and lower correlation between total cost with or without pharmacy cost included than the average level of all the specialties. Conclusion : These results suggest that the omission of pharmacy cost may result in contradictory outcomes that may be confusing to a medical institution and may impair the reliability of provider-profiling systems. It is very important to standardize profiling criteria for the reliability of provider profiling system.

A Study on the Control of Apartment House Design Factors considering Energy, Environment and Economical Efficiency (에너지, 환경 및 경제성을 통합 고려한 공동주택 설계요소 제어에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Doo-Sung;Do, Jin-Seok
    • KIEAE Journal
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.29-38
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    • 2012
  • The current building energy efficiency rating certification regulation on apartment houses evaluates only the saving rate of energy consumed during operation, i.e. use, of a building, but doesn't consider the energy consumptions and environmental load($CO_2$) emissions occurring during the whole lifetime of a building. So this study calculated the energy consumptions and environmental load emissions occurring during the whole lifetime of a building, selected reference schemes and alternative items by design variables to present a design draft considering energy efficiency and environmental performance, and evaluated the total cost by combining and calculating its direct cost(material and heating cost) and indirect cost(environmental cost), for an existing apartment house as an evaluation object. As a result of analysis, the change of heating cost by alternative items of design variables showed a 4~8% change rate compared to the reference scheme, and the material cost of design variable 7 showed a maximum 4.4 times change rate in the alternative plan 6 compared to the reference scheme. The environmental cost showed a similar change rate to the material cost change rate in general, but showed a similar environmental cost change rate to the heating cost change rate in case of design variables 4-1, 4-2, 7.

A Comparative Analysis of Actual Construction Cost According to Building Energy Efficiency Rating for Non-residential Building (비주거 건물의 건축물에너지효율 등급에 따른 공사비 비교)

  • Kim, Jin-Ho;Kim, Chang-Min;Jang, Hyang-In;Kim, Sun-Sook
    • 한국건축친환경설비학회 논문집
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.404-414
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    • 2017
  • A new building with total floor area of $3,000m^2$ or above, which public agency currently constructs, is required to obtain a building energy efficiency rating level 1 or better. Although construction cost is caused to increase as building energy efficiency increases, precise standards for construction cost according to each rating level are not established. Some studies presented a difference in construction cost according to rating, based on the estimated construction cost of single building. However, analysis of construction cost based on actual construction cost according to each rating level is still insufficient. Therefore, this study presents a difference in actual construction cost according to building energy efficiency rating for non-residential building. To this end, first, data on the actual construction cost of non-residential building obtaining level 1+, 1++ in main certification were collected through survey. Second, outliers were removed by Interquartile Ranges. Third, total construction costs according to building energy efficiency rating were comparatively analyzed. As a result, the analysis showed that level 1++ additionally needed approximately 37% of construction cost of office building, compared with level 1+, and the difference was statistically significant.

The Analysis of Contract-Foodservice Operational Efficiency using Data Envelopment Analysis and Efficiency-Profit Matrix (다점포 운영 푸드서비스 기업의 효율성 측정에 관한 연구 - DEA 및 효율, 수익 매트릭스 분석을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Tae-Hee;Park, Ju-Yeon
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.823-835
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    • 2010
  • The research aimed to measure the efficiency of using multi stores in a foodservice company using by DEA (data envelopment analysis) which is a new management science technique. The study also attempted to identify relevant variables affecting DEA efficiency in order to suggest methods for improving efficiency. The data were collected from 148 contract foodservice operations, which were operated in similar fashion in October 2009. The DEA efficiency was calculated as an output-oriented BCC Model. Sales, and CSI (customer satisfaction index) were used as output variables whereas food cost, labor cost, and management expense were used as input variables to calculate the DEA efficiency. Operation process variables of the unit consisted of the were consist of ratio of regular employee, ratio of housekeeper, meal counts, meal price, food cost per meal, contract period, number of menu items, forecasting accuracy, order accuracy, inventory turnover, use of processed food, deviation of food cost, number of new menus, and number of events. According to the BCC score and profitability, units were classified into four groups: High efficiency-high profitability (HEHP), High efficiency-low profitability (HELP), Low efficiency-high profitability (LEHP), and Low efficiency-low profitability (LELP). The HEHP group contained 54 units, which mostly contracted management fee type and had a high meal price. The units were also very large and, served three meals. Twenty of the units were operated with high labor cost: most of these were factories and hospitals. The LEHP group contained 20 units, that were mainly office stores of large scale and medium price. Fifty-four LELP group had a low meal price. A high performance group must have high efficiency, profitability, and satisfaction. The BCC score was over 0.969, the meal price was over 4,116 won, the food cost was over 2,077 won, and meal counts per month were over 10,212 meals.

An Analysis on Technical Efficiency of Apiculture Farming in Korea (양봉농가의 기술적 효율성 분석)

  • Yeo, Min-Su;Hong, Seung-Jee
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.509-514
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the technical efficiency and its determinants for Korean Apiculture farming by using from door to door and e-mail inquiry data. The analysis was implemented through the Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier production function (SFPF) model including the technical inefficiency effect model for cross-sectional data. To measure the SFPF model, honey production was used for a dependent variable, and for input variables labor cost, preventive cost, material cost, feeding cost, depreciation cost were used. Farmer's age, farmer's career, farming scale, full-time or half-time firm and movement or fixed firm variables were used to measure the inefficiency effect model. The average technical efficiency on apiculture farming in Korea is estimated to be 0.8112. It means that there were technical inefficiency of about 18.88% in Korea apiculture farming. In this study there are some suggestions which could increase the technical efficiency of Korean apiculture farming.

The cost efficiency analysis of Korean life insurance companies by data envelopment analysis

  • Kang, Jungchul
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.1523-1535
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    • 2015
  • We investigate the effect of introduction of the bancassurance system on cost efficiency in the Korean insurance industry between 1997 and 2012. Our estimation results indicate that introduction of this system contributed positively to efficiency of life insurance companies in Korea. Increase in a one standard deviation of bancassurance increases cost efficiency by 0.08 which is equivalent to 12 percent of mean cost efficiency. Recognising that the bancassurance system is a relatively new concept, our results indicate that the bancassurance system can be a policy measure to improve productivity in an emerging insurance market. The results illustrate that positive effects have accrued particularly to medium-sized companies and domestic companies, contrary to the prevailing perception that increased competition through bancassurance is more beneficial to large companies and foreign companies.

Study on the Effect of Product Line Pricing on Loading Efficiency and Logistics Cost (상품라인별 가격결정이 적재효율 및 물류비에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Sung-Tae;Yoon, Nam-Soo;Han, Kyu-Chul
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.12 no.8
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    • pp.55-69
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    • 2014
  • Purpose - Despite the importance of price, many companies do not implement pricing policies smoothly, because typical price management strategies insufficiently consider logistics efficiency and an increase in logistics costs due to logistics waste. This study attempts to examine the effect of product line pricing, which corresponds to product mix pricing, on logistics efficiency in the case of manufacturer A, and analyzes how logistics performance changes in response to these variables. Research design, data, and methodology - This study, based on the case of manufacturer A, involved research through understanding the current status, analyses, and then proposing improvement measures. Among all the products of manufacturer A, product group B was selected as the research object, and its distribution channel and line pricing were examined. As a result of simulation, for products with low loading efficiency, improvement measures such as changing the number of bags in the box were suggested, and a quantitative analysis was conducted on how these measures influence logistics costs. The TOPS program was used for the Pallet loading efficiency simulation tool in this study. To prevent products from protruding out of the pallet, the maximum measurement was set as 0.0mm, and loading efficiency was based on the pallet area, and not volume. In other words, its size (length x width) was focused upon, following the purpose of this study and, then, the results were obtained. Results - As a result of the loading efficiency simulation, when the number of bags in the box was changed for 36 products with low average loading efficiency of 73.7%, as shown in

    , loading efficiency improved to 89.9%. Further, from calculating logistics cost based on the cost calculation standard of manufacturer A, the amount of annual logistics cost reduction amounted to 101,458,084 KRW. Given that the sum of the logistics cost of the product group B of manufacturing enterprises A is 400,340,850 KRW, it can be reduced by 25%, to 298,882,766 KRW. Although many methods improve loading efficiency, this study proved that logistics cost could be reduced by changing the number of bags within boxes. If this measure is applied to other items, visible logistics cost reduction effects will be realized through improvements in loading efficiency. Conclusions - Future pricing policies should consider their correlation with quality, loading efficiency, product specifications, and logistics standardization to prevent logistics waste, enabling management to improve earnings for companies. Thus, when companies decide pricing policies for new products, the aspects of merchandising and marketing should take priority; however, the aspect of logistics also needs to be considered as significant. Measures revealed by the study results are not only the responsibilities of manufacturing enterprises. Pricing policy agreements between manufacturing enterprises and distribution companies, and logistics factors related to price determination should be considered; further, governments should also support them for their collaborations. This will enable consumers to purchase quality products with low prices.

  • Applying 40 Inventive Principles for the Efficiency Improvement of Solar Cells (태양전지의 효율 향상을 위한 40 발명원리의 적용에 관한 연구)

    • Jeong, Hai Sung
      • Journal of Applied Reliability
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      • v.14 no.4
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      • pp.256-261
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      • 2014
    • Solar cells are considered ideal as a clean energy to generate electricity. However, silicon-based photoelectric cells show some shortcomings in efficiency, cost and reliability. This has been a barrier to further commercialization. This paper shows how 40 Inventive Principles can be used in the research and development on the solar cells to improve efficiency, cost and reliability.