• Title, Summary, Keyword: Critical Pathway

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The Analysis of Studies about Critical Pathway in Domestic and Abroad - From 1995 to 1999 - (최근 5년간의 국내.외 표준 진료 지침서(Critical Pathway) 연구논문분석 - 1995~1999년 -)

  • Kim, Yong Soon;Park, Jee Won;Kim, Gi Yon
    • Quality Improvement in Health Care
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.156-167
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    • 2000
  • Background: Emphasis in healthcare during the 1990s has been to provide both optimal wellness and function with quality in a Cost-effective manner. Critical pathway was developed to meet the need to guide clients along the continunm of care and to achieve continuity of care. The purpose of this study is to review and analyze articles related to the critical pathway that had developed and applied in Korea and abroad from 1995 to 1999. Methods: Total 39 studies were analyzed in terms of group of application, need of development, horizontal axis: time frame, vertical axis : items of care, task force team, identification of preliminary critical pathway, validation of preliminary critical pathway, types of final critical pathway, a person who coordinates and effects on critical pathway. Results: In the aspect of group of application, there were various diseases in the overseas than in Korea. In domestic and overseas, the horizontal axis included mainly the time from the start of hospitalization to discharge and vertical axis of the critical pathway included commonly the following nine items : tests, diet, medications, consultations, activity, assessments, treatments, education, discharge planning. Preliminary critical pathway was mainly drawn up through chart review in both. Types of final critical pathway were mostly for medical team use in Korea and were for medical team and patient use in abroad. A person who coordinates critical pathway was mostly nurse in abroad. There was positive effects on critical pathway in both. Conclusion: Staff education and information about critical pathway are needed to use it effectively.

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Critical Pathway Development for the Hysterectomy Patients and its applied Effect (자궁적출술 환자를 위한 critical pathway 개발과 적용효과)

  • Noh, Gi-Ok;Park, Kyung-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.234-257
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    • 2000
  • At present in the medical care, the study and effort for producing health service to consider efficiency, effectiveness, and quality are urgently called for because of the difficulty in the keen competition according to the inter- nationalization and opening, the operation in the medical institution service testing system, the change in the medical policy of KDRGs, and the lack of the health care cost increasing rate. As an alternative, the case management for the new management system is introduced in the U.S., and the Critical Pathway that is the method designing the contents of activity and its result has been developed and applied in order to anticipate and manage the patient-outcome for the realization of the cost-effective case-management. Thus, this study intended to analyze the effectiveness to obtain by developing the Critical Pathway presented as the method to improve the quality-betterment and cost effectiveness through the continuous and consistent patient management for the hysterectomy patient and applying it to the real practice. As a study method, this author formed a conceptual framework through considering five Critical Pathway used in the current U.S. and three Critical Pathway presented in the literature to develop the Critical Pathway for the hysterectomy patient, and made out the preliminary Critical Pathway through reviewing the old chart. This author made the verified the validity of the expert group about the developed Critical Pathway, and to confirm the possibility of practice application, completed and settled the final Critical Pathway after using the Critical Pathway to the hysterectomy patient from March 1st to 15th, 1997. Finally, to analyze the application-effect of the developed Critical Pathway, this author offered health care service applying the Critical Pathway to the hysterectomy patient from April 15th to August 31th, 1997. The guide for the Critical Pathway was carried out in advance by outpatient setting nurse for outpatient setting visit before the operation, and after hospitalization the primary nurse monitored the execution degree on the every duty. After discharge this author surveyed the complication through phone visiting, and one month after discharge surveyed the patient's reaction about the offered service when outpatient setting visit and analyzed the result. The source for health care cost was obtained by the statistics about the hospital charge which was offered by the General Business Department. The results were as follows. 1. It was decided that the vertical line of the Critical Pathway was made up of eight items such as monitoring/assessment, treatment, line/drains, activity, medication, lab test, diet, patient teaching, and the horizontal line of the Critical Pathway was made up of from hospitalization to discharge. 2. After the analysis of service contents through reviewing the old chart, it was decided that the horizontal line of the preliminary Critical Pathway was made up of from hopitalization to fourth postoperative day, and the vertical line of it was divided into eight items which were the contents to occur with the time frame of the horizontal line. 3. After the verifying the validity of the expert group about the preliminary Critical Pathway, the horizontal line was amended from hopitalization to third postoperative day, and taking their consensus, some contents of the horizontal line was amended and deleted. 4. From March 1st to 15th, 1997, to confirm the clinical suitability, this author offered eight hysterectomy patients the medical service through the Critical Pathway. The result was that three of them could be discharged at the expected discharge day, and the others later than that day. Supplementing the preliminary Critical Pathway through analyzing the cause of that delay- case, this author developed the final Critical Pathway. 5. There were no significant differences between the experimental and the control group in the incidence of complication(P > 0.05). 6. The 92.4% of experimental group was satisfied with the Critical Pathway service. 7. The length of hospital stay of the experimental group offered with the Critical Pathway service was 4.6 days and there was a significant difference that it was 1.3 days shorter than that of the control group(t=-29.514, P=0.000). 8. There wsa a significant difference that the mean medical charge per one patient of the experimental group offered the Critical Pathway service was cheaper \124,150 than that of the control group(t=-9.826, P=0.000). 9. The result that the author assumed and analyzed hospital income with the rate of turning bed was assumed that the increase of hospital income was \63,245,072 for that study, and the income increase was expected with \68,704,864 for a year. The result that this author applied the Critical Pathway to the hysterectomy patient have no differences in the incidence of complication, high satisfaction with that service, and the length of hospital stay decreased in the experimental group, and the mean hospital charge per one patient decreased, but hospital income increased. Suggestions for further study and nursing practice are as follows. 1. The study to apply the Critical Pathway for a year, verify the validity, and measure the effect repeatedly is needed. 2. To apply and manage the Critical Pathway effectively, the study to computerize it is needed. 3. The study to develop hospital-based Critical Pathway about other diseases or procedure, and measure the effect is needed.

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Development of a Critical Pathway for Patients with Uterine Artery Embolization (자궁동맥색전술 환자를 위한 표준진료지침 개발)

  • Chung, Kyung-Hee;Ko, Young-Sook;Lim, Jeong-Ah
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.316-325
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a Critical Pathway for Uterine Artery Embolization patients. Method: There were 6 steps that were taken. Step 1 was selecting a diagnosis, and Step 2 was organizing a development team consisting of 7 experts. Step 3 analyzed the medical records, and Step 4 drew up a preliminary Critical Pathway. Step 5 tested the clinical validity of the preliminary Critical Pathway, and Step 6 developed the final Critical Pathway. Result: The contents of the medical practices observed in the medical records were investigated in seven areas: monitoring/assessment, treatment, medication, diet, activity, consults, and education/discharge plan; and a total of 73 items was identified. The validity of the 73 items was examined by a group of specialists. 68 items were adopted, 4 items revised, 1 item removed, and 1 item was added. Using the results, a preliminary Critical Pathway was drawn up. According to the results from examining the clinical validity of the preliminary Critical Pathway with five patients for five weeks, 3 items which showed discrepancy were revised and another 3 items were added. Then, the final Critical Pathway was completed. Conclusion: This Critical Pathway needs to be clinically applied and continuously to measure its effects in terms of the length of stay, cost.effectiveness, and the patients' and staffs' satisfaction.

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Development and Effectiveness of the Critical Pathway for Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Patients (복강경 담낭 절제술 환자의 표준관리지침 개발 및 적용 효과)

  • Jun, Seong-Sook;Park, Young-Ju
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.123-135
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    • 2002
  • Purpose: In this study, the critical pathway for laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients was developed and applied for clinical study. The effectiveness of the critical pathway was analyzed. Method: The subjects with no critical pathway services of this study were 30 laparoscopic cholecystectomy operation patients, who were hospitalized in B General Hospital in Busan from Nov. 28. 2000 to May 2. 2001. The subjects with critical pathway services of this study were 30 laparoscopic cholecystectomy operation patients, who were hospitalized in B General Hospital in Busan from June. 11. 2001 to Oct. 31. 2001. Results: 1. Development for critical pathway Preliminary critical pathway for the laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients was developed though analysis of the reference and 34 case of medical record. The items on the y-axis were assessment, test, treatment, diet, fluid, consult, medication, activity and education and the items on the x-axis were till 3days after operation. The developed critical pathway was applied in clinical field. 2. Effectiveness of application on developed critical pathwayPost operational complication was not found in neither the critical pathway using Group nor Non-using Group. Hospitalization period mean was 4.63 days for the using Group and 5.93 days for the Non-using Group(P=.001). The mean cost for medical examination and treatment for the using Group was 786,270 won, 117,454 won(12.9%) less than that of the Non-using Group, 903,724 won(P=.000). The degree of satisfaction for the using group was 3.7 points, for the Non-using Group, 3.15 points. The degree of satisfaction for the used Group was 0.55 points higher than that for the Non-using Group and there was a statistically significant difference(P=.000). Concousion: From results of this study, Using the critical pathway in the laparoscopic cholecystectomy operational patients was effective in decreasing the hospitalization period and cost, and increasing the satisfaction about the medical service.

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Development of a Flexible Critical Pathway with Electronic Medical Record for Gastrectomy Patients in a University Hospital (위 절제술 환자의 진료계획표 개발 및 전자 의무 기록화)

  • Bae, Myung Sun;Song, Jung Hup
    • Quality Improvement in Health Care
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.37-55
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    • 2012
  • Objectives : This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fixed critical pathway with emr (electronic medical record) on the length of hospital stay, the cost and quality of care provided to gastrectomy patients in a university hospital and to develop flexible critical pathway with emr which can be used excluded or drop-out patients. Methods : Thirty-eight patients with gastrectomy were included as case group and Thirty-four patients included as control group. The comparison between control and case with using fixed critical pathway were done. To develop and to evaluate usefulness of flexible critical pathway with flexible data base, simulation was done for flexible critical pathway with drop-out patients. Result : The major results of this study were as follows: There were no significant differences in patient clinical conditions and no sign of deterioration of quality from critical pathway. The length of hospital stay was 11 days in control group, 8 days in path group(P<0.01). The total costs during the hospital stay were reduced in path group. However the cost per day was significantly increased from reduction of hospital stay(554,352 won in control, 645,669 won in path group). One hundred percentage of drop out patients(60) in the simulation of flexible critical pathway was successful. Conclusion : Computerized critical pathway reduced the length of hospital stay, total hospital costs and resource utilization without harming quality of patient care. The flexible critical pathway program can be used as one of the powerful management tools for reducing the practice variations and increasing the efficiency of care process and decreasing the workload of doctors and nurses in Korean hospital settings.

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Development of a Critical Pathway for the Chemotherapy of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients and Its Effects (비소세포성 폐암 환자의 항암화학요법을 위한 Critical Pathway개발과 적용효과)

  • Choe, Ja-Yun;Jang, Geum-Seong;Choe, Eun-Yeong
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.85-95
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to develope a critical pathway for the chemotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer patients and to identify its effects after implementation. Critical pathway was developed through 5 steps including content and clinical validity tests with collaborative efforts of nurses, clinicians, and other allied healthcare professionals with the aim of improving the quality of patient care, while minimizing cost to the patients. This paper was described an evaluation of the impact of a developed critical pathway on complication rate, length of stay, costs, the interval of treatment and patient satisfaction by nonequivalent control group posttest-only non-synchronized research design.Results were compared between the two groups of patients. There were no significant differences in demographic variables and the occurrence of bone marrow suppression between experimental group and control group(t=-0.01, p=0.992). There were statistically significant decreases in the average length of stay(t=-10.45, p=0.000), in the average cost(t=-2.988, p=0.004), and in the interval of treatment(t=-6.75, p=0.000) after implementation of the critical pathway compared to control group. Also, there was a statistically significant improvement of the patient satisfaction after implementation of the critical pathway compared to control group(t=4.57, p=0.000). This paper concludes that critical pathway in chemotherapy for lung cancer, implemented in the context of an general hospital, is the useful tool to shorten the hospital stay, reduce treatment costs, and improve the quality of life in cancer patients. Further study needs to be conducted to identify other clinical outcomes including job satisfaction, collaboration among health professionals and potential for use in education. Also, it is recommended that nurses should revise continuously the developed critical pathway through clinical implementation and maintain their role of patient advocacy through monitoring pathway compliance.

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Development of a Critical Pathway of Bullectomy for Spontaneous Pneumothorax Patients (자연기흉으로 폐기포절제술을 받은 환자를 위한 표준진료지침서 개발)

  • Kim, Mi Kyoung;Yu, Seung Hum;Lee, Doo Yun;Son, Young Mo
    • Quality Improvement in Health Care
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.34-51
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    • 2002
  • Background : The purpose for this study is to develop a critical pathway of bullectomy for spontaneous pneumothorax patients. Methods : For this study a conceptual framework of critical pathway was developed through a review of the literature including five critical pathways which are currently being used in USA, and opinions of the critical pathway development team members at Y university hospital. In order to identify the service contents required by these patients and to draw up a preliminary critical pathway, 33 cases of medical records of patients who had received bullectomy for spontaneous pneumothorax between September, 2000 to August, 2001 at the Respiratory Center of Y university hospital in Seoul was analyzed. Results : In order to test the clinical validity of the preliminary critical pathway, it was applied to ten patients who had received bullectomy for spontaneous pneumothorax from October, 2001 to December, 2001. The average discharge day was 4.89th post operation day, six patients discharged on the fourth post operation day which was the expected day, one patients discharged one day earlier than the expected day, one patient discharged three days later than the expected day, and one patient discharged six days later than the expected day. There were variances between the critical pathway and the actual practice. The variances came from tests, medications, and treatments. One item that showed variance in clinical applications was complemented, and three items were decided not to be corrected for the final determination of the critical pathway. Conclusion : This critical pathway is applicable to the care of patients with bullectomy for spontaneous pneumothorax, but it needs more clinical applications to grasp varied variances.

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Development of a Critical Pathway for Patients with Lobectomy and Pneumonectomy (폐절제술 환자의 표준임상경로지(Critical Pathway) 개발)

  • Kim, So-Sun;Kim, In-Sook;Roh, Jeong-Sook
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.345-364
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: This is develop a critical pathway as an useful alternative to the previous management system in order to restriction of medical resources, high expectation of ordinary people to health and application for DRG. Method: In order to preliminary critical pathway, we analyzed 30 cases of medical records of patients who had lobectomy and pneumonectomy at the Yonsei Medical Center in Seoul. An expert validity test was taken for the preliminary critical pathway, and clinical validity test was also done. After these processes, the final critical pathway was developed. Result: Among 10 cases, one was excluded in this study due to the complication after operation. 7 of total 9 patients were discharged earlier than the expected day, 1 patient was just discharged at the expected day, and 1 patient was discharged 4 days later than the expected day at the 12th day after operation. Conclusion: The critical pathway is developed without difficulty because the posoperative management for patients with lobectomy and pneumonectomy is uncomplicated. Therefore, if it is more researched on the clinical application, then the activity of C.Q.I. will be able to sustain the patient oriented management system.

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The effect of Critical Pathway on the patients with Cesarean section (제왕절개술 환자에 대한 Critical Pathway 적용효과)

  • Chung, Kyung-Hee;Joo, Jeong-Lan;Chung, Hyeu-Sung
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.211-225
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    • 2000
  • With the drastically changing healthcare market, the adoption of DRG system and the use of Critical Pathway will be increased gradually in order to care hospitalized patients qualitatively and manage cost-effectively in Korea. The purpose of this quasi-experimental research is to apply and analyze the developed critical pathway to the patients with Cesarean section. 35 eligible subjects for the control group were chosen from postpartum patients who has delivered at H-hospital in Kwang-ju, and were questioned after appling previous care plan from May to December, 1998. For the experimental group, 37 subjects were chosen and questioned after applying Critical Pathway service from January to June, 1999. The instruments are a critical pathway for the patients with Cesarean section developed by chung(1998) and a questionnaire that evaluate patients and family members' satisfaction level. Also, educational materials were used to inform them in the process of Critical Pathway application. As a result of chi-square test on general characteristics, there is significant difference between control group and experimental group only in terms of room size(p= .010). There are no significant differences in the average length of stay in the hospital between control group and experimental group(t=.078). Also, the average medical consult fee has no difference significantly between two groups(t= .105). The findings showed that the experimental group with critical pathway service scored significantly higher than control group on the satisfaction level toward care services(p=.000). The items are post-operative care, postpartum exercise technique, breast feeding and breast manage through educational materials. In conclusion, the research indicates that the application of planned Critical Pathway can have a positive impact on satisfaction level of inpatients with Cesarian section.

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Development of a Critical Pathway for Patients with Lumbar Laminectomy (요추척추궁 절제술 환자의 표준관리지침서 개발)

  • Park, Jae Jung;Park, Hyoung Sook
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.517-532
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to develop a critical pathway for case management of patients who have received Lumbar Laminectomy because of low back pain, arm and leg numbness, and radiating pain in the leg. For this study, a preliminary critical pathway was developed through a review of the literature including five critical pathways which are currently being used in the USA. In order to identify the overall service contents required by these patients, 30 cases were analyzed. These cases were taken from medical records of those with Lumbar Laminectomy between January, 1998 and December, 1998 in the department of neurosurgery at the Pusan National University Hospital in Pusan. An expert validity test was done for the preliminary critical pathway, a clinical validity test was also done using 12 patients with Lumbar Laminectomy between October 1, 1999 and January 31, 2000. After these processes, the final critical pathway was developed. The results are summarized as follows. 1. The vertical axis of the critical pathway includes the following eight items: assessment, consultation, diet, test, medication, treatment, activity, education/ discharge planning. The horizontal axis includes the time from the start of hospitalization to discharge. Analysis of the 30 medical records was done. analysis of the service contents showed the horizontal axis of the preliminary critical pathway was set from hospitalization to the 12th post operation day and the vertical axis was set to include eight items, the contents which should have occurred, according to the time frames of the horizontal axis. 2. As a result of the expert validity test, it was found that among the 233 items, 203 showed over 88% agreement and 30 of them showed less than 88% agreement, which were then revised or deleted from the critical pathway. At the preliminary meeting for the clinical validity test, the time of hospitalization on the horizontal axis was shortened to the 10th post operation day. A clinical validity test was done with 12 patients with Lumbar Laminectomy. All the cases progressed according to the critical pathway although some variances were noted in assessment, consultation, test, medication, and treatment. 3. Based on these results, a final critical pathway was determined. In conclusion, this critical pathway is partially applicable to the care of patients with Lumbar Laminectomy and needs further investigation.

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