• Title, Summary, Keyword: Critical pressure

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Heat Transfer Characteristics of an Internally-Heated Annulus Cooled with R-134a Near the Critical Pressure

  • Hong, Sung-Deok;Chun, Se-Young;Kim, Se-Yun;Baek, Won-Pil
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.403-414
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    • 2004
  • An experimental study of heat transfer characteristics near the critical pressure has been performed with an internally-heated vertical annular channel cooled by R-134a fluid. Two series of tests have been completed: (a) steady-state critical heat flux (CHF) tests, and (b) heat transfer tests for pressure reduction transients through the critical pressure. In the present experimental range, the steady-state CHF decreases with increase of the system pressure for fixed inlet mass flux and subcooling. The CHF falls sharply at about 3.8 MPa and shows a trend towards converging to zero as the pressure approaches the critical point of 4.059 MPa. The CHF phenomenon near the critical pressure does not lead to an abrupt temperature rise of the heated wall, because the CHF occurs at remarkably low power levels. In the pressure reduction transients, as soon as the pressure passes below the critical pressure from the supercritical pressure, the wall temperatures rise rapidly up to very high values due to the departure from nucleate boiling. The wall temperature reaches a maximum at the saturation point of the outlet temperature, and then tends to decrease gradually.

Heat Transfer Characteristics of an Annulus Channel Cooled with R-134a Fluid near the Critical Pressure (임계압력 근처에서의 환형관 채널에 대한 열전달 특성 연구)

  • Hong, Sung-Deok;Chun, Se-Young;Kim, Se-Yun;Baek, Won-Pil
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.2094-2099
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    • 2004
  • An experimental study on heat transfer characteristics near the critical pressure has been performed with an internally-heated vertical annular channel cooled by R-134a fluid. Two series of tests have been completed: (a) steady-state critical heat flux (CHF) and (b) heat transfer tests for pressure reduction transients through the critical pressure. In the present experimental range, the steady-state CHF decreases with the increase of the system pressure For a fixed inlet mass flux and subcooling, the CHF falls sharply at about 3.8 MPa and shows a trend toward converging to zero as the pressure approaches the critical point of 4.059 MPa. The CHF phenomenon near the critical pressure does not lead to an abrupt temperature rise of the heated wall because the CHF occurred at remarkably low power levels. In the pressure reduction transient experiments, as soon as the pressure passed through the critical pressure, the wall temperatures rise rapidly up to a very high value due to the occurrence of the departure from nucleate boiling. The wall temperature reaches a maximum at the saturation point of the outlet temperature, then tends to decrease gradually.

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The Influence of the Diffuser Divergence Angle on the Critical Pressure of a Critical Nozzle (디퓨저 확대각이 임계노즐의 임계압력비에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim Jae Hyung;Kim Heuy Dong;Park Kyung Am
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.131-134
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    • 2002
  • Compressible gas flow through a convergent-divergent nozzle is choked at the nozzle throat under a certain critical pressure ratio, and then being no longer dependent on the pressure change in the downstream flow field. In practical, the flow field at the divergent part of the critical nozzle can affect the effective critical pressure ratio. In order to investigate details of flow field through a critical nozzle, the present study solves the axisymmetric, compressible, Wavier-Stokes equations. The diameter of the nozzle throat is D=8.26mm and the half angle of the diffuser is changed between $2^{\circ}\;and\;10^{\circ}$ Computational results are compared with the previous experimental ones. The results obtained show that the divergence angle is significantly influences the critical pressure ratio and the present computations predict the experimented discharge coefficient and critical pressure ratio with a good accuracy. It is also found that a nozzle with the half angle of $4^{\circ}$ nearly predicts the theoretical critical pressure ratio.

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Evaluation of Critical Pressure Ratios Sonic Nozzle at Low Reynolds Numbers (음속 노즐의 임계 압력비에 대한 저 레이놀즈수의 영향)

  • Choe, Yong-Mun;Park, Gyeong-Am;Cha, Ji-Seon;Choe, Hae-Man;Yun, Bok-Hyeon
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.24 no.11
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    • pp.1535-1539
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    • 2000
  • A sonic nozzle is used as a reference flow meter in the area of gas flow rate measurement. The critical pressure ratio of sonic nozzle is an important factor in maintaining its operating condition. ISO9300 suggested the critical pressure ratio of sonic nozzle as a function of area ratio. In this study, 13 sonic nozzles were made by the design of ISC9300 with different half diffuser angles of 2。 to 8。 and throat diameters of 0.28 to 4.48 mm. The test results of half diffuser angles below 8。 ar quite similar to those of ISO9300. On the other hand, the critical pressure ratio for the nozzle of 8。 decreases by 5.5% in comparison with ISO9300. However, ISO9300 does not predict the critical pressure ratio at lower Reynolds numbers than 10(sup)5. Therefore, it is found that it is a better way for the flow of low Reynolds number to express the critical pressure ratio of sonic nozzle as a function of Reynolds number than area ratios. A correlation equation of critical pressure is introduced with uncertainty $\pm$3.2 % at 95% confidence level.

Effect of Control Valve Flow Rates Characteristics on the Performance of an Air Spring (제어밸브의 유량특성에 따른 에어스프링의 성능 변화)

  • Han, Seung Hun;Jang, Ji Seong;Ji, Sang Won
    • Journal of Drive and Control
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.8-14
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    • 2016
  • This study describes the effect of the critical pressure ratio of a control valve on the performance of an air spring system composed of an air spring, auxiliary chamber, control valve and mass in order to suggest a more efficient design for an air spring system. The critical pressure ratio of the control valve is assumed to have a fixed value, but the critical pressure ratio of the control valve is known to have various values between 0.05 and 0.6, and the effect of the variation of the critical pressure ratio on the performance of the air spring system has not yet been reported. The analysis derives nonlinear and linear governing equations of the air spring system, including the critical pressure ratio of the control valve. This simulation study is presented to show that the impedance and transmissibility characteristics of the air spring system change due to variations in the critical pressure ratio of the control valve as well as its sonic conductance. As a result, the critical pressure ratio of the control valve should be maintained as large as possible to improve the vibration isolation characteristics of the air spring system.

A Study on the Choke Phenomenon of Unsteady Gas Flow through a Critical Nozzle (임계노즐을 통한 비정상 기체유동의 초크현상에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jae-Hyung;Kim, Heuy-Dong;Park, Kyung-Am
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.2127-2132
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    • 2003
  • A computational study is performed to better understand the choke phenomenon of unsteady gas flow through a critical nozzle. The axisymmetric, unsteady, compressible, Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a finite volume method. In order to simulate the effects of back pressure fluctuations on the critical nozzle flow, a forced sinusoidal pressure wave is assumed downstream the exit of the critical nozzle. It's frequency is 20kHz and amplitude is varied below 15% of time-mean back pressure. The results obtained show that for low Reynolds numbers, the unsteady effects of the pressure fluctuations can propagate upstream of the throat of critical nozzle, and thereby giving rise to applicable fluctuations of mass flow through the critical nozzle. The effect of the amplitude of the excited pressure fluctuations on the choke phenomenon is discussed in details.

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Study on critical buckling load calculation method of piles considering passive and active earth pressure

  • Chen, Yong-Hui;Chen, Long;Xu, Kai;Liu, Lin;Ng, Charles W.W.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.367-382
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    • 2013
  • Different types of long slender pile shall buckle with weak soil and liquefied stratum surrounded. Different from considering single side earth pressure, it was suggested that the lateral earth pressure can be divided into two categories while buckling: the earth pressure that prevent and promotes the lateral movement. Active and passive earth pressure calculation model was proposed supposing earth pressure changed linearly with displacement considering overlying load, shaft resistance, earth pressure at both sides of the pile. Critical buckling load calculation method was proposed based on the principle of minimum potential energy quoting the earth pressure calculation model. The calculation result was contrasted with the field test result of small diameter TC pile (Plastic Tube Cast-in-place pile). The fix form could be fixed-hinged in the actual calculation assuring the accuracy and certain safety factor. The contributions of pile fix form depend on the pile length for the same geological conditions. There exists critical friction value in specific geological conditions that the side friction has larger impact on the critical buckling load while it is less than the value and has less impact with larger value. The buckling load was not simply changed linearly with friction. The buckling load decreases with increased limit active displacement and the load tend to be constant with larger active displacement value; the critical buckling load will be the same for different fix form for the small values.

Flame Spread Mechanism of a Blended Fuel Droplet Array at Supercritical Pressure

  • Iwahashi, Takeshi;Kobayashi, Hideaki;Niioka, Takashi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Combustion
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 2002
  • Flame spread experiments of a fuel droplet array were performed using a microgravity environment. N-decane, 1-octadecene, and the blends (50% : 50% vol.) of these fuels were used and the experiments were conducted at pressures up to 5.0 MPa, which are over the critical pressure of these fuels. Observations of the flame spread phenomenon were conducted for OH radical emission images recorded using a high-speed video camera. The flame spread rates were calculated based on the time history of the spreading forehead of the OH emission images. The flame spread rate of the n-decane droplet-array decreased with pressure and had its minimum at a pressure around half of the critical pressure and then increased again with pressure. It had its maximum at a pressure over the critical pressure and then decreased gradually. The pressure dependence of flame spread rate of 1-octadecene were similar to those of n-decan, but the magnitude of the spread rate was much smaller than that of n-decane. The variation of the flame spread for the blended fuel was similar to that of n-decane in the pressure range from atmospheric pressure to near the critical pressure of the blended fuel. When the pressure increased further, it approached to that of 1-octadecene. Numerically estimated gas-liquid equilibrium states proved that almost all the fuel gas which evaporated from the droplet at ordinary pressure consisted of n-decane whereas near and over the critical pressure, the composition of the fuel gas was almost the same as that of the liquid phase, so that the effects of 1-octadecene on the flame spread rate was significant.

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The dynamic stability of a nonhomogeneous orthotropic elastic truncated conical shell under a time dependent external pressure

  • Sofiyev, A.H.;Aksogan, O.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.329-343
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    • 2002
  • In this research, the dynamic stability of an orthotropic elastic conical shell, with elasticity moduli and density varying in the thickness direction, subject to a uniform external pressure which is a power function of time, has been studied. After giving the fundamental relations, the dynamic stability and compatibility equations of a nonhomogeneous elastic orthotropic conical shell, subject to a uniform external pressure, have been derived. Applying Galerkin's method, these equations have been transformed to a pair of time dependent differential equations with variable coefficients. These differential equations are solved using the method given by Sachenkov and Baktieva (1978). Thus, general formulas have been obtained for the dynamic and static critical external pressures and the pertinent wave numbers, critical time, critical pressure impulse and dynamic factor. Finally, carrying out some computations, the effects of the nonhomogeneity, the loading speed, the variation of the semi-vertex angle and the power of time in the external pressure expression on the critical parameters have been studied.

Numerical Study on Reverse Flow Charcteristics in an Axial Compressor Cascade (축류압축기 익렬에서의 역류 유동 특성에 대한 수치적 연구)

  • Sohn, Chang-Hyun;Longley, John Peter
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.615-622
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    • 2000
  • Numerical simulation is performed with Denton's code to get pressure loss coefficients in wide range of reverse flow incidence(from -90 degree to +85 degree) for an axial compressor cascade. As a results, it is found that the pressure loss coefficient is increased with incidence and there exist critical incidence which corresponds to the maximum pressure loss coefficient. Pressure loss coefficient with bigger incidence than its critical value is decreased. The effect of increasing incidence in a cascade extremely reduce the mass flow rate by the large flow separation region. Consequently this effect reduce the portion of dynamic pressure in the total pressure loss and beyond the critical incidence the pressure loss coefficient decrease.