• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cutaneous meridian

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Sustantial Observation on Foot Taeyang Meridian Muscle in Human Lower Limb from a Anatomical Viewpoint

  • Park, Kyoung-Sik
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.21-29
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    • 2009
  • Objective : This study was carried to identify the anatomical component of FTMM(Foot Taeyang Meridian Muscle) in human lower limb, and further to help the accurate application to real acupuncture. Methods : FTM at the surface of the lower limb was labelled with latex. And cadaver was stripped off to demonstrate muscles, nerves and the others and to display the internal structures of FTMM, being divided into outer, middle, and inner layer. Results : FTMM in human lower limb is composed of muscles, nerves, ligaments etc. The internal composition of the FTMM in human lower limb are as follows : 1) Muscle : Gluteus maximus. biceps femoris, semitendinosus, gastrocnemius, triceps calf, fibularis brevis tendon, superior peroneal retinacula, calcaneofibular ligament, inferior extensor retinaculum, abductor digiti minimi, sheath of flexor tendon at outer layer, biceps femoris, semimembranosus, plantaris, soleus, posterior tibialis, fibularis brevis, extensor digitorum brevis, flexor digiti minimi at middle layer, and for the last time semimembranosus, adductor magnus, plantaris, popliteus, posterior tibialis, flexor hallucis longus, dorsal calcaneocuboidal ligament at inner layer. 2) Nerve : Inferior cluneal nerve, posterior femoral cutaneous n., sural cutaneous n., proper plantar branch of lateral plantar n. at outer layer, sciatic nerve, common peroneal n., medial sural cutaneous n., tibial n. at middle layer, and for the last time tibial nerve, flexor hallucis longus branch of tibial n. at inner layer. Conclusions : This study proves comparative differences from already established studies from the viewpoint of constituent elements of FTMM in the lower limb, and also in the aspect of substantial assay method. We can guess that there are conceptional differences between terms (that is, nerves which control muscles of FTMM and those which pass near by FTMM) in human anatomy.

Effect of Glycyrrhizae Radix Pharmacopuncture on PCA and Secretion of ${\beta}$-Hexosaminidase and Cytokines in RBL-2H3 Cells (감초약침(藥鍼)이 PCA반응과 비만세포의 ${\beta}$-Hexosaminidase 및 Cytokine 분비에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Hang-Do;Song, Choon-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.73-83
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate anti-allergic effects of Glycyrrhizae Radix(GR) pharmacopuncture and GR extract. Methods : In vivo, animals were gotten GR pharmacopunctures at both sides of ST36s three times for 5 days. Then, we investigated anti-DNP IgE-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis of Sprague Dawley rats. In vitro, we measured cell viability, ${\beta}$-hexosaminidase release, and the secretion of interleukin-4(IL-4) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-${\alpha}$) in RBL-2H3 cells after treatment of various concentrations of GR extract. Results : In vivo, we observed inhibition of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis after GR pharmacopuncture treatments at both sides of ST36s and optional points. In vitro, GR extract treatments did not affect cell viability, but inhibited ${\beta}$-hexosaminidase release and the secretion of IL-4 and TNF-${\alpha}$. Conclusions : These results suggest that GR pharmacopuncture and GR extract should be beneficial in the inhibition of allergic inflammatory response.

Anatomical study on The Arm Greater Yang Small Intestine Meridian Muscle in Human (수태양소장경근(手太陽小腸經筋)의 해부학적(解剖學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Park, Kyoung-Sik
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.57-64
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried to identify the component of Small Intestine Meridian Muscle in human, dividing the regional muscle group into outer, middle, and inner layer. the inner part of body surface were opened widely to demonstrate muscles, nerve, blood vessels and the others, displaying the inner structure of Small Intestine Meridian Muscle. We obtained the results as follows; 1. Small Intestine Meridian Muscle is composed of the muscle, nerve and blood vessels. 2. In human anatomy, it is present the difference between a term of nerve or blood vessels which control the muscle of Meridian Muscle and those which pass near by Meridian Muscle. 3. The inner composition of meridian muscle in human arm is as follows ; 1) Muscle ; Abd. digiti minimi muscle(SI-2, 3, 4), pisometacarpal lig.(SI-4), ext. retinaculum. ext. carpi ulnaris m. tendon.(SI-5, 6), ulnar collateral lig.(SI-5), ext. digiti minimi m. tendon(SI-6), ext. carpi ulnaris(SI-7), triceps brachii(SI-9), teres major(SI-9), deltoid(SI-10), infraspinatus(SI-10, 11), trapezius(Sl-12, 13, 14, 15), supraspinatus(SI-12, 13), lesser rhomboid(SI-14), erector spinae(SI-14, 15), levator scapular(SI-15), sternocleidomastoid(SI-16, 17), splenius capitis(SI-16), semispinalis capitis(SI-16), digasuicus(SI-17), zygomaticus major(Il-18), masseter(SI-18), auriculoris anterior(SI-19) 2) Nerve ; Dorsal branch of ulnar nerve(SI-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), br. of mod. antebrachial cutaneous n.(SI-6, 7), br. of post. antebrachial cutaneous n.(SI-6,7), br. of radial n.(SI-7), ulnar n.(SI-8), br. of axillary n.(SI-9), radial n.(SI-9), subscapular n. br.(SI-9), cutaneous n. br. from C7, 8(SI-10, 14), suprascapular n.(SI-10, 11, 12, 13), intercostal n. br. from T2(SI-11), lat. supraclavicular n. br.(SI-12), intercostal n. br. from C8, T1(SI-12), accessory n. br.(SI-12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17), intercostal n. br. from T1,2(SI-13), dorsal scapular n.(SI-14, 15), cutaneous n. br. from C6, C7(SI-15), transverse cervical n.(SI-16), lesser occipital n. & great auricular n. from cervical plexus(SI-16), cervical n. from C2,3(SI-16), fascial n. br.(SI-17), great auricular n. br.(SI-17), cervical n. br. from C2(SI-17), vagus n.(SI-17),hypoglossal n.(SI-17), glossopharyngeal n.(SI-17), sympathetic trunk(SI-17), zygomatic br. of fascial n.(SI-18), maxillary n. br.(SI-18), auriculotemporal n.(SI-19), temporal br. of fascial n.(SI-19) 3) Blood vessels ; Dorsal digital vein.(SI-1), dorsal br. of proper palmar digital artery(SI-1), br. of dorsal metacarpal a. & v.(SI-2, 3, 4), dorsal carpal br. of ulnar a.(SI-4, 5), post. interosseous a. br.(SI-6,7), post. ulnar recurrent a.(SI-8), circuirflex scapular a.(SI-9, 11) , post. circumflex humeral a. br.(SI-10), suprascapular a.(SI-10, 11, 12, 13), first intercostal a. br.(SI-12, 14), transverse cervical a. br.(SI-12,13,14,15), second intercostal a. br.(SI-13), dorsal scapular a. br.(SI-13, 14, 15), ext. jugular v.(SI-16, 17), occipital a. br.(SI-16), Ext. jugular v. br.(SI-17), post. auricular a.(SI-17), int. jugular v.(SI-17), int. carotid a.(SI-17), transverse fascial a. & v.(SI-18),maxillary a. br.(SI-18), superficial temporal a. & v.(SI-19).

Effect of scutellariae radix pharmacopuncture on the type 1 hypersensitivity (황금약침(黃芩藥鍼)이 Type 1 Hypersensitivity에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yu-Seung;Song, Choon-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.111-122
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    • 2006
  • Objectives : We studied the effects of Scutellariae Radix pharmacopuncture solution (SRHAS) on the type 1 hypersensitivity. Methods : In vivo, we measured compound 48/80-induced active systemic anaphylactic shock using ICR mice and anti-DNP IgE-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) using Sprague Dawley rats. In vitro, we showed effects on cytotoxicity and ${\beta}-hexosaminidase$ release from RBL-2H3 cells. Results : In vivo, SRHAS pretreatments (100% or 50%) at BL13 inhibited active systemic anaphylactic shock induced by compound 48/80. PCA was only inhibited by pretreatments of SRHAS at optional points. In vitro, $0.1{\sim}2%$ SRHAS treatments did not affect cell viability while ${\beta}$-hexosaminidase release was significantly inhibited. Conclusions : These results suggest that SRHAS may be beneficial in the inhibition of type I hypersensitive inflammatory response.

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Anatomical Observation on Components Related to Foot Gworeum Meridian Muscle in Human

  • Park, Kyoung-Sik
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: This study was carried out to observe the foot gworeum meridian muscle from a viewpoint of human anatomy on the assumption that the meridian muscle system is basically matched to the meridian vessel system as a part of the meridian system, and further to support the accurate application of acupuncture in clinical practice. Methods: Meridian points corresponding to the foot gworeum meridian muscle at the body surface were labeled with latex, being based on Korean standard acupuncture point locations. In order to expose components related to the foot gworeum meridian muscle, the cadaver was then dissected, being respectively divided into superficial, middle, and deep layers while entering more deeply. Results: Anatomical components related to the foot gworeum meridian muscle in human are composed of muscles, fascia, ligament, nerves, etc. The anatomical components of the foot gworeum meridian muscle in cadaver are as follows: 1. Muscle: Dorsal pedis fascia, crural fascia, flexor digitorum (digit.) longus muscle (m.), soleus m., sartorius m., adductor longus m., and external abdominal oblique m. aponeurosis at the superficial layer, dorsal interosseous m. tendon (tend.), extensor (ext.) hallucis brevis m. tend., ext. hallucis longus m. tend., tibialis anterior m. tend., flexor digit. longus m., and internal abdominal oblique m. at the middle layer, and finally posterior tibialis m., gracilis m. tend., semitendinosus m. tend., semimembranosus m. tend., gastrocnemius m., adductor magnus m. tend., vastus medialis m., adductor brevis m., and intercostal m. at the deep layer. 2. Nerve: Dorsal digital branch (br.) of the deep peroneal nerve (n.), dorsal br. of the proper plantar digital n., medial br. of the deep peroneal n., saphenous n., infrapatellar br. of the saphenous n., cutaneous (cut.) br. of the obturator n., femoral br. of the genitofemoral n., anterior (ant.) cut. br. of the femoral n., ant. cut. br. of the iliohypogastric n., lateral cut. br. of the intercostal n. (T11), and lateral cut. br. of the intercostal n. (T6) at the superficial layer, saphenous n., ant. division of the obturator n., post. division of the obturator n., obturator n., ant. cut. br. of the intercostal n. (T11), and ant. cut. br. of the intercostal n. (T6) at the middle layer, and finally tibialis n. and articular br. of tibial n. at the deep layer. Conclusion: The meridian muscle system seemed to be closely matched to the meridian vessel system as a part of the meridian system. This study shows comparative differences from established studies on anatomical components related to the foot gworeum meridian muscle, and also from the methodical aspect of the analytic process. In addition, the human foot gworeum meridian muscle is composed of the proper muscles, and also may include the relevant nerves, but it is as questionable as ever, and we can guess that there are somewhat conceptual differences between terms (that is, nerves which control muscles in the foot gworeum meridian muscle and those which pass nearby) in human anatomy.

Effect of Radix Asteris Herbal Acupuncture at $BL_{13}$ on the Type I Hypersensitivity (자울약침액(紫菀藥鍼液)의 폐유(肺兪) 처치(處置)가 Type I Hypersensitivity에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Hyuk-Sang;Song, Choon-Ho
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.167-175
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    • 2006
  • Objectives : We studied the effects of Radix Asteris herbal acupuncture solution (RAHAS) on the type I hypersensitivity. Methods : In vivo, we measured compound 48/80 induced active systemic anaphylactic shock, anti-DNP IgE induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) and acetic acid induced microvascular permeability using ICR mice. In vitro, we showed effects on cytotoxicity and ${\beta}$-hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 cells. Results : In vivo, RAHAS pretreatments at $BL_{13}$ and optional points inhibited active systemic anaphylactic shock induced by compound 48/80 and microvascular permeability increased by acetic acid. PCA was only inhibited by RAHAS pretreatments at $BL_{13}$. In vitro, RAHAS treatments inhibited ${\beta}$-hexosaminidase release. Conclusion : These results suggest that RAHAS may be beneficial in the prevention of type I hypersensitive inflammatory response.

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A Literatural Study on the Evidence of Using Thermotherapy of Cutaneous and Muscle Meridian in Korean Medicine - Focusing on 『Dongeuibokam』 (동의보감에서 한방 물리요법 중 경피경근 온열요법의 사용 근거에 대한 고찰)

  • Hwang, Eui-Hyoung;Shin, Byung-Cheul;Shin, Mi-Suk;Sul, Jae-Uk
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.57-61
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : The purpose of this paper is to establish theoretical bases upon which to complement the clinical evidence in representative literature "Dongeuibokam(東醫寶鑑)" of Korean medicine. Methods: We searched applicable paragraphs about thermotherapy in "Dongeuibokam(東醫寶鑑)" and defined them as historical and theoretical bases of thermotherapy in Korean medicine. Results : Three paragraphs about thermotherapy are in "Yehyung(外形篇)" and "Jabbyung(雜病篇)" of "Dongeuibokam(東醫寶鑑)". These records to treat the disease of the internal organs and meridian are enough to explain historical and theoretical evidences. Conclusions : Although only three paragraphs are associated with thermotherapy, they mean that thermotherapy has been explained under the system of Korean medicine. It is necessary for more literatural study and clinical trials to be carried out to secure the evidence of physical therapies in Korean medicine.

Study on anti-allergic effects of Arctii Fructus herbal acupuncture (우방자약침(牛蒡子藥鍼)의 항(抗)알러지 효과(效果)에 대한 연구(硏究))

  • Jang, Seok-Chang;Song, Choon-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.197-211
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : We studied on anti-allergic effects of Arctii Fructus Herbal Acupuncture(AFHA) and Arctii Fructus Herbal Acupuncture Solution(AF). Methods : In vivo, Animals were herbal-acupunctured AFHA at both ST36 three times for 5 days. Then, we investigated compound 48/80-induced active systemic anaphylaxis(ASA) using ICR mice and anti-DNP IgE-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis(PCA) using Sprague Dawley rat. In vitro, we measured cell viability, b-hexosaminidase, IL-4 and TNF-a release from RBL-2H3 cells after treatment of AF of various concentrations. Results : In vivo, AFHA pretreatments at both ST36 inhibited compound 48/80-induced ASA. PCA was inhibited by AFHA pretreatments at both ST36. In vitro, AF treatments were not affect on cell viability and inhibited b-hexosaminidase, IL-4 and TNF-a release. Conclusions : These results suggest that AFHA and AF may be beneficial in the inhibition of allergic inflammatory response.

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ffect of Semen Perillae herbal acupuncture on the type 1 hypersensitivity (소자약침(蘇子藥鍼)이 Type 1 Hypersensitivity에 미치는 영향)

  • Song, Se-Hoon;Song, Choon-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.213-227
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : We studied on anti-allergic effects of Semen Perillae Herbal Acupuncture(SPHA) and Semen Perillae Herbal Acupuncture Solution(SP). Methods : In vivo, Animals were herbal-acupunctured SPHA at both ST36 three times for 5 days. Then, we investigated compound 48/80-induced active systemic anaphylaxis (ASA) using ICR mice and anti-DNP IgE-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) using Sprague Dawley rat. In vitro, we measured cell viability, b-hexosaminidase release, IL-4 and TNF-a from RBL-2H3 cells after treatment of SP of various concentrations. Results : In vivo, SPHA pretreatments at both ST36 inhibited compound 48/80-induced ASA. PCA was inhibited by SPHA pretreatments at both ST36 and optional points. In vitro, SP treatments were not affect on cell viability and inhibited b-hexosaminidase release, IL-4 and TNF-a. Conclusions : These results suggest that SPHA and SP may be beneficial in the inhibition of allergic inflammatory response.

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Wound Healing Activity of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) in Rats

  • Han, Dong-Oh;Kim, Hee-Young;Lee, Hye-Jung;Shim, In-Sop;Hahm, Dae-Hyun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.1661-1669
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    • 2007
  • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid. It is well known for its role as an inhibitory neurotransmitter of developing and operating nervous systems in brains. In this study, a novel function of GABA in the healing process of cutaneous wounds was presented regarding anti-inflammation and fibroblast cell proliferation. The cell proliferation activity of GABA was verified through an MTT assay using murine fibroblast NIH3T3 cells. It was observed that GABA significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of iNOS, IL-$1{\beta}$, and TNF-${\alpha}$ in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. To evaluate in vivo activity of GABA in wound healing, excisional open wounds were made on the dorsal sides of Sprague-Dawley rats under anesthesia, and the healing of the wounds was apparently assessed. The molecular aspects of the healing process were also investigated by hematoxylineosin staining of the healed skin, displaying the degrees of re-epithelialization and linear alignment of the granulation tissue, and immunostaining and RT-PCR analyses of fibroblast growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor, implying extracellular matrix synthesis and remodeling of the skin. The GABA treatment was effective to accelerate the healing process by suppressing inflammation and stimulating re-epithelialization, compared with the epidermal growth factor treatment. The healing effect of GABA was remarkable at the early stage of wound healing, which resulted in significant reduction of the whole healing period.