• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cyanobacteria

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Characteristics of Cyanobacteria and Odorous Compounds Production in Lake Uiam and Lower Gonji Stream (의암호와 공지천 하류에서 남조류와 냄새물질의 발생 특징)

  • Youn, Seok Jea;Im, Jong Kwon;Byeon, Myeong-Seop;Yu, Soon Ju
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.99-104
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    • 2019
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the biomass of cyanobacteria and the concentration of 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) in the lower Gongji stream. The investigation was done using a field study that was conducted from 2015 to 2017. The 2-MIB concentration in the lower Gongji stream ranged from 0 to 153 ng/L, while the upper stream had 0 2-MIB concentration. 3 genera (Oscillatoria, Phormidium, Pseudanabaena) of cyanobacteria were detected in the lower Gongji stream with 2-MIB concentration. Among these 3 genera, an increase in Phormidium, Pseudanabaena biomass was associated with an increase in 2-MIB concentration. Accordingly, Phormidium, Pseudanabaena were regarded as the biological source of 2-MIB in that area. In October 2017, although planktonic cyanobacteria occurred less frequently, many benthic cyanobacteria mats were observed on the surface of the water body. Therefore, the high 2-MIB concentration, which exceeded 110 ng/L, can likely be attributed to the benthic cyanobacteria. In a laboratory experiment, individual Oscillatoria filaments were aggregated to form a colony with a higher density. This colony tended to float on the water surface. Cyanobacteria mats after floating aggregated mats were distributed in a net shape on the bottom.

Screening of Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green algae) from Rice Paddy Soil for Anti-fungal Activity against Plant Pathogenic Fungi

  • Kim, Jeong-Dong
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.138-142
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    • 2006
  • Soil cyanobacteria isolated from the rice paddy fields of 10 different locations across Korea were evaluated by agar plate diffusion test for antifungal activity. Aqueous, petroleum ether, and methanol extracts from one hundred and forty two cyanobacterial strains belonging to the 14 genera were examined for antifungal properties against seven phytopathogenic fungi causing diseases in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L). Of total cyanobacteria, nine cyanobacteria (6.34%) exhibited antifungal effects. The nine cyanobacteria selected with positive antifungal activities were two species of Oscillatoria, two of Anabaena, three of Nostoc, one of Nodularia, and one of Calothrix. Alternaria alternata and Botrytis cinerea were inhibited by nine and eight species of cyanobacteria, respectively. Rhizopus stolonifer was suppressed by only methanol extract of Nostoc commune FK-103. In particular, Nostoc commune FK-103 and Oscillatoria tenuis FK-109 showed strong antifungal activities against Phytophthora capsici. Their antifungal activity at the late exponential growth phase is related to the growth temperature and not associated with the growth parameters such as cell biomass and $chlorophyll-{\alpha}$ concentration. The high inhibition levels of antibiotics were 22.5 and 31.8 mm for N. commune FK-103 and O. tenuis FK-109, respectively. The optimal temperature for antibiotic productivity was $35^{\circ}C$.

Molecular Characterization of Marine Cyanobacteria from the Indian Subcontinent Deduced from Sequence Analysis of the Phycocyanin Operon (cpcB-IGS-cpcA) and 16S-23S ITS Region

  • Premanandh, Jagadeesan;Priya, Balakrishnan;Teneva, Ivanka;Dzhambazov, Balik;Prabaharan, Dharmar;Uma, Lakshmanan
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.607-616
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    • 2006
  • Molecular characterization of ten marine cyanobacterial isolates belonging to the order Oscillatoriales was carried out using the phycocyanin locus (cpcBA-IGS) and the 16S-23S internally transcribed spacer region. DNA sequences from the phycocyanin operon discriminated ten genotypes, which corresponded to seven morphotypes identified by traditional microscopic analysis. The cpcB coding region revealed 17% nucleotide variation, while cpcA exhibited 29% variation across the studied species. Phylogenetic analyses support the conclusion that the Phormidium and Leptolyngbya genera are not monophyletic. The nucleotide variations were heterogeneously distributed with no or minimal informative nucleotides. Our results suggest that the discriminatory power of the phycocyanin region varies across the cyanobacterial species and strains. The DNA sequence analysis of the 16S-23S internally transcribed spacer region also supports the polyphyletic nature of the studied oscillatorian cyanobacteria. This study demonstrated that morphologically very similar strains might differ genotypically. Thus, molecular approaches comprising different gene regions in combination with morphological criteria may provide better taxonomical resolution of the order Oscillatoriales.

In Situ Identification of Cyanobacteria

  • Ahn Tae-Seok;Hong Sun-Hee;Chung Hyun-Mi;Belkova Natalia L.
    • Proceedings of the Microbiological Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.121-127
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    • 2001
  • Seven cyanobacteria strains (Anabaena macrospora NIERl0016, Oscillatoria sp. NIER10042, Microcystis aeruginosa NIER10015, M. ichtyoblabe BIER10025, BIER10040, M. novacekii NIER10029, M. wesenbergii NIER10068) were tested with four rRNA - targeted oligonucleotide probes labelled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and specific for cyanobacteria. Non- fluorescent detection of hybridization signal was used. The hybridization with artificial mixture of cyanobacteria have shown the possibility to use 2 species-specific probes in duplicate hybridization and detection with different colored substrates.

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Cyanobacteria Community and Growth Potential Test in Sediment of Lake Paldang (팔당호 퇴적층 남조류의 군집과 남조류 성장잠재성 분석)

  • Kim, Yong-Jin;Baek, Jun-Soo;Youn, Seok-Jea;Kim, Hun-Nyun;Lee, Byoung-cheun;Kim, Gueeda;Park, Songeun;You, Kyung A;Lee, Jae-Kwan
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.261-270
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    • 2016
  • We analyzed cyanobacterial community including akinete, resting cell, and benthic cyanobacteria in sediment of Bukhan, Namhan-River, Paldang-Lake, and Kyeongan-Stream and compared the physicochemical factors for water and pore water. We also performed cyanobacteria growth potential test through incubating sediment. As a result of physicochemical analysis, the concentrations of nutrients were similar for each depth of Bukhan-River. For Namhan-River and Lake Paldang sites, the concentrations of TP and DTN in bottom and deep water had higher levels. DTN in water body composed of NO3-N(73%) while DTN in pore water composed of NH3-N(77.8%). Benthic cyanobacteria in the sediment such as Oscillatoria tenuis, O. limosa, Phormidium tenue, Pseudanabaena limnetica, and Lyngbya sp. were dominant (between 0.0∼243.3×103 cells/g, w/w). Cell densities of cyanobacteria in sediment depth of 0∼2 cm in most sites were higher compared to those in other depths. The cell density of cyanobacteria in sediment correlated with pH, conductivity, BOD5, TP, DTP, and chl. a. Increased phytoplankton and organic matters were found to be able to inhibit the growth of benthic cyanobacteria. Results of cyanobacteria growth potential test after incubating sediment revealed that harmful cyanobacteria (Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Microcystis, and Oscillatoria) appeared at 7 days post culturing. Base on these results, the methods used in this study are considered to be able to determine the appearance of harmful cyanobacteria.

Diversity of Heterocystous Filamentous Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) from Rice Paddy Fields and Their Differential Susceptibility to Ten Fungicides Used in Korea

  • Kim Jeong-Dong;Lee Choul-Gyun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.240-246
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    • 2006
  • Cyanobacteria are present abundantly in rice fields and are important in helping to maintain rice fields fertility through nitrogen fixation. Many rice fields soil contain a high density of cyanobactera, and over 50% of cyanobacterial genera that are in existence in rice paddy fields are heterocystous filamentous forms. A total of 142 isolates of heterocystous filamentous cyanobacteria were screened from 100 soil samples taken from rice paddy fields in 10 different locations across Korea, classified according to their morphological characteristics under light microscopy, and their susceptibly to fungicides examined. The collected blue-green alga were classified into a total of 14 genera, including seven genera of filamentous cyanobacteria and seven genera of nonfilamentous cyanobacteria. In particular, 142 heterocystous filamentous cyanobacteria were isolated and classified into six genera, including Anabaena, Nostoc, Calothrix, Cylindrospermum, Nodularia, Scytomena, and Tolypotrix. Yet, over 90% of the heterocystous filamentous cyanobacteria isolated from the rice paddy fields belonged to two genera: Anabaena and Nostoc. The response of 129 $N_2-fixing$ cyanobacterial isolates, 53 Anabaena and 76 Nostoc, to 10 fungicides was then investigated. The results showed that the Nostoc spp. were more tolerant of the ten tested fungicides than the Anabaena spp., and among the ten tested fungicides, benomyl showed the highest acute toxicity to Anabaena spp. and Nostoc spp. In conclusion, although benomyl is a very useful agent to control phytopathogenic fungi, the application of this fungicide to rice fields should be considered because of its toxicity to the heterocystous filamentous cyanobacteria.

Input output transfer function model development for a prediction of cyanobacteria cell number in Youngsan River (영산강 수계에서 남조류 세포수 모의를 위한 입출력 모형의 개발)

  • Lee, Eunhyung;Kim, Kyunghyun;Kim, Sanghyun
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.49 no.9
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    • pp.789-798
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    • 2016
  • Frequent algal blooms at major river systems in Korea have been serious social and environmental problems. Especially, the appearance of cyanobacteria with toxic materials is a threat to secure a safe drinking water. In order to model the behaviour of cyanobacteria cell number, an exclusive causality analysis using prewhitening technique was introduced to delineate effective parameters to predict the cell numbers of cyanobacteria in Seungchon Weir and Juksan Weir along Youngsan river system. Both input and output transfer function models were obtained to explain temporal variation of cyanobacteria cell number. A threshold behaviour of water temperature was implemented into the model development to consider winter characteristic of cyanobacteria. The implementation of water temperature threshold into the model structure improves the predictability in simulation. Even though the input output transfer model cannot completely explained all blooms of cyanobacteria, the simple structure of model provide a feasibility in application which can be important in practical aspect.

A study on the characteristics of cyanobacteria in the mainstream of Nakdong river using decision trees (의사결정나무를 이용한 낙동강 본류 구간의 남조류 발생특성 연구)

  • Jung, Woo Suk;Jo, Bu Geon;Kim, Young Do;Kim, Sung Eun
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.312-320
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    • 2019
  • The occurrence of cyanobacteria causes problems such as oxygen depletion and increase of organic matter in the water body due to mass prosperity and death. Each year, Algae bloom warning System is issued due to the effects of summer heat and drought. It is necessary to quantitatively characterize the occurrence of cyanobacteria for proactive green algae management in the main Nakdong river. In this study, we analyzed the major influencing factors on cyanobacteria bloom using visualization and correlation analysis. A decision tree, a machine learning method, was used to quantitatively analyze the conditions of cyanobacteria according to the influence factors. In all the weirs, meteorological factors, temperature and SPI drought index, were significantly correlated with cyanobacterial cell number. Increasing the number of days of heat wave and drought block the mixing of water in the water body and the stratification phenomenon to promote the development of cyanobacteria. In the long term, it is necessary to proactively manage cyanobacteria considering the meteorological impacts.

A study of newly recorded genera and species of filamentous blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae, cyanobacteria) in Korea

  • Song, Mi-Ae;Lee, Ok-Min
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.619-627
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    • 2015
  • Cyanobacteria were sampled at five sites in the Han River, Nakdong River, and Geum River watershed from June 2014 to May 2015 and then cultivated. Two genera and five species of the cyanobacteria were newly recorded in Korea. The newly recorded species were Limnothrix redekei, Pseudanabaena galeata, Pseudanabaena amphigranulata, Sphaerospermopsis aphanizomenoides, and Calothrix parietina. As a result, the Korean flora of the cyanobacteria now include four orders, 22 families with 73 genera, 143 species, and two varieties, giving a total of 146 taxa.

A perspective of chemical treatment for cyanobacteria control toward sustainable freshwater development

  • Huh, Jae-Hoon;Ahn, Ji-Whan
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2017
  • One of the most threatening consequences of eutrophic freshwater reservoirs is algal blooming which typically occur after the long a mega drought or/and irregular rainfall under influence of climate change. The long-term experiences of chemical treatment are known as a most practical effort to reduce health concerns from human exposure of harmful cyanobacteria as well as to preserve ultimate freshwater resources. Even though these conventional chemical treatment methods do not completely solve the algal residue problem in water treatment plant or directly in the water bodies, they still have big advantages as fast and efficient removal process of cyanobacteria due to cheaper, easier to manage. This review summarizes their chemical treatment scenarios of the representative coagulants, pre-oxidants and algaecides composed to chemical compounds which immediately may help to manage severe cyanobacteria blooms in the summer seasons.