• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cyanobacteria

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Biofilm Formation and Indole-3-Acetic Acid Production by Two Rhizospheric Unicellular Cyanobacteria

  • Ahmed, Mehboob;Stal, Lucas J.;Hasnain, Shahida
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.8
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    • pp.1015-1025
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    • 2014
  • Microorganisms that live in the rhizosphere play a pivotal role in the functioning and maintenance of soil ecosystems. The study of rhizospheric cyanobacteria has been hampered by the difficulty to culture and maintain them in the laboratory. The present work investigated the production of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the potential of biofilm formation on the rhizoplane of pea plants by two cyanobacterial strains, isolated from rice rhizosphere. The unicellular cyanobacteria Chroococcidiopsis sp. MMG-5 and Synechocystis sp. MMG-8 that were isolated from a rice rhizosphere, were investigated. Production of IAA by Chroococcidiopsis sp. MMG-5 and Synechocystis sp. MMG-8 was measured under experimental conditions (pH and light). The bioactivity of the cyanobacterial auxin was demonstrated through the alteration of the rooting pattern of Pisum sativum seedlings. The increase in the concentration of L-tryptophan and the time that this amino acid was present in the medium resulted in a significant enhancement of the synthesis of IAA (r > 0.900 at p = 0.01). There was also a significant correlation between the concentration of IAA in the supernatant of the cyanobacteria cultures and the root length and number of the pea seedlings. Observations made by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed the presence of cyanobacteria on the surface of the roots and also provided evidence for the penetration of the cyanobacteria in the endorhizosphere. We show that the synthesis of IAA by Chroococcidiopsis sp. MMG-5 and Synechocystis sp. MMG-8 occurs under different environmental conditions and that the auxin is important for the development of the seedling roots and for establishing an intimate symbiosis between cyanobacteria and host plants.

Study on Introduction to Predicting Indicator of Cyanobacteria Dominance in Algae Bloom Warning System of Hangang Basin (한강유역 조류경보제에 남조류 우점 예측인자 도입에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Tae Kyun;Choi, Jae Ho;Lee, Kyung Ju;Kim, Young Bae;Yu, Sung Jong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.378-385
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    • 2014
  • The chlorophyll-a concentration in algae bloom warning system of Hangang basin did not predict the cyanobacteria dominance. In this study, suggest the predicting indicator of cyanobacteria dominance through analyzing the environmental factors affecting on the cell count of cyanobacteria. Firstly, the dominance of algae was analyzed with seasonal variation during Jan. 2012~Sep. 2013. The diatom dominated phytoplankton communities during the period of January~April. In the May~June, the green algae dominated. And, the dominance of algae was changed to cyanobacteria in the July~August. Also, the environmental factors affecting to cyanobacteria blooms ; nutrients (TN, TP), temperature, precipitation, dam-discharge were evaluated during the study period. Rather than temperature factor, relatively low dam discharge causes cyanobacteria to grow rapidly and create a blooms. The low dam-discharge may increase the water retention time. Finally, it is proved that a low ratio of TN to TP (<29:1) can favour the development of cyanobacteria blooms. Thus, the predicting indicator (TN:TP) have need to apply to the alarm bloom warning system of Hangang basin.

Genetic Diversity and Molecular Phylogeny of Cyanobacteria from Sri Lanka Based on 16S rRNA Gene

  • Wanigatunge, R.P.;Magana-Arachchi, D.N.;Chandrasekharan, N.V.;Kulasooriya, S.A.
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.317-329
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    • 2014
  • The diversity of cyanobacteria in Sri Lanka was studied in different water reservoirs, paddy fields, brackish water and tsunami affected areas using light microcopy, 16S rRNA sequences, followed by phylogenetic analysis. Based on light microscopy, 24 genera were identified from environmental samples belonging to the orders Chroococcales, Oscillatoriales, Pleurocapsales and Nostocales. In cultures, 33 genera were identified from all five cyanobacterial orders, including Stigonematales. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and their morphology, two isolates were identified up to species level, 72 to genus level, one isolate up to family and 11 up to order level. Twelve isolates couldn't be assigned to any taxonomic level. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequences along with the phylogenetic analysis indicated that some cyanobacterial isolates could be accommodated to genus or order level. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis data in this study confirmed that order Nostocales and order Pleurocapsales cyanobacteria are monophyletic while orders Chroococcales, Oscillatoriales and Stigonematales cyanobacteria are polyphyletic. Polyphasic approach including the combination of light microscopy, cultures and the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences provide a promising approach to ascertain the diversity of cyanobacteria in different habitats.

Biodegradation of Organophosphate Pesticide Using Recombinant Cyanobacteria with Surface- and Intracellular-Expressed Organophosphorus Hydrolase

  • Chungjatupornchai, Wipa;Fa-Aroonsawat, Sirirat
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.946-951
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    • 2008
  • The opd gene, encoding organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) from Flavobacterium sp. capable of degrading a wide range of organophosphate pesticides, was surface- and intracellular-expressed in Synechococcus PCC7942, a prime example of photoautotrophic cyanobacteria. OPH was displayed on the cyanobacterial cell surface using the truncated ice nucleation protein as an anchoring motif. A minor fraction of OPH was displayed onto the outermost surface of cyanobacterial cells, as verified by immunostaining visualized under confocal laser scanning microscopy and OPH activity analysis; however, a substantial fraction of OPH was buried in the cell wall, as demonstrated by proteinase K and lysozyme treatments. The cyanobacterial outer membrane acts as a substrate (paraoxon) diffusion barrier affecting whole-cell biodegradation efficiency. After freeze-thaw treatment, permeabilized whole cells with intracellular-expressed OPH exhibited 14-fold higher bioconversion efficiency ($V_{max}/K_m$) than that of cells with surface-expressed OPH. As cyanobacteria have simple growth requirements and are inexpensive to maintain, expression of OPH in cyanobacteria may lead to the development of a low-cost and low-maintenance biocatalyst that is useful for detoxification of organophosphate pesticides.

A Study on the Antimicrobial Activity of Microcystis aeruginosa by Redox Reaction of Cu-Zn Alloy Metal Fiber (구리-아연 합금사의 산화-환원 반응을 통한 Microcystis aeruginosa의 사멸 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Song, Ju-Yeong;Kim, Hee-Seon;Lee, Sang-Ho;Kim, Jong-Hwa;Park, Keun-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.168-174
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    • 2008
  • This study is focused on the antimicrobial activity of cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa by the reduction and oxidation reaction of copper and zinc alloy metal fiber filter. Cu/Zn ion is easily makes radicals with molecular hydroperoxide. Especially, hydroperoxide radical shows strong toxicity to the strains. Plasma membrane causes conformational change when hydroperoxide radical binds to plasma membrane. Elution of copper ion from copper and zinc alloy metal fiber is detected in the cyanobacteria solution as 0.5 ppm, and that of zinc ion is 0 ppm respectively. Zinc ion is figured to form a hydroxide in the cyanobacteria solution and precipitated to form a sludge. The concentration of chlorophyll-a in the cyanobacteria solution was proved to be the index of antimicrobial level of Microcystis aeruginosa.

Strain Identification and Comparative Analysis of Toxigenic Cyanobacteria Determined by PCR

  • Jung Jong-Mun;Jung Eun-Young;LEE You-Jung;Park Hong-Ki;Jung Mi-Eun;Ji Ki-Won;Joo Gea-Jae
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.649-655
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    • 2005
  • Microcystis aeruginosa is common form of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) capable of producing toxic heptapeptide (microcystin) that cause illness or death. The comparison of molecular genetic method with the morphological characteristics of cyanobacteria was conducted. We have designed PCR primers (JJM98F, JJM1141R) for cyanobacterial 16S rRNA and phycocyanin intergenic spacer (PC-IGS) gene domain. To confirm the production of microcystins, PCR primers for the N-methyltransferase (NMT) domain of microcystin synthetase gene mcyA were designed using 21 cyanobacteria strains Most of isolated strains from the Nakdong River was classified as Microcystis aeruginosa and the similarities were $99\%$ with M. aeruginosa AF 139292. $38.1\%$ of isolated strains contained microcystin synthesis gene. NMT (N-methyltransferase) were not detected in isolated strain in several strains, which means non-toxic. However, the NMTs of the strains were detected during the cultivation.

Assessment of Seasonal Algae Variability in a Reservoir

  • Lee, Ju Young;Han, Mooyoung;Kim, Tschungil
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.223-228
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    • 2014
  • We investigated seasonal algae variability and its influence on water quality in an agricultural reservoir. We observed that maximal total phosphorus (TP) loads were 1,715 kg from farmland in September, which changed the ecosystem in the reservoir. At this time, Dictyosphaerium pulchellum as green algae dominated. Aulacoseira ambigua as diatom became the most dominant from November 2010 to May 2011. The diatom was sensitive to water temperature. Microcystis spp. and Oscillatoria spp. as cyanobacteria were dominant during summer and fall, and sank down to the sediment during winter and spring. Increasing water temperature during summer causes anaerobic conditions in the sediment, leading to regrowth of cyanobacteria. With regard to the ratio of total nitrogen (TN) to TP, green algae and cyanobacteria were dominant at TN:TP ratios less than 20-30. Diatoms were dominant at TN:TP ratios greater than 30-40. Statistical analysis indicated that diatom growth was dependent on water temperature and TN concentration. TP concentration and water temperature were the key factors for the growth of cyanobacteria and green algae. From these results of this study, the management of land-use was an important parameter for improving water quality in the agricultural reservoir.

Design of Optical Biological Sensor for Phycocyanin Parameters Measurement using Fluorescence Technique

  • Lee, Sung Hwa;Mariappan, Vinayagam;Won, Dong Chan;Ann, Myungsuk;Yang, Seungyoun
    • International journal of advanced smart convergence
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.73-79
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    • 2016
  • Remote sensing and measurement are of paramount importance of providing information on the state of water quality in water bodies. The formation and growth of cyanobacteria is of serious concern to in land aquatic life forms and human life. The main cause of water quality deterioration stems from anthropogenic induced eutrophication. The goal of this research to quantify and determine the spatial distribution of cyanobacteria concentration in the water using remote sensing technique. The standard approach to measure water quality based on the direct measurement of the fluorescence of the chlorophyll a in the living algal cells and the same approach used to detect the phycobilin pigments found in blue-green algae (a.k.a. cyanobacteria), phycocyanin and phycoerythrin. This paper propose the emerging sensor design to measure the water quality based on the optical analysis by fluorescence of the phycocyanin pigment. In this research, we developed an method to sense and quantify to derive phycocyanin intensity index for estimating cyanobacteria concentrations. The development of the index was based on the reflectance difference between visible light band 620nm and 665nm. As a result of research this paper presents, an optical biological sensor design information to measure the Phycocyanin parameters in water content.

Cyanobacteria에 대한 최근 연구동향 및 전망

  • 김영창
    • The Microorganisms and Industry
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.2-10
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    • 1991
  • 식물체에서 일어나는 유전자 발현의 광조절 현상은 매우 복잡하다. 이는 각 유전자들이 조직에 따라 질적, 양적, 시간적 측면에서 빛에 대한 반응에 커다란 차이점을 보이고 있기 때문이다. 따라서 식물체를 대상으로 광조절 기작을 연구하는 데는 현상의 복합성과 실험과정의 기술적, 시간적, 경제적 제약이 많기 때문에 이에 관한 연구가 아직 초보적 수준에 머물고 있다. 광합성 세균 중에서 purple bacteria나 green bacteria와는 달리 식물성 광합성을 하며, 식물체보다 세포구조가 훨씬 간단한 cyanobacteria는 유전자 발현의 광조절 기작을 연구하는데 간단, 명료한 'model'로서 기대되는 바 크다. 따라서 이 글에서는 cyanobacteria의 광계와 광합성 색소인 chlorophyll의 생합성 과정을 중심으로 광조절 현상에 대한 최근 연구 동향과 전망을 살펴보고자 한다.

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A study of six newly recorded species of cyanobacteria (Cyanophyceae, Cyanophyta) in Korea

  • Song, Mi-Ae;Lee, Ok-Min
    • Journal of Species Research
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.154-162
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    • 2017
  • The aim of this study was to discover and describe new genera and species of cyanobacteria in Korea. Aquatic and aerial algae were collected from various environments in the Han River and Nakdong River watersheds between August 2009 and October 2015. As a result, one genus and six species of cyanobacteria were newly recorded in Korea. The newly recorded genus for Korea was Capsosira; newly recorded species were Capsosira brebissonii, Rivularia minutula, Chamaesiphon amethystinus, Leptolyngbya margaretheana, Pseudanabaena arcuata, and Rhabdoderma lineare.