• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cyanobacteria

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Long-term Preservation of Bloom-forming Cyanobacteria by Cryopreservation

  • Park, Hae-Kyung
    • ALGAE
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 2006
  • Long-term preservation of bloom-forming cyanobacteria was evaluated using cryopreservation and freeze-drying of nine strains belonging to four genera and seven species. All test strains, except Aphanizomenon flos-aquae NIER- 10028, showed partial or complete survival following cryopreservation and freeze-drying. Frozen and freeze-dried strains were preserved for more than two years and were revived monthly. Most strains showed higher post-thaw viability after cryopreservation, especially without cryoprotectant compared to freeze-drying. Microcystis aeruginosa NIER-10010, M. viridis NIER-10020, M. ichthyoblabe NIER-10023, M. novacekii NIER-10029 and Oscillatoria sancta NIER-10027 were revived after 2.5 years of cryopreservation. These results suggest that cryopreservation may be an easy and timesaving long-term preservation method for bloom-forming cyanobacteria.

Diel Vertical Distribution of Cyanobacteria in Lake Daecheong (대청호의 남조세균 일주 수직분포)

  • Park, Jong-Geun;Kim, Yeoun-Suk;Lee, Jung-Jun;Jang, Sung-Hyun;Lee, Jung-Ho
    • ALGAE
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.75-82
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    • 2006
  • Cyanobacteria regulate their buoyancy in response to changing environmental conditions. This process is essential for cyanobacterial development and can account for their dominance in eutrophic waters in summer. The present investigation was conducted to understand the 24-hour vertical distribution of cyanobacteria and water quality characteristics in Lake Daecheong. Water samples were collected and analyzed at depth intervals of 2 or 3 m and at an interval of three hours for a day on August 28, 2001 and September 24, 2002. In 2001 the accumulated standing crop of Microcystis spp. from surface to a depth of 6 m was 94.9%. Microcystis spp. showed no vertical migration below the thermocline. Microcystis spp. had maximum density near the surface, but shifted to 2 m depth at 2 p.m. A dense population of Anabaena spp. accumulated near the surface from 2 to 5 p.m. in 2002.

Isolation and Identification of Cyanobacteria of the Cultural Heritages in the Gwanschoksa, Nonsan City in Korea (논산 관촉사 석조문화재에 분포하는 남세균의 분리 및 동정에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, In-Hye
    • The Journal of Natural Sciences
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.27-35
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    • 2008
  • The importance of microbial activity in the alteration and deterioration of stone and concrete walls has been frequently neglected. Organisms present on stone monuments can include photolithoautotrophs, such as algae, cyanobacteria, mosses, and higher plants. Because of their ability to survive repeated drying and rehydration cycles and high UV levels, the cyanobacteria are particularly important on exposed surfaces. The cyanobactria distributed on the surface of the stone cultural heritages in Gwanschoksa, Nonsan city were investigated. Chlorococcus sp. Aanabaena sp. Gloeocapsa sp Lyngbya sp. Stigomena sp. Synechocystis sp were identified. Haplaosiphon fontinalis and Stigonema turfaceum, which were not recoded is Korea, were also identified. Cells often have thick pigmented sheath in dry, sun-exposed environment and shorter filament, which can be different than that in aquatic systems. Special attention should be paid to production of an adequate DNA database in order to accelerate the rate at which information on the species present in biofilms become available.

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Color Sensing and Signal Transmission Diversity of Cyanobacterial Phytochromes and Cyanobacteriochromes

  • Villafani, Yvette;Yang, Hee Wook;Park, Youn-Il
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.509-516
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    • 2020
  • To perceive fluctuations in light quality, quantity, and timing, higher plants have evolved diverse photoreceptors including UVR8 (a UV-B photoreceptor), cryptochromes, phototropins, and phytochromes (Phys). In contrast to plants, prokaryotic oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms, cyanobacteria, rely mostly on bilin-based photoreceptors, namely, cyanobacterial phytochromes (Cphs) and cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs), which exhibit structural and functional differences compared with plant Phys. CBCRs comprise varying numbers of light sensing domains with diverse color-tuning mechanisms and signal transmission pathways, allowing cyanobacteria to respond to UV-A, visible, and far-red lights. Recent genomic surveys of filamentous cyanobacteria revealed novel CBCRs with broader chromophore-binding specificity and photocycle protochromicity. Furthermore, a novel Cph lineage has been identified that absorbs blue-violet/yellow-orange light. In this minireview, we briefly discuss the diversity in color sensing and signal transmission mechanisms of Cphs and CBCRs, along with their potential utility in the field of optogenetics.

The Bacterial Community Structure in Cheonho Reservoir Dominated by Cyanobacteria (봄철 Cyanobacteria 가 우점한 천호지에서 세균군집구조의 변화)

  • 홍선희;전선옥;안태석;안태영
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.287-292
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    • 2002
  • The composition of bacterial communities was detected in surface water of Cheonho Reservoir dominated by cyanobacteria, using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method. Total bacterial numbers were very high ranging from 0.6~$1.3{\times}10^7 \cells{\cdot}ml^-1$, whereas the ratio of Eubacteria to total bacteria was 29.8~45.8%, which was lower than that in other freshwater ecosystems. On average only 2.1% of DAPI-stained bacteria were detected by FISH with probes for $\alpha$, $\beta$, and $\gamma$-groups, respectively. Unknown eubacteria which was not bound to any probes except EUB 338, was relatively high. On the other hand, the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group increased following the change of dominant species from Anabaena sp. to Microcystis sp. This result showed that bacterial communities could be affected by phytoplanktons, especially cyanobacteria.

Effect of Climate Change for Cyanobacteria Growth Pattern in Chudong Station of Lake Daechung (기후변화에 따른 대청호 추동지점에서의 남조류 발생 패턴 분석)

  • Noh, SungYu;Park, HaeKyung;Choi, HeeLak;Lee, JaeAn
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.377-385
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    • 2014
  • To study the fluctuations and relationship in climate change, environmental factors and cyanobacteria communities, we investigated Chudong station of the Daechung reservoir. The average annual temperature showed the maximum value ($13.9^{\circ}C$) from 1994, showed a gradually increasing pattern from 1969 to 2010 in the Daechung reservoir. The number of days with temperatures over $20^{\circ}C$, minimum temperature of the year and average temperature of the winter season patterns also showed a significant increase. The long-time changed in the annual precipitation were not showed a significant variation. The water temperature record comparatively high value in summer, declined in winter. At all period, the phytoplankton were highest biomass in July 2000, and then, showed comparative higher biomass in the summer months. Cyanobacteria taxa were also showed more than 50%. Emergence of cyanobacteria also appeared in November 2007, were prolonged emergence. The dominant genera of taxa were the dominant sphere (Microcystis spp.) until early 2000. After that, the dominant species were the dominant linear (Aphanizomenon spp., Anabaena spp.). Cyanobacteria were the most correlated with water temperature (r = 0.341, p<0.01) and phosphate concentration (r = 0.355, p<0.01).

Biorational Screening System Using Cyanobacteria(Anacystis nidulans $R_2$) for Searching the Photosynthetic Electron Transport Inhibitors (Cyanobacteria를 이용한 광합성 전자전달저해제의 생합리적 스크리닝)

  • Hwang, I.T.;Hong, K.S.;Cho, K.Y.;Yoshida, S.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 1993
  • For searching the photosynthetic electron transport(PET) inhibitors, bio-rational screening system using thylakoid membranes extracted from wild and mutant cyanobacteria(Anacystis nidulans $R_2$) was developed. Generally, thylakoid membrane was more sensitive to the tested herbicides than the chloroplast from spinach in the Hill reaction. Higher resistant characteristics appeared in mutant D-5, Di-22 to diuron and mutant G-264 to atrazine as compared to wild type. To test the reaction of thylakoid membrane to herbicides, diuron and atrazine were applied simultaneously. Diuron and atrazine competed each other for binding with substituted amino acids, while diuron and dinoseb were non-competitive, and inhibiting activity was increased. Conclusively, bio-rational screening system using cyanobacteria was proved to be fast and efficient screening method for the development of PET inhibitors.

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Studies on the Flocculation of Algae with Metal Ions (금속이온에 의한 조류 응결에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Yeong Jae;Lee, Sang Soo;Cho, Hye Ryun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.37 no.8
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    • pp.441-449
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    • 2015
  • Studies on the flocculation of algae using various metal ions were carried out by measurements of optical density(OD) and zeta potential. Cyanobacteria were used as algaes. Flocculation efficiencies of cyanobacteria by an addition of metal ions were determined from OD values, and the effect of metal ions was greater in the order of $Al^{3+}$>$La^{3+}$>$Ho^{3+}$>$Fe^{2+}$>$Ca^{2+}$. Especially for trivalent metal ions, percentages of metal removed from cyanobacteria solutions on flocculation were measured, showing the same order as in flocculation efficiencies. Zeta potentials of cyanobacteria alone were measured with increasing the concentration, found to be all negative voltages, and were increased with increasing the concentration. The effect of pH on zeta potential of cyanobacteria solution was investigated. Below pH 5.5, the zeta potentials were steeply decreased with increasing pH, whereas in the range of $5.5{\leq}pH{\leq}10$ they were almost constant ($-46{\pm}1mV$) even with increasing pH. At a constant concentration of cyanobacteria ($A_{730}=0.25$), an increase in concentration of metal ions caused an increase in zeta potential of cyanobacteria solution, showing that the effect was greater in the order of $Al^{3+}$>$Ho^{3+}$>$La^{3+}{\gg}Mg^{2+}{\geq}Ca^{2+}{\gg}K^+$. At a constant metal concentration, zeta potentials were measured with increasing cyanobacteria concentration, showing that zeta potentials for $K^+$, $Mg^{2+}$ and $Ca^{2+}$ ions were negligibly changed, whereas those of $Ho^{3+}$ and $La^{3+}$ ions were decreased. Moreover, the effect of $Ho^{3+}$ ion on decreasing zeta potential was smaller than that of $La^{3+}$ ion. $Al^{3+}$ ions showed quite a different behavior that with increasing cyanobacteria concentration the zeta potentials increased and decreased thereafter. Hydrolysis of $Al^{3+}$ ions caused a difficulty to investigate coagulation or flocculation of cyanobacteria by measurement of zeta potential.

Development of Early Forecasting System using GIS and Prediction Model related to the Cyanobacterial Blooming in the Daecheong Reservoir of Korea (예보모델과 GIS를 기반한 대청호의 남조류 발생에 대한 조기예보시스템 개발)

  • Kim, Man-Kyu;Park, Jong-Chul;Kim, Kwang-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.91-102
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    • 2007
  • To anticipate and respond to harmful algae produced in a big artificial lake like Daecheong reservoir, development of a regional analysis computer system using GIS or RS technique is needed in addition to biological and chemical research. The purpose of this study is to develop a cyanobacterial blooming prediction model to prevent harmful algae produced in Daecheong reservoir and construct an early forecasting system based on GIS. For this purpose this paper examines previous studies related to the relationship between cyanobacteria and environmental factors in Daecheong reservoir and selects precipitation and air temperature as two important environmental factors for the development of cyanobacterial blooming prediction model. Data used in this study are water quality and weather data for three water regions in Daecheong reservoir between 2000 and 2004. Based on qualitative correlation analysis between cyanobacteria and environmental factors, this paper presents a Rump model which enables us to predict cyanobacteria in water regions of Daecheong reservoir. Under this model the prediction of initial occurrence time and growth period of cyanobacteria are possible. The model is also applied to the GIS-based early forecasting system for cyanobacteria, and finally a GIS which can predict cyanobacteria produced in Daecheong reservoir and can manage the related data is developed.

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