• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cyanobacteria

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Bloom-forming Cyanobacteria in Yongdam Lake (1) Nutrient limitation in a Laboratory Strain of a Nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacterium, Anabaena spiroides v. crassa (용담호 녹조현상의 원인 남세균 연구 (1) 질소고정 남세균 Anabaena spiroides v. crassa 종주와 영양염 제한)

  • Park, Jong-Woo;Kim, Young-Geel;Heo, Woo-Myung;Kim, Bom-Chul;Yih, Won-Ho
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.158-164
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    • 2006
  • Yongdam Lake is the fifth largest artificial lake in Korea newly formed by the first impounding the Yongdam Multi-purpose Dam on December, 2002. Yongdam Lake, with her total water storage of 820 million M/T, is located at the roof-top region of the streams flowing into the just-constructed new Saemankeum Lake. Seasonal succession of phytoplakton in Yongdam Lake might affect cyanobacterial blooms in Saemankeum Lake by inoculating seasonal dominants. During 2002-2003 when the first impounding after the construction of Yongdam Multi-purpose Dam was still undergoing, summer cyanobacterial blooms by Anabaena, Microcystis, and Aphanizomenon were observed. Among these three, filamentous Anabaena is well known to have its species with $N_2-fixing$ ability and special cells such as heterocysts and akinetes as well as the vegetative cells. We established a clonal culture of Anabaena spiroides v. crasse (KNU-YD0310) from the live water samples collected at the bloom site of Yongdam Lake. The N- and P-nutrient requirement of the KNU-YD0310 was explored by the experimental cultivation of the laboratory strain. Ratio of heterocysts to vegetative cells increased as N-deficiency extended with its maximum at $N_2-fixing$ condition. The strain KNU-YD0310 exhibited considerable growth under N-limiting conditions while its growth was proportional to the initial phosphate-P concentration under P-deficient conditions. Under P-limiting conditions akinete density increased, which could be interpreted as an adaptation strategy to survive severe environment by transforming into resting stage. The above eco-physiological characteristics of Anabaena spiroides v. crassa might be useful as an ecological criterion in controlling cyanobacterial blooms at Shaemankeum Lake in near future.

Seasonal distribution and primary production of microphytobenthos on an intertidal mud flat of the Janghwa in Ganghwa Island, Korea (강화도 장화리 갯벌에서 저서미세조류의 계절적 분포 및 일차 생산력)

  • Yoo, Man-Ho;Choi, Joong-Ki
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.8-18
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    • 2005
  • We studied seasonal distribution of the microphytobenthos and their primary production with $C^{14}$ method and carried out pigment analysis with HPLC in an estuarine mudflat of the Ganghwa Island, Korea from May 2002 to April 2004. The abundances of microphytobenthos were higher at the middle than upper part and lower part of intertidal flat. Abundances of microphytobenthos ranged from $2.3{\times}10^5\;cells\;cm^{-2}$ to $140.9{\times}10^5\;cells cm^{-2}$. The bloom of microphytobenthos was observed in the early spring and then it decreased from spring to summer and autumn. The pennate diatom was a predominated group among the microphytobenthos in this area. The dominant species were Paralia sulcata, Cylindrotheca closterium and Nitzschia sp.. Nitzschia sp. and Cylindrotheca closterium were predominant in February. The results of pigment analysis suggest the presence of diatoms, euglenophytes, chlorophytes, cyanobacteria, cryptophytes, chrysophytes, prymnesiophytes, dinoflagellates and prasinophytes. The biomass of microphytobenthos ranged from 1.18 to 34.25 mg chl-a $m^{-2}$, with a mean of 7.60 mg chl-a $m^{-2}$. The mean ratio of Fuco/Chl a was 0.7 which indicates that most of biomasses of microphytobenthos were due to diatoms. The ratios of Chl b/Chl a ranged from 0 to 0.82(with a mean of 0.17), implying that euglenophytes and chlorophytes lived together in special period seasonally. Temporal variation of primary production ranged from 4.2 to 113.0 $mgC{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}hr^{-1}$(mean value was 33.9 $mgC{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}hr^{-1}$ and initial slope$({\alpha})$ was measured from 0.002-0.005$(mgC\;mgchl-a^{-1}\;hr^{-1}){\cdot}({\mu}E\;m^{-2}\;s^{-1})^{-1}$. Assimilation number$(P_m)$ was in the range of 0.50-1.32 $mgC{\cdot}mgChl-a{\cdot}hr^{-1}$ and daily primary production ranged from 20.9 to 678.1 $mgC{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}d^{-1}$(mean value was 206.72 $mgC{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}^{-1}$).

Effects of Nutrients and N/P Ratio Stoichiometry on Phytoplankton Growth in an Eutrophic Reservoir (부영양 저수지에서 식물플랑크톤 성장에 대한 제한영양염과 질소/인 비의 영향)

  • Kim, Ho-Sub;Hwang, Soon-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.36-46
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    • 2004
  • We evaluated the effect of limiting nutrients and N/P ratio on the growth of phytoplankton in a small eutrophic reservoir from November 2002 to December 2003. Nutrient limitation was investigated seasonally using nutrient enrichment bioassay (NEB). DIN/DTP and TN/TP ratio (by weight) of the reservoir during the study period ranged 17${\sim}$187 and 13${\sim}$60, respectively. Most of nitrogen in the reservoir account for $NO_3$-N, but sharp increase of ammonia was evident during the spring season. Seasonal variation of dissolved inorganic phosphorus concentration was relatively small. DTP ranged 26.5${\sim}$10.1 ${\mu}g\;P\;L^{-1}$, and the highest and lowest concentration was observed in August and December, respectively. Chlorophyll a concentration ranged 28.8${\sim}$109.7 ${\mu}g\;L^{-1}$, and its temporal variation was similar to that of cell density of phytoplankton. Dominant phytoplankton species were Bacillariphyceae (Melosira varians) and Chlorophyceae (Dictyosphaerium puchellum) in Spring (March${\sim}$April). Cyanophyceae, such as Osillatoria spp., Microcystis spp., Aphanizomenon sp. dominated from May to the freezing time. TN/TP ratio ranged from 46 to 13 (Avg. 27${\pm}$6) from June to December when cyanobacteria (Microcystis spp.) dominated. p limitation for algal growth measured in all NEB experiments (17cases), while N limitation occurred in 8 out of 17 cases. The growth rates of phytoplankton slightly increased with decreasing of DIN/DTP ratio. Evident increase was observed in the N/P ratio of > 30, and it was sustained with DTP increase until 50 ${\mu}g\;P\;L^{-1}$. Under the same N/P mass ratio with the different N concentrations (0.07, 0.7and 3.5 mg N $L^{-1}$), Microcystis spp. showed the highest growth rate in the N/P ratio of< 1 with nitrogen concentration of 3.5 mg N $L^{-1}$). The responses of phytoplankton growth to phosphate addition were clearly greater with increase of N concentration. These results indicate that the higher nitrogen concentration in the water likely induce the stronger P-limitation on the phytoplankton growth, while nitrogen deficiency is not likely the case of nutrient limitation.

Effect of Filter-feeding Bivalve (Corbiculidae) on Phyto- and Zooplankton Community (여과 섭식성 패류가 동 ${\cdot}$ 식물플랑크톤 군집에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Ho-Sub;Kong, Dong-Soo;Hwang, Soon-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.319-331
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the ecological impact of freshwater bivalve (Corbiculidae) on plankton communities in experimental enclosure systems (2 m ${\times}$ 2 m ${\times}$ 2 m). During the acclamation period of one month, cyanobacteria, including Microcystis viridis and Microcystis aeruginosa, dominated in both control and treatment enclosures with no noticeable density difference. After the addition of 100 mussels, dominant species of phytoplankton shifted from Microcystis to Scenedesmus in concert with slight decrease in the cell density and the increase of N/P ratio. However, cell density in the control quickly increased, accompanied with changes of dominant species to Oscillatoria spp. With the introduction of additional 500 musseles in the treatment enclosure, dominant phytoplankton species in both enclosures were replaced with Selenastrum spp. and Cryptomonas sp. In the initial stage, the total zooplankton abundance in the control was higher than that of treatment, but it was reversed after the addition 100 mussels. After mussel density increased up to 600 indivisuals, zooplankton density in the treatment decreased with dominance of small taxa, such as rotifers and nauplius. However, abundance and carbon biomass of large zooplankton, such as Bosmina longirostris and Diacyclops thomasi were maintained in a high level compared with those of control. During the study period, Chl. a concentration in mussel treatment and control increased with DIP and $NH_3-N$, respectively. Due to the increase of $NH_3-N$, especially after the introduction of additional 500 mussels, nitrogen limitation did not occur in the treatment enclosure in contrast with strong nutrient limitation occurred in the control. These results indicate that filter-feeding Corbicula could exert important impact on nutrient recycling and plankton community structure in a freshwater ecosystem, through direct feeding and competition for the same food resource as zooplankton on one hand, and through alteration of nutrient availability on the other.

Relationship between Distribution of the Dominant Phytoplankton Species and Water Temperature in the Nakdong River, Korea (낙동강의 식물플랑크톤 우점종의 분포특성 및 수온과의 상관성)

  • Yu, Jae Jeong;Lee, Hye Jin;Lee, Kyung Lak;Lyu, Heuy Seong;Whang, Jeong Wha;Shin, La Young;Chen, Se Uk
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.247-257
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    • 2014
  • The construction of eight large weirs in the Nakdong River, Korea, caused a decrease in the water flow velocity and several physical changes to the water environment. Here, changes in phyto- and zooplankton communities and water quality in the areas near the eight weirs were investigated from 2011 to 2013, and relationships between phytoplankton abundances and environmental factors were analyzed. Special emphasis was given to the succession patterns in algal abundance based on temperature fluctuations. At the eight weirs, 24 dominant species were found. The most abundant phytoplankton species was Stephanodiscus sp. (39.4% of dominant frequency). Cyanobacteria of the genus Microcystis dominated during the summer, with an dominant frequency of 8.5% and cell abundance ratio of 36.6%. Significant correlations were observed between temperature and abundance of eight of the main dominant species; seven species showed positive correlations with temperature. Stephanodiscus sp., however, showed a negative correlation with temperature (r=-0.26, p<0.01). In addition, this species showed a significant negative correlation with the dominant algal species-Aulacoseira granulata and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, with the zooplankton Copepoda and with Cladocera. On the contrary, seven other dominant species of algae showed significant positive correlations with zooplankton. Thus, we showed that the seasonal succession of plankton communities in the Nakdong River was related to the water temperature changes.

The Limnological Survey of Major Lakes in Korea (4): Lake Juam (국내 주요 호수의 육수학적 조사(4) : 주암호)

  • Kim, Bom-Chul;Heo, Woo-Myung;Lim, Byung-Jin;Hwang, Gil-Son;Choi, Kwang-Soon;Choi, Jong-Soo;Park, Ju-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.30-44
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    • 2001
  • In this study limnological characteristics of Lake Juam was surveyed from June 1993 to May 1994 in order to provides important information regarding water resources. Secchi disc transparency, epilimnetic chlorophyll a (chi-a), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) concentration and primary productivity were in the range of $2.0{\sim}4.5\;m$, $0.9{\sim}13.6\;mgChl/m^3$, 0.78$\{sim}$2.32 mgN/l, $11{\sim}56\;mgP/m^3$, $270{\sim}2.160\;mgCm^{-2}\;day^{-1}$, respectively. On the basis of TP, Chl-a and Secchi disc depth, the trophic state of Lake Juam can be classied as mesotrophic lake. The phosphorus inputs from non-point sources are concentrated in heavy rain episodes during the monsoon season. As a result, phosphorus concentration are higher in summer than in winter. TP loading from the watershed were estimated to be $0.9\;gPm^{-2}yr^{-1}$, which correspond to a boundary of the critical loading ($1.0\;gPm^{-2}yr^{-1}$) for eutrophication. From the results of the algal assay, both phosphous and nitrogen act as limiting nutrients in algal growth. The seasonal succession of phytoplankton community structure in Lake Juam was similar to that observed in other temperate lakes. Diatoms (Asterionella formosa and Aulacoseira granulate var. angustissima)fujacofeira BraHuJafa uar. aHgusHrsiaia) weredominant in spring and winter, cyanobacteria) were dominant in warm season. The organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus content of lake sediment were $9.5{\sim}14.0\;mgC/g$, $1.01{\sim}1.82\;mgN/g$ and $0.51{\sim}0.65\;mgP/g$, respectively. The allochthonous organic carbon loading from the watershed and autochthonous organic carbon loading by primary production of phytoplankton were determined to be 1,122 tC/yr and 6,718 tC/yr, respectively. To prevent eutrophication of Lake Juam, nutrient management of watershed should be focus on reduction of fertilizer application, proper treatment of manure, and conservation of topsoil as well as point source.

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The Limnological Survey of a Coastal Lagoon in Korea (2): Lake Hyangho (동해안 석호의 육수학적 조사(2): 향호)

  • Kwon, Sang-Yong;Lee, Jae-Il;Kim, Dong-Jin;Kim, Bom-Chul;Heo, Woo-Myung
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2004
  • The limnological characteristics of a coastal lagoon were studied in Lake Hyangho, one of a series of brackish lagoons along the eastern coast of Korea. Phytoplankton community structure, physical factors, and chemical factors were surveyed from May 1998 through November 2002 on a two-month interval basis. Temperature, salinity, Secchi disc transparency, TN, TP, organic matter content of sediment, chlorophyll a concentration, dominant phytoplankton species, and phytoplankton cell density were measured. Salinity gradient was formed between the overlying freshwater stream water and the permeated seawater at the bottom. The chemocline was persistent at the depth of 2 ${\sim}$ 5 m that caused discontinuities of salinity, DO, and temperature profiles. The inversion of vertical temperature profiles with higher temperature in deeper layer was observed in early winter. Secchi disc transparency was very low with the range of 0.1 to 1.1m. TP, TN, and Chl. a concentration in the epilimnion was 0.011 ${\sim}$ 0.238 mgP $L^{-l}$, 0.423 ${\sim}$ 2.443 mgN $L^{-l}$, and 0.7 ${\sim}$ 145.2 mg $m^{-3}$, respectively. Sediment was composed of silt and coarse silt. COD, TP, and TN content of dry sediment were 19.7 ${\sim}$ 73.3 mg$O_2\;g^{-1}$, 0.61 ${\sim}$ 1.32 mgP $g^{-l}$ and 0.64 ${\sim}$ 0.88 mgN $g^{-l}$, respectively. Dominant phytoplankton species were chlorophytes (Ankistrodesmus falcatus) and cyanobacteria (Oscillatoria sp. and Merismopedia tennuissima). The total cell density was in the range of 560 ${\sim}$ 35,255 cells $mL^{-l}$.

Phytoplankton Community Change of Lake Paldang by Increasing $CO_2$ and Temperature during Spring Cold Water Season ($CO_2$와 수온 증가에 대한 봄철 저수온기 팔당호 식물플랑크톤군집 변화)

  • Lee, Ka-Ram;Sung, Eun-Ju;Park, Hye-Jin;Park, Chae-Hong;Park, Myung-Hwan;Hwang, Soon-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.588-595
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    • 2013
  • This study investigated the influence of temperature and $CO_2$ increase on phytoplankton growth and community structure during cold water season (spring) in Lake Paldang, Korea. Four experimental treatments of temperature and $CO_2$ manipulation were prepared in the laboratory batch culture: (1) Control; ambient low temperature ($6{\pm}2^{\circ}C$) and low $CO_2$ (air level, $400mgL^{-1}$), (2) T1; low temperature and high $CO_2$ ($800mgL^{-1}$), (3) T2; high temperature ($20{\pm}2^{\circ}C$) and low $CO_2$, (4) T3; high temperature and high $CO_2$. Algal growth experiment was carried out for 10 days under the light intensity of $70{\mu}mol\;m^{-2}s^{-1}$ (L :D=24 : 0). The level of pH decreased in both T1 and T3, due to dissolution of added $CO_2$. The dominant phytoplankton species of ambient water, Cyclotella meneghiniana succeeded to Fragilaria capucina var. gracilis in high-temperature treatment groups (T2 and T3). Cyanobacteria were very rare at the beginning of the experiment, while Oscillatoria limnetica appeared in only high-temperature groups (T2 and T3) at $6{\sim}7^{th}$ day. $CO_2$ addition in ambient temperature (T1) induced the highest phytoplankton growth, and thereby producing the highest average cell density of $3.27{\pm}0.33\;10^4\;cells\;mL^{-1}$, followed by T2 ($2.65{\pm}0.26\;10^4\;cells\;mL^{-1}$), T3 ($2.09{\pm}0.16\;10^4\;cells\;mL^{-1}$), and Control ($1.86{\pm}0.13\;10^4\;cells\;mL^{-1}$) (F=7.167, p=0.000). In summary, temperature increase changed the phytoplankton community structure and $CO_2$ increase promoted the phytoplankton growth during the cold spring season in Lake Paldang, suggesting a potential effect of climate change on freshwater phytoplankton.

Plankton Community Response to Physico-Chemical Forcing in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea during Summer 2008 (2008년 하계 울릉분지에서 관측된 물리·화학적 외압에 대한 플랑크톤 군집의 반응)

  • Rho, Tae-Keun;Kim, Yun-Bae;Park, Jeong-In;Lee, Yong-Woo;Im, Dong-Hoon;Kang, Dong-Jin;Lee, Tong-Sup;Yoon, Seung-Tae;Kim, Tae-Hoon;Kwak, Jung-Hyun;Park, Hyun-Je;Jeong, Man-Ki;Chang, Kyung-Il;Kang, Chang-Keun;Suh, Hae-Lip;Park, Myung-Won
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.269-289
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    • 2010
  • In Summer 2008, a multidisciplinary survey was conducted onboard R/V Haeyang 2000 to understand plankton response to the three distinct physico-chemical settings that developed in the Ulleung Basin of the East Sea. Baseline settings of hydrographic conditions included the presence of the thin (<20 m) Tsushima Surface Water (TSW) on top of the Tsushima Middle Water (TMW). It extends from the Korea Strait to $37^{\circ}N$ along the $130^{\circ}E$ and then turns offshore and encompasses the relatively saline (T>$26^{\circ}C$, S>33.7) Ulleung Warm Eddy surface water centered at $36.5^{\circ}N$ and $131^{\circ}E$. A relatively colder and saline water mass appeared off the southeastern coast of Korea. It was accompanied by higher nutrient and chlorophyll-a concentrations, suggesting a coastal upwelling. Most of the offshore surface waters support low phytoplankton biomass (0.3 mg chl-a $m^{-3}$). A much denser phytoplankton biomass (1-2.3 mg $m^{-3}$) accumulated at the subsurface layer between 20-50 m depth. The subsurface chlorophyll-a maximum (SCM) layer was closely related to the nutricline, suggesting an active growth of phytoplankton at depth. The SCM developed at shallow depth (20-30 m) near the coast and deepened offshore (50-60 m). A fucoxanthin/zeaxanthin ratio was high in coastal waters while it was low in offshore waters, which indicated that diatoms dominate coastal waters while cyanobacteria dominate offshore waters. The community structure and biomass of phytoplanktonare closely related to nitrogen availability. Zooplankton biomass was higher in the coastal region than in the offshore region while species richness showed an opposite trend. Zooplankton community structure retained a coastal/offshore contrast. These suggest that summer hydrography is a stable structure, lasting long enough to allow a hydrography-specific plankton community to evolve.

Seasonal Variations of Epilithic Biofilm Biomass and Community Structure at Byeonsan Peninsula, Korea (한국 변산반도 암반생물막의 생물량과 군집구조의 계절 변화)

  • Kim, Bo Yeon;Park, Seo Kyoung;Lee, Jung Rok;Choi, Han Gil
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.1009-1021
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    • 2016
  • The community structure and abundance of epilithic biofilm were bimonthly examined to know spatial and temporal patterns of biofilm biomass and taxonimical composition at the two study sites, Gosapo and Gyeokpo with different degrees of wave exposure levels from November 2010 to September 2011. Biomass was estimated by using chlorophyll a contents (Chl a), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and vegetation index (VI). Cyanobacteria such as Aphanotece spp. predominated in the proportion of 57.53% at Gosapo and of 61.12% at Gyeokpo and they are abundant in mid shore and in summer at both study sites. The diatoms Navicula spp., Achnanthes spp. and Licmophora spp. were common species and they showed an increasing trend from high to low shore. NDVI, VI, and chl a contents were the greatest at mid shore for Gosapo (0.44, 3.05, $24.56{\mu}g/cm^2$) and at low shore for Gyeokpo (0.41, 2.73, $17.98{\mu}g/cm^2$). NDVI, VI, and chl a content were all maximal in January and minimal in March at the both sites. Average NDVI, VI, and chlorophyll a contents of biofilms were greater at Gosapo (0.43, 2.89, $22.84{\mu}g/cm^2$) than Gyeokpo (0.38, 2.48, $15.48{\mu}g/cm^2$).Of three shore levels(high, mid, and low) Chl a contents were positively correlated with NDVI and VI at the two study sites indicating that non-destructive NDVI and VI values can be used in stead of destructive Chl a extraction method. In conclusion, epilithic biofilm was more abundant seasonally in winter, vertically in mid and low intertidal zone, and horizontally at wave exposed shore than in summer, at high and sheltered shore in Korea.