• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cyclin E

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Prognostic Significance of Cyclin E and p27 in Stage 1 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (제1병기 비소세포폐암에서 Cyclin E와 p27의 발현과 예후)

  • 조봉균;조성래;천봉권
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2003
  • Cyclin I plays a pivotal role in the regulation of G1-S transition and could consequently be a deregulated molecule in tumors. The activity of the cdk2-cyclin E complex is increased by degradation of cdk inhibitor p27kip1. Little is known about the expression and prognostic significance of cyclin E and p27 in non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC). Material and Method: The expression of cyclin E and p27 in eighty-one cases of resected stage I NSCLC tissues and its relation to major clinico-pathological factors, including histology, differentiation, size of tumor, pleural invasion and survival rate were studied and analyzed. Immunohistochemical analysis with monoclonal antibodies specific for cyclin E and p27 were performed by ABC method. Result: Expression rates of cyclin E and p27 in stage I NSCLC tissues were 29.6% and 28.4% respectively. Cyclin E was expressed higher in cases of pleural invasion(p=0.04), and p27 was expressed higher in diameter of tumor less than 3cm(p=0.015). The 5-years survival rate was lower in cases of Positive expression of cyclin E than in cases of negative expression of cyclin E(44.4% vs 68.2%, p=0.015), and the 5-years survival rate was 72.2% in positive expression of p27 and 56.2% in negative expression of p27(p=0.09). The 5-years survival rate was higher in negative expression of cyclin E and positive expression of p27 than in cases of positive expression of cyclin I and negative expression of p27 (73.5% vs 36.3%, p=0.0029). In multivariate analysis, expression of cyclin I was an unfavorable prognostic factor(RR=3.578, p=0.006) and p27 was a favorable prognostic factor(RR=0.183, p=0.019) independently. Conclusion: Cyclin E and p27 may play a pivotal role for the biological behavior of stage I NSCLC, so that the expressions of cyclin I and p27 nay be new prognostic markers.

Prognostic Impact of Cyclin D1, Cyclin E and P53 on Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours

  • Liu, Shu-Zheng;Zhang, Fang;Chang, Yu-Xi;Ma, Jie;Li, Xu;Li, Xiao-Hong;Fan, Jin-Hu;Duan, Guang-Cai;Sun, Xi-Bin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.419-422
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    • 2013
  • Conventional classifications of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NETs) are rather unsatisfactory because of the variation in survival within each subgroup. Molecular markers are being found able to predict patient outcome in more and more tumours. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of the proteins cyclin D1, cyclin E and P53 in GEP-NETs and assess any prognostic impact. Tumor specimens from 68 patients with a complete follow-up were studied immunohistochemically for cyclin D1, cyclin E and P53 expression. High cyclin D1 and cyclin E immunostaining (${\geq}$ 5% positive nuclei) was found in 48 (71%) and 24 (35%) cases, and high P53 staining (${\geq}$ 10% positive nuclei) in 33 (49%). High expression of P53 was more common in gastric neuroendocrine tumors and related to malignant behavior, being associate with a worse prognosis on univariate analysis (RR=1.9, 95%CI=1.1-3.2). High expression of cyclin E was significantly associated with shorter survival in the univariate analysis (RR=2.0, 95%CI=1.2-3.6) and multivariate analysis (RR=2.1, 95%CI=1.1-4.0). We found no significant correlation between the expression of cyclin D1 and any clinicopathological variables. Our study indicated a prognostic relevance for cyclin E and P53 immunoreactivity. Cyclin E may be an independent prognostic factor from the 2010 WHO Classification which should be evaluated in further studies.

Anti-Proliferative Activity of Ethanol Extracts from Taxilli Ramulus (Taxillus chinensis (DC.) Danser) Through Cyclin D1 Proteasomal Degradation in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

  • Park, Gwang Hun;Song, Hun Min;Park, Su Bin;Park, Ji Hye;Shin, Myeong Su;Son, Ho-Jun;Um, Yurry;Jeong, Jin Boo
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.640-646
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    • 2017
  • In this study, we elucidated anti-cancer activity and potential molecular mechanism of 70% ethanol extracts from Taxilli Ramulus (Taxillus chinensis (DC.) Danser) (TR-E70) against human colorectal cancer cells. Anti-cell proliferative effect of TR-E70 was evaluated by MTT assay. The effect of TR-E70 on the expression of cyclin D1 in the protein and mRNA level was evaluated by Western blot and RT-PCR, respectively. TR-E70 suppressed the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT116 and SW480. Although TR-E70 decreased cyclin D1 expression in protein and mRNA level, decreased level of cyclin D1 protein by TR-E70 more dramatically occurred than that of cyclin D1 mRNA. Cyclin D1 downregulation by TR-E70 was attenuated in presence of MG132. In addition, TR-E70 phosphorylated threonine-286 (T286) of cyclin D1. TR-E70-mediated cyclin D1 degradation was blocked in presence of LiCl as an inhibitor $GSK3{\beta}$ but not PD98059 as an ERK1/2 inhibitor and SB203580 as a p38 inhibitor. Our results suggest that TR-E70 may downregulate cyclin D1 as one of the potential anti-cancer targets through $GSK3{\beta}$-dependent cyclin D1 degradation. From these findings, TR-E70 has potential to be a candidate for the development of chemoprevention or therapeutic agents for human colorectal cancer.

Expression of Cell Cycle Related Genes in HL60 Cells Undergoing Apoptosis by X-irradiation (HL60 세포주에서 방사선 조사에 의한 Apoptosis와 세포 주기 관련 유전자의 발현 변화)

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Park, In-Kyu
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.377-388
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : To evaluate changes in expression of cell cycle related genes during apoptosis induced in HL60 cells by X-irradiation to understand molecular biologic aspects in mechanism of radiation therapy. Material and Methods : HL-60 cell line (promyelocytic leukemia cell line) was grown in culture media and irradiated with 8 Gr by linear accelerator (6 MV X-ray). At various times after irradiation, ranging from 3 to 48 hours were analyzed apoptotic DNA fragmentation assay for apoptosis and by western blot analysis and semi-quantitative RT-PCR for expression of cell cycle related genes (cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin C, cyclin Dl, cyclin E, cdc2, CDK2, CDK4, $p16^{INK4a}$, $p21^{WAF1}$, $p27^{KIP1}$, E2F, PCNA and Rb). Results : X-irradiation (8 Gy) induced apoptosis in HL-60 cell line. Cycline A protein increased after reaching its peak 48 h after radiation delivery and cyclin E, E2F, CDK2 and RB protein increased then decreased after radiation. Radiation induced up-regulation of the expression of E2F is due to mostly increase of Phosphorylated retinoblastoma proteins (ppRb). Cyclin Dl, PCNA, CDC2, CDK4 and $p16^{INK4a}$ protein underwent no significant change at any times after irradiation. There was not detected $p21^{WAF1}$ and $p27^{KIP1}$ protein. Cyclin A, B, C mRNA decreased immediately after radiation and then increased at 12 h after radiation. Cyclin Dl mRNA increased immediately and then decreased at 48 h after radiation. After radiation, cyclin E mRNA decreased with the lapse of time. CDK2 mRNA decreased at 3h and increased at eh after radiation. CDK4 mRNA rapidly increased at 6 to 12 h after radiation. There was no change of expression of $p16^{INK4a}$ and not detected in expressin of $p21^{WAF1}$ and $p27^{KIP1}$ mRNA. Conclusion : We suggest that entry into S phase may contribute to apoptosis of HL60 cells induced by irradiation. Increase of ppRb and decrease of pRb protein are related with radiation induced auoptosis of HL60 cells and tosis of HL60 cells induced by irradiation. Increase of ppRb and decrease of PRb protein are related with radiation induced apoptosis of HL60 cells and this may be associated with induction of E2F and cyclinE/CDK2. These results support that $p21^{WAF1}$ and $p27^{KIP1}$ are not related with radiation induced-apoptosis.

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Anti-proliferative Activity of Ethanol Extracts of Root of Aralia cordata var. continentalis through Proteasomal Degradation of Cyclin D1 in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells (독활 에탄올 추출물의 대장암 세포에서 Cyclin D1 단백질 분해 유도를 통한 세포 생육 억제활성)

  • Park, Su Bin;Park, Gwang Hun;Song, Hun Min;Park, Ji Hye;Shin, Myeong Su;Son, Ho Jun;Um, Yurry;Jeong, Jin Boo
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.328-334
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    • 2017
  • Background: In this study, we evaluated the anti-cancer activity and potential molecular mechanism of 70% ethanol extracts of the root of Aralia cordata var. continentalis (Kitagawa) Y. C. Chu (RAc-E70) against human colorectal cancer cells. Methods and Results: RAc-E70 suppressed the proliferation of the human colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT116 and SW480. Although RAc-E70 reduction cyclin D1 expression at the protein and mRNA levels, RAc-E70-induced reduction in cyclin D1 protein level occurred more dramatically than that of cyclin D1 mRNA. The RAc-E70-induced downregulation of cyclin D1 expression was attenuated in the presence of MG132. Additionally, RAc-E70 reduced HA-cyclin D1 levels in HCT116 cells transfected with HA-tagged wild type-cyclin D1 expression vector. RAc-E70-mediated cyclin D1 degradation was blocked in the presence of LiCl, a $GSK3{\beta}$ inhibitorbut, but not PD98059, an ERK1/2 inhibitor and SB203580, a p38 inhibitor. Furthermore, RAc-E70 phosphorylated cyclin D1 at threonine-286 (T286), and LiCl-induced $GSK3{\beta}$ inhibition reduced the RAc-E70-mediated phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at T286. Conclusions: Our results suggested that RAc-E70 may downregulate cyclin D1 expression as a potential anti-cancer target through $GSK3{\beta}$-dependent cyclin D1 degradation. Based on these findings, RAc-E70 maybe a potential candidate for the development of chemopreventive or therapeutic agents for human colorectal cancer.

Immunohistochemical Prognostic Factors in Soft Tissue Sarcoma (연부조직 육종에서 면역조직화학적 예후인자)

  • Choi, Kyung-Un;Kim, Jeung-Il;Moon, Nam-Hoon
    • The Journal of the Korean bone and joint tumor society
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.106-118
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: Disturbed cell cycle regulatory proteins are key events underlying the development and/or progression of human malignancies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the protein expression status involved in G1/S cell cycle in human soft tissue sarcoma. Materials and Methods: We simultaneously evaluated the expression of Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, CDK4, CDK2, p16, p27, Rb, E2F1, p53 and Ki-67 by immunohistochemistry in 43 cases of soft tissue sarcoma Results: The Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, CDK4, CDK2, E2F1, and p53 were expressed in 25 (58.1%), 18 (41.9%), 13 (30.2%), 33 (76.7%), 20 (46.5%), and 18 cases (41.9%). The p16, p27, and Rb expressions were decreased in 26 (60.5%), 22 (51.2%) and 19 cases (44.2%). All of the cases showed alterations of more than one out of the above proteins. The increased Cyclin E expression and Ki-67 labeling index (LI) were significantly associated with histologic grade. The Cyclin E and E2F-1 expressions were increased in relapsed cases and the CDK4 expression was increased in cases of metastasis. Conclusion: Alterations of G1/S cell cycle regulatory proteins may play an important role in the tumoriogensis of soft tissue sarcomas. Our results suggest that increased expressions of Cyclin E, E2F1, and CDK4 were associated with tumor relapse or metastasis and could be considered as parameters of prognosis of soft tissue sarcoma.

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Transcriptional Activation and Repression of Cell Cycle Regulatory Molecules by Trichostatin A (Trichostatin A 처리에 의하 세포주기 조절인자들의 전사활성화 및 불활성화)

  • Baek Jong-Soo;Lee Hee-Kyung;Cho Young-Su;Kim Sung-Young;Park Kwan-Kyu;Chang Young-Chae
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.994-1004
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    • 2005
  • The dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) promoter contains cis-acting element for the transcription factors Spl and E2F. Transcription of dhfr gene shows maximal activity during the Gl/S phase of cell cycle. The member of the Spl transcriptional factor family can act as both negative and positive regulators of gene expression. There was a report that Spl-Rb and E2F4-pl30 complexes cooperate to establish stable repression of dhfr gene expression in CHOC400 cells. Here, we examined the role of HDAC in dhfr, cyclin E, and cyclin A gene regulation using the histone deacetylation inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA) in U2OS and C33A cells, a Rb-positive human osteosarcoma cell line, and a Rb-negative cervical carcinoma cell line, respectively. When the dhfr promoter constructs were applied in U2OS cells, TSA markedly stimulated over 14-fold of dhfr promoter activity through dhfr-Spl sites by the deletion of an E2F element. In contrast, the deletion of dhfr-Spl binding sites completely abolished promoter stimulation by TSA. The dhfr promoter activity including dhfr-Spl sites increased only 2-fold in C33A cells. Promoter activity containing only dhfr-E2F site did not have much effect by the treatment of TSA in both U2OS and C33A cells. On the other hand, treatment with TSA induced significantly mRNA expression of dhfr and cyclin E, whereas levels of cyclin A decreased in U2OS cells, but had no effect in C33A cells. These results indicate that TSA have contradictory effect, activation of dhfr and cyclin E genes on Gl phase, and down-regulation of cyclin A on G2 phase through transcriptional regulation in U2OS cells.

Rabbit Antibody Raised against Murine Cyclin D3 Protein Overexpressed in Bacterial System

  • Jun, Do-Youn;Kim, Mi-Kyung;Kim, Young-Ho
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.6 no.6
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    • pp.474-481
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    • 1996
  • Since the commercially available rabbit anti-cyclin D3, generated from c-terminal 16 amino acid residues which are common to human and murine cyclin D3, is highly cross-reactive with many other cellular proteins of mouse, a new rabbit polyclonal anti-cyclin D3 has been raised by using murine cyclin D3 protein expressed at a high level in Escherichia coli as the immunogen. To express murine cyclin D3 protein in E. coli, the cyclin D3 cDNA fragment encoding c-terminal 236 amino acid residues obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was inserted into the NcoI/BamHI site of protein expression vector, pET 3d. Molecular mass of the cyclin D3 overexpressed in the presence of IPTG (Isopropyl $\beta$-D-thiogalactopyranoside) was approximately 26 kDa as calculated from the reading frame on the DNA sequence, and the protein was insoluble and mainly localized in the inclusion bodies that could be easily purified from the other cellular soluble proteins. When renaturation was performed following denaturation of the insoluble cyclin D3 protein in the inclusion bodies using guanidine hydrochloride, 4.4 mg of soluble form of cyclin D3 protein was produced from the transformant cultured in 100ml of LB media under the optimum conditions. Four-hundred micrograms of the soluble form of cyclin D3 protein was used for each immunization of a rabbit. When the antiserum obtained 2 weeks after tertiary immunization was applied to Western blot analysis, it was able to detect 33 kDa cyclin D3 protein in both murine lymphoma cell line BW5147.G.1.4 and human Jurkat T cells at 3,000-fold dilution with higher specificity to murine cyclin D3, demonstrating that the new rabbit polyclonal anti-murine cyclin D3 generated against c-terminal 236 amino acid residues more specifically recognizes murine cyclin D3 protein than does the commercially available rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against c-terminal 16 amino acids residues.

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A Functional SNP in the MDM2 Promoter Mediates E2F1 Affinity to Modulate Cyclin D1 Expression in Tumor Cell Proliferation

  • Yang, Zhen-Hai;Zhou, Chun-Lin;Zhu, Hong;Li, Jiu-Hong;He, Chun-Di
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.3817-3823
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    • 2014
  • Background: The MDM2 oncogene, a negative regulator of p53, has a functional polymorphism in the promoter region (SNP309) that is associated with multiple kinds of cancers including non-melanoma skin cancer. SNP309 has been shown to associate with accelerated tumor formation by increasing the affinity of the transcriptional activator Sp1. It remains unknown whether there are other factors involved in the regulation of MDM2 transcription through a trans-regulatory mechanism. Methods: In this study, SNP309 was verified to be associated with overexpression of MDM2 in tumor cells. Bioinformatics predicts that the T to G substitution at SNP309 generates a stronger E2F1 binding site, which was confirmed by ChIP and luciferase assays. Results: E2F1 knockdown downregulates the expression of MDM2, which confirms that E2F1 is a functional upstream regulator. Furthermore, tumor cells with the GG genotype exhibited a higher proliferation rate than TT, correlating with cyclin D1 expression. E2F1 depletion significantly inhibits the proliferation capacity and downregulates cyclin D1 expression, especially in GG genotype skin fibroblasts. Notably, E2F1 siRNA effects could be rescued by cyclin D1 overexpression. Conclusion: Taken together, a novel modulator E2F1 was identified as regulating MDM2 expression dependent on SNP309 and further mediates cyclin D1 expression and tumor cell proliferation. E2F1 might act as an important factor for SNP309 serving as a rate-limiting event in carcinogenesis.

Role of E-cadherin and cyclin D1 as predictive markers of aggression and clonal expansion in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

  • Shergill, Khushdeep;Sen, Arijit;Pillai, Hari Janardanan
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.182-190
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. Inconsistency in various histopathologic features for predicting nodal metastasis and overall prognosis and a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of tumourigenesis have shifted the focus to a search for more definitive predictive markers. To identify the role of two immunohistochemical (IHC) markers, E-cadherin and cyclin D1, as predictive markers of aggressiveness in HNSCC and to assess clonal expansion of tumour cells. Materials and Methods: A total of 66 cases of HNSCC with neck node dissection were studied. IHC was performed on primary tumour sections and lymph nodes showing metastatic deposits. Histopathological parameters such as tumour grade and TNM stage together with nodal status were compared according to expression of the two markers. Fischer's chi-square test was used to assess the correlation between the two markers and histopathological parameters. Results: Out of 66 cases studied, 37 showed LN metastasis. Most of the patients were male, and the most common tumour site was buccal mucosa. We found a significant association between loss of E-cadherin and node metastasis (P<0.001) and higher TNM stage (P<0.001). Cyclin D1 overexpression was significantly associated with only nodal metastasis (P=0.007). No significant association with tumour grade was found for either marker. The subgroup of E-cadherin loss with cyclin D1 overexpression was associated with the maximum incidence of nodal metastasis and higher TNM stage, highlighting the importance of using a combination of these two markers. A significant association was noted between the expression of markers at the primary site and at nodal deposits, indicating clonal expansion. Conclusion: A combination of the two markers E-cadherin and cyclin D1 can predict prognosis in HNSCC, although tumour heterogeneity may affect this association in some cases.