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The Evaluation of the atomic composition and the surface roughness of Titanium Implants following Various Laser treatment with air-powder abrasive (레이저 처리후 임프란트 표면 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Tae-Jung;Lim, Sung-Bin;Chung, Chin-Hyung
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.615-630
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    • 2002
  • Various long-term studies have shown that titanium implants as abutments for different types of prostheses have become a predictable adjunct in the treatment of partially or fully edentulous patients. The continuous exposure of dental implants to the oral cavity with all its possible contaminants creates a problem. A lack of attachment, together with or caused by bacterial insult, may lead to peri-implantitis and eventual implant failure. Removal of plaque and calculus deposits from dental titanium implants with procedures and instruments originally made for cleaning natural teeth or roots may cause major alterations of the delicate titanium oxide layer. Therefore, the ultimate goal of a cleaning procedure should be to remove the contaminants and restore the elemental composition of the surface oxide without changing the surface topography and harming the surrounding tissues. Among many chemical and mechanical procedure, air-powder abrasive have been known to be most effective for cleaning and detoxification of implant surface. Most of published studies show that the dental laser may be useful in the treatment of pen-implantitis. $CO_2$ laser and Soft Diode laser were reported to kill bacteria of implant surface. The purpose of this study was to obtain clinical guide by application these laser to implant surface by means of Non-contact Surface profilometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) with respect to surface roughness and atomic composition. Experimental rough pure titanium cylinder models were fabricated. All of them was air-powder abraded for 1 minute and they were named control group. And then, the $CO_2$ laser treatment under dry, hydrogen peroxide and wet condition or the Soft Diode laser treatment under Toluidine blue O solution condition was performed on the each of the control models. The results were as follows: 1. Mean Surface roughness(Ra) of all experimental group was decreased than that of control group. But it wasn't statistically significant. 2. XPS analysis showed that in the all experimental group, titanium level were decreased, when compared with control group. 3. XPS analysis showed that the level of oxygen in the experimental group 1, 3($CO_2$ laser treatment under dry and wet condition) and 4(Soft Diode laser was used under toluidine blue O solution) were decreased, when compared with control group. 4. XPS analysis showed that the atomic composition of experimental group 2($CO_2$ laser treatment under hydrogen peroxide) was to be closest to that of control group than the other experimental group. From the result of this study, this may be concluded. Following air-powder abrasive treatment, the $CO_2$ laser in safe d-pulse mode and the Soft Diode laser used with photosensitizer would not change rough titanium surface roughness. Especially, $CO_2$ laser treatment under hydrogen peroxide gave the best results from elemental points of view, and can be used safely to treat peri-implantitis.

Water Repellent Finishes of Polyester Fiber Using Glow Discharge (글로우방전을 이용한 폴리에스테르섬유의 발수가공)

  • Mo, Sang Young;Kim, Gi Lyong;Kim, Tae Nyun;Chun, Tae Il
    • Textile Coloration and Finishing
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.29-41
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    • 1993
  • In order to surface Hydrophobilization of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fiber samples were treated in the atmosphere of CF$_{4}$ or $C_{2}$F$_{6}$glow discharge. The sample used in this study was PET film which is 75$\mu$m thick made by Teijin, O-Type(Japan). The cleaned samples were placed in plasma reactor made of pyrex glass cylinder, and plasma processing was carried out by glow discharge of CF$_{4}$ or $C_{2}$F$_{6}$ gas, being continuously fed by gas flow and continuously pumped out by a vacuum system. Electric power source for generate plasma state was sustained alternating current(60Hz) and voltage was sustained 600 volt. The duration of plasma treatment varied from 15 to 120 seconds except special case, the monomer gase pressure varied from 0.02 to 0.3 Torr and power range was 10 to 90 watts. The hydrophobic features of changed PET surface were evaluated by contact angle measurement and surface chemical characteristics were analyzed by ESCA. Results can be summerized as follows. 1. The most favorable setting position of substrate was the center area between the two electrodes. 2. $C_{2}$F$_{6}$ discharge current was lower than that of CF$_{4}$ when same voltage was sustained. Treated efficiency between CF$_{4}$ and $C_{2}$F$_{6}$ did not revealed significant differences under same electric power(wattage). 3. When monomer pressure is very low below 0.02 torr, as though substrate is exposed to CF$_{4}$ or $C_{2}$F$_{6}$ plasma, it tend to be hydrophilic through a little of fluorine bond and a great deal of oxidizing reaction. 4. There brought good hydrophobilization when monomer pressure was more 0.1 torr and duration of glow discharge treatment was over 45 seconds. When monomer pressure was too high, discharge current became low. Although prolong the duration, there was no more high hydrophobilization. 5. According to ESCA analysis, there were a little CF bond and a prevailing CF$_{2}$ bond in CF$_{4}$-treated substrate. There were CF$_{3}$, a little CF and a prevailing CF$_{2}$ bond in $C_{2}$F$_{6}$-treated substrate.d substrate.

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A Study on Types and Reasons of Engine Troubles Related to Fuel Oil (연료유에 의한 선박 디젤엔진 손상에 관한 연구)

  • Na, Eun-Young;Baik, Shin-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.143-150
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    • 2009
  • Fuel oil mostly used for a ship is made from crude oil by refining process. In order to produce plenty of high-quality fuel oil, the Fluid catalytic cracking(FCC) method is widely adopted to many refinery factories during the decomposition process from high molecule into lower molecule. The major constituents in spent FCC catalysts are Si, Al, Fe, Ti, alkali metals and some others. The spent catalyst is also composed small amounts of rare metals such as Ce, Nd, Ni and V. The big problem in FCC oil is mixing the catalyst in the oil. This reason is unstable separation of FCC catalyst in separator. Such a FCC catalyst will become a reason of heavy wear down in moving parts of engine. The impurity in oil is ash and deposit compound, such as Al, Si, Ni, Fe and V, which will accelerate the wear down on fuel pump, fuel injection valve cylinder liner and piston ring. It is important to find a basic reason of an engine trouble for preventing similar troubles anymore. Insurance compensation will be different according to the reason of an engine trouble which might be natural abrasion or other external causes. In this study, types and reasons of engine troubles related to fuel oil will be covered.

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FMECA Procedure for Failure Analysis of Train High-Speed Circuit Breaker (전동차 고속차단기 고장 분석을 위한 FMECA 기법)

  • Kim, Sung-Ryeol;Moon, Yong-Sun;Choi, Kyu-Hyoung
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.3370-3377
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    • 2015
  • FMECA(Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis) techniques to make quantitative evaluation of failure effects severity and criticality have been applied to systematic failure analysis for reliability improvement of train which should provide regular service and secure high level of safety as a mass transportation system. These FMECA techniques do not fully reflect the inherent train operation and maintenance circumstances because they are based on the FMECA standards devised for other industries such as automobile industry and FMECA standard dedicated to train industry has not been established yet. This paper analyzes FMECA standards for various industries, and suggests a FMECA technique dedicated to train industry which makes failure effect analysis and criticality analysis step by step and makes criticality analysis placing emphasis on the severity of the failure effect. The proposed technique is applied to FMECA of high-speed current breaker which is a core safety device of train using field failure data for 15 years of train maintenance. The FMECA results show that breakage of arc chute has the highest risk with 3rd severity class and 5th criticality class among all the components of high-speed circuit breaker. Damage and poor contact of electronic valve, and cylinder breakage with 3rd severity class and 4th criticality class are followed by. These results can be applied to improvement of design and maintenance process for high-speed circuit breaker of train.

Study on Evaluation of Effective Thermal Conductivity of Unsaturated Soil Using Average Capillary Pressure and Network Model (평균 모세관압과 네트워크 모델을 이용한 불포화토의 유효 열전도도 산정에 관한 연구)

  • Han, Eunseon;Lee, Chulho;Choi, Hyun-Jun;Choi, Hangseok
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.93-107
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    • 2013
  • Thermal conduction of the particulate composites or granular materials can be widely used in porous materials and geotechnical engineering. And it has continued to develop "effective thermal conductivity" of medium by modeling energy relationship among particles in medium. This study focuses on the development of the effective thermal conductivity at the unsaturated conditions of soils using the modified network model approach assisted by synthetic 3D random packed systems (DEM method, Discrete Element Method) at the particle scale. To verify the network model, three kinds of glass beads and the Jumunjin sand are used to obtain experimental values at various unsaturated conditions. The PPE (Pressure Plate Extractor) test is then performed to obtain SWCC (Soil-Water Characteristic Curve) of soil samples. In the modified network model, SWCC is used to adjust the equivalent radius of thermal cylinder at contact area between particles. And cutoff range parameter to define the effective zone is also adjusted according to the SWCC at given conditions. From a series of laboratory tests and the proposed network model, the modified network model which adopts a SWCC shows a good agreement in modeling thermal conductivity of granular soils at given conditions. And an empirical correlation between the fraction of the mean radius (${\chi}$) and thermal conductivity at given saturated condition is provided, which can be used to expect thermal conductivity of the granular soils, to estimate thermal conductivity of granular soils.