• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Cylinder contact

검색결과 156건 처리시간 0.039초

산부식후 상아질 표면의 습윤 또는 건조가 상아질 결합에 미치는 영향 (EFFECTS OF DENTIN SURFACE WETNESS OR DESICCATION AFTER ACID ETCHING ON DENTIN BONDING)

  • 양원경;권혁춘;손호현
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.243-253
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate dentin bonding by two different dentin bonding systems(DBS) using acetone based primer or adhesive [All Bond 2(AB2), One Step(OS)] when they were applied by wet or dry bonding technique. Morphology of resin-dentin interface and hybrid layer thickness(HLT) were investigated using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope(CLSM) and compared to shear bond strength(SBS). 72 extracted sound human molars were randomly divided into 4 groups of 18 teeth each - Group 1.(AW); AB2 by wet bonding. Group 2(AD); AB2 by dry bonding. Group 3.(OW); OS by wet bonding, Group 4.(OD); OS by dry bonding. In 6 teeth of each group, notch-shaped class V cavities(depth 2mm) were prepared on buccal and lingual surface at the cementoenamel juction(12 cavities per group). To obtain color contrast in CLSM observation, bonding resins of each DBS were mixed with rhodamine B and primer of AB2 was mixed with sodium fluorescein. Prepared teeth of each group were treated with AB2, OS, respectively according to the manufacturer's instructions except for dentin surface moisture treatment after acid etching. In group 1 and 3, after acid etching, excess water was removed with wet tissue(Kimwipes), leaving consistently shiny, visibly hydrated dentin surface. In group 2 and 4, dentin surface was dried for 10 seconds at 1 inch distance. The treated teeth were then packed with composite resin(${\AE}$litefil) and light-cured. 12 microscopic samples($60{\sim}80{\mu}m$ thickness) of each group were obtained after longitudinal section and grinding(Exakt cutting and grinding system). Morphological investigation of resin-dentin interface and HLT measurement using CLSM were done. For measurement of SBS, remaining 12 teeth of each group were flattened occlusally to remove all enamel and grinded to 500 grit SiC(Pedemet Specimen Preparation Equipment). After applying DBS on the exposed dentin surface, composite resin was applied in the shape of cylinder, which has 5mm diameter, 1.5mm thickness, and light cured. SBS was measured using Instron with a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min. It was concluded as follows, 1. HLT of AW(mean: $2.59{\mu}m$) was thicker than any other group, and followed by AD, OW, OD in descending order(mean; 2.37, 2.28, $1.92{\mu}m$). Only OD had statistically significant differences(p<0.05) to AW and AD. 2. There were intimate contact of resin and dentin at the interface in wet bonding groups, but gaps or irregular interfaces were observed in dry bonding groups. 3. The length, diameter, density of resin tags were various even in the same group without significant differences between groups and lots of adhesive lateral branches were observed. 4. There were no statistically significant difference of SBS between AB2 and OS, but SBS of wet bonding groups were significantly higher(p<0.05) than dry bonding groups. 5. There were no consistent relationships between HLT and SBS.

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레이저 처리후 임프란트 표면 변화에 관한 연구 (The Evaluation of the atomic composition and the surface roughness of Titanium Implants following Various Laser treatment with air-powder abrasive)

  • 김태정;임성빈;정진형
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.615-630
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    • 2002
  • Various long-term studies have shown that titanium implants as abutments for different types of prostheses have become a predictable adjunct in the treatment of partially or fully edentulous patients. The continuous exposure of dental implants to the oral cavity with all its possible contaminants creates a problem. A lack of attachment, together with or caused by bacterial insult, may lead to peri-implantitis and eventual implant failure. Removal of plaque and calculus deposits from dental titanium implants with procedures and instruments originally made for cleaning natural teeth or roots may cause major alterations of the delicate titanium oxide layer. Therefore, the ultimate goal of a cleaning procedure should be to remove the contaminants and restore the elemental composition of the surface oxide without changing the surface topography and harming the surrounding tissues. Among many chemical and mechanical procedure, air-powder abrasive have been known to be most effective for cleaning and detoxification of implant surface. Most of published studies show that the dental laser may be useful in the treatment of pen-implantitis. $CO_2$ laser and Soft Diode laser were reported to kill bacteria of implant surface. The purpose of this study was to obtain clinical guide by application these laser to implant surface by means of Non-contact Surface profilometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) with respect to surface roughness and atomic composition. Experimental rough pure titanium cylinder models were fabricated. All of them was air-powder abraded for 1 minute and they were named control group. And then, the $CO_2$ laser treatment under dry, hydrogen peroxide and wet condition or the Soft Diode laser treatment under Toluidine blue O solution condition was performed on the each of the control models. The results were as follows: 1. Mean Surface roughness(Ra) of all experimental group was decreased than that of control group. But it wasn't statistically significant. 2. XPS analysis showed that in the all experimental group, titanium level were decreased, when compared with control group. 3. XPS analysis showed that the level of oxygen in the experimental group 1, 3($CO_2$ laser treatment under dry and wet condition) and 4(Soft Diode laser was used under toluidine blue O solution) were decreased, when compared with control group. 4. XPS analysis showed that the atomic composition of experimental group 2($CO_2$ laser treatment under hydrogen peroxide) was to be closest to that of control group than the other experimental group. From the result of this study, this may be concluded. Following air-powder abrasive treatment, the $CO_2$ laser in safe d-pulse mode and the Soft Diode laser used with photosensitizer would not change rough titanium surface roughness. Especially, $CO_2$ laser treatment under hydrogen peroxide gave the best results from elemental points of view, and can be used safely to treat peri-implantitis.

글로우방전을 이용한 폴리에스테르섬유의 발수가공 (Water Repellent Finishes of Polyester Fiber Using Glow Discharge)

  • Mo, Sang Young;Kim, Gi Lyong;Kim, Tae Nyun;Chun, Tae Il
    • 한국염색가공학회지
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.29-41
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    • 1993
  • In order to surface Hydrophobilization of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fiber samples were treated in the atmosphere of CF$_{4}$ or $C_{2}$F$_{6}$glow discharge. The sample used in this study was PET film which is 75$\mu$m thick made by Teijin, O-Type(Japan). The cleaned samples were placed in plasma reactor made of pyrex glass cylinder, and plasma processing was carried out by glow discharge of CF$_{4}$ or $C_{2}$F$_{6}$ gas, being continuously fed by gas flow and continuously pumped out by a vacuum system. Electric power source for generate plasma state was sustained alternating current(60Hz) and voltage was sustained 600 volt. The duration of plasma treatment varied from 15 to 120 seconds except special case, the monomer gase pressure varied from 0.02 to 0.3 Torr and power range was 10 to 90 watts. The hydrophobic features of changed PET surface were evaluated by contact angle measurement and surface chemical characteristics were analyzed by ESCA. Results can be summerized as follows. 1. The most favorable setting position of substrate was the center area between the two electrodes. 2. $C_{2}$F$_{6}$ discharge current was lower than that of CF$_{4}$ when same voltage was sustained. Treated efficiency between CF$_{4}$ and $C_{2}$F$_{6}$ did not revealed significant differences under same electric power(wattage). 3. When monomer pressure is very low below 0.02 torr, as though substrate is exposed to CF$_{4}$ or $C_{2}$F$_{6}$ plasma, it tend to be hydrophilic through a little of fluorine bond and a great deal of oxidizing reaction. 4. There brought good hydrophobilization when monomer pressure was more 0.1 torr and duration of glow discharge treatment was over 45 seconds. When monomer pressure was too high, discharge current became low. Although prolong the duration, there was no more high hydrophobilization. 5. According to ESCA analysis, there were a little CF bond and a prevailing CF$_{2}$ bond in CF$_{4}$-treated substrate. There were CF$_{3}$, a little CF and a prevailing CF$_{2}$ bond in $C_{2}$F$_{6}$-treated substrate.d substrate.

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연료유에 의한 선박 디젤엔진 손상에 관한 연구 (A Study on Types and Reasons of Engine Troubles Related to Fuel Oil)

  • 나은영;백신영
    • 한국해양환경ㆍ에너지학회지
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.143-150
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    • 2009
  • 선박의 주기관이나 발전기관 등 디젤기관에서 사용하는 연료유는 원유를 정제해서 사용하고 있다. 석유화학공업에서 원유로부터 양질의 고급 휘발유를 많이 생산하기 위하여 촉매를 사용하는 유동접촉분해(FCC) 방법을 채택하여 원유를 분리하고 있다. 유동접촉분해 시 촉매의 주성분은 Si와 Al이며, 그 외에 Fe, Zn, Ti 등의 기본금속과 알칼리 금속 및 Ce, Nd, Ni, V 등의 희유금속이 함유되어 있다. 만일 선박에 사용되는 연료유에 이러한 성분의 촉매가 많이 혼입되어 Al, Si, Ni, V이나 Fe 등의 성분이 과다하게 되면 기관 부속품 마모가 아주 심하게 되고, 기관전체를 사용하지 못하게 되어 대형 해양 선박사고가 발생 할 수 있다. 다시 말해, 이런 성분이 많이 함유된 연료유를 기관에 사용하는 경우 연료펌프, 연료분사밸브, 실린더라이너, 피스톤링의 마모가 심하게 발생하게 된다. 따라서 이러한 사고를 예방하기 위하여 사고 발생현황에 대한 정확한 원인을 규명하고 밝히는 것이 중요하다. 아울러 그 사고의 원인이 자연적인 마모, 경년변화인가 또는 외적인 요인에 의한 사고인가에 따라 보험 보상 대상여부가 판명될 수 있어, 연료유로 인한 사고 원인규명은 아주 중요한 업무이다. 본 논문에서는 연료유 관련 사고가 발생한 선박을 대상으로 사고유형, 사고원인 및 예방법에 대한 검토를 하고 향후 선박의 디젤엔진에서 저질연료유 사용에 따른 문제점을 개선하도록 제시하고자 한다.

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전동차 고속차단기 고장 분석을 위한 FMECA 기법 (FMECA Procedure for Failure Analysis of Train High-Speed Circuit Breaker)

  • 김성렬;문용선;최규형
    • 한국산학기술학회논문지
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.3370-3377
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    • 2015
  • 전동차는 대용량 교통수단으로서 정시 운행 및 높은 안전성이 요구되기 때문에, 고장 분석을 체계적으로 수행하여 신뢰도를 향상시키기 위한 수단으로서 고장 영향의 심각도 및 치명도를 정량적으로 평가하는 FMECA (Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis) 기법이 적용되고 있다. 그러나, 아직까지 전동차에 특화된 FMECA 규격 및 절차는 정립되어 있지 않고 자동차 산업 등 다른 산업분야의 FMECA 규격을 그대로 적용하고 있기 때문에 전동차의 고유한 운영 및 유지보수 여건을 충분히 반영하지 못하고 있다. 본 논문에서는 산업계 각 분야에서 적용되고 있는 FMECA 규격에 대한 분석을 토대로, 전동차 분야에 적합한 FMECA 기법으로서 고장 영향 분석과 치명도 분석을 단계별로 나누어 수행하고 고장 영향의 심각도에 중점을 두어 치명도를 분석하는 기법을 제시하였다. 제안 기법을 전동차의 핵심 안전 장치인 고속차단기에 적용하여 도시철도 현장에서의 15년 동안의 전동차 유지보수 데이터를 이용하여 분석한 결과, 고속차단기 부품 중에서 특히 아크 슈트의 절손이 심각도 3등급, 치명도 5등급으로 위험도가 가장 높았으며, 뒤를 이어서 전자변 파손 및 접촉 불량, 실린더 파손 등이 심각도 3등급, 치명도 4등급으로 위험도가 높은 것으로 나타났다. 이상의 분석 결과는 전동차 고속차단기의 설계 및 유지보수 업무의 개선에 활용할 수 있다.

평균 모세관압과 네트워크 모델을 이용한 불포화토의 유효 열전도도 산정에 관한 연구 (Study on Evaluation of Effective Thermal Conductivity of Unsaturated Soil Using Average Capillary Pressure and Network Model)

  • 한은선;이철호;최현준;최항석
    • 한국지반공학회논문집
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.93-107
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    • 2013
  • 입상체의 열전도도 산정에 관한 연구는 다공질 매질이나 지반공학에서 다양하게 사용될 수 있다. 입상체의 열전도도 산정은 입자들 사이의 에너지 관계에 대한 모사를 통해 "유효 열전도도"를 획득하는 것으로 발전하였다. 본 연구는 불포화토의 유효 열전도도를 산정하기 위해 3차원 개별 요소법을 이용하여 입자를 생성하고 기존 네트워크 모델을 수정하여 적용하였다. 수정된 네트워크 모델을 검증하기 위해 3가지 다른 크기의 글라스 비즈와 주문진사를 이용하여 실내시험을 통해 흙-수분 특성 곡선과 포화도에 따른 시료의 열전도도를 산정하였다. 수정된 네트워크 모델에서는 흙-수분 특성 곡선을 사용하여 입자 사이의 평균 유효 열전달 실린더 반경을 조정하고 모델에 적용하였다. 일련의 실내시험과 수정된 네트워크 모델을 사용하여 결과를 비교한 결과, 흙-수분 특성 곡선을 적용한 네트워크 모델은 주어진 불포화 조건에서 입상체 시료의 유효 열전도도를 합리적으로 모사할 수 있는 것으로 나타났다. 또한, 포화상태의 유효 열전달 실린더 반경 계수로 정규화한 예측식을 제안하였다. 제안한 예측식을 통해 기존 네트워크 모델을 사용하여 불포화 상태에서 입상체의 유효 열전도도를 산정할 수 있다.