• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cytokine mRNA

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The Pattern of Cytokine myNA Expression Induced by Polysaccharide from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (항암 면역 증강 작용이 있는 인삼 다당체에 의한 cytokine mRNA의 발현)

  • 김기환;이인란;정인성;정희용;윤연숙
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.324-330
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    • 1998
  • We Previously reported that Polysaccharide Isolated from panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, stimulates murine splenocytes to proliferate and to be cytotoxic against a wide range of tumor cells in MHC non-restricted manner:) Therefore, we examined the cytokine mRNA expression induced by the ginseng polysaccharide in this paper. This study demonstrates that the ginseng polysaccharide stimulates Thl type cytosine expression such as IL-2 and IFNY, and macrophage type cytokine expression such as IL-lc and GM-CSF in a dose-dependent manner at different time: IL-2 mRNA was induced at 30 min, IL-la, GM-CSF mRNA at 3 hr, IFNY at 6 hr after the ginseng polysaccharide treatment. In contrast with these, Th2 type cytokine expression such as IL-4 and IL-5 was not induced. The generation of the ginseng polysaccharide-activated killer cells which was induced at the optimal doses of 50 pEyml was neutralized in the presence of anti-lL-2, anti-lFNy, anti-IL-l ${\alpha}$ antibodies, showing the importance of these cytokines produced by the ginseng polysaccharide. In flow cytometry analysis, the blastogenesis of IgM+ cells was induced on day 3 and the number of Thy 1.21 cells, CD4+ and CD8+ cells was increased on day 5. The ginseng polysaccharide also induced blastogenesis of T cells. In conclusion, the ginseng polysaccharide may have considerable antitumor immunotherapeutic modality by stimulating the cytokine production from Thl cells and macrophage and by proliferating lymphocytes.

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Effect of Asterina pectinifera Lectin on Cytokine Production (별불가사리(Asterina pectinifera) 렉틴의 사이토카인 생성 양상)

  • 전경희;최수정;정시련
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.474-480
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study is to define whether Asterina pectinifera Lectin (APL) is effective on the cytokine production. Isolated mRNA from hPBMC (human peripheral blood mononuclear cells) stimulated with APL for various reaction times (1 to 96 hours) was detected by RT-PCR. The intensity of band for IL-1 and $IFN{\gamma}$ mRNA was markedly increased at l hour, and IL-2 mRNA was strongly expressed at 4 hours. The mRNA band of APL-induced IL-2 and $IFN{\gamma}$ was weaker than that of IL-1, IL-6 and $TNF{\alpha}$. The mRNA expression of 4 cytokines (IL-1, IL-2, $IFN{\gamma}$ and $TNF{\alpha}$) was detected up to 48 hours, and that of IL-6 was detected until 72 hours. ELISA was used to look protein secretion of the cytokine gene with IL-1, IL-2 and TNF$\alpha$expressed strongly in RT-PCR. The highest protein secretion was at 4 hours with IL-1, at 8 hours with IL-2 and at 4 hours with $TNF{\alpha}$. These results suggest that APL can induce the production of some cytokines and the immune response from PBMC was done within the first few hours of stimulation with APL.

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Comparative study of Various Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture - By measuring the increase of life span of mice and Expression of cytokine mRNA -

  • Kwon, Ki-Rok;Kim, Byung-Woo
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.203-210
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    • 2005
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate anti-cancer effects of various ginseng herbal acupuncture in mice and expression of cytokine mRNA. Methods: Anti-cancer effects of various ginseng herbal acupuncture were tested by measuring the increase of life span of mice suffering from peritoneal cancer induced by Sarcoma-180, and expression of mRNA manifestation using RT-PCR. The results are as follows: Results: 1. Increase of life span of mice suffering from peritoneal cancer induced by Sarcoma-180 was measured for anti-cancer effects. As a result, 115% increase was shown in the cultivated wild ginseng group, 11.1% increase in the red ginseng group, and no increase was detected in either white ginseng and fresh ginseng groups. 2. Measuring the expression of cytokine mRNA manifestation, expression of $interferon-{\gamma}$ was slightly increased in the cultivated wild ginseng group compared to the control group, but manifestation of interleukin-10 was slightly decreased. 3. For the red ginseng, white ginseng, and fresh ginseng experiment groups II, IL-2, IL-4, $INF-{\gamma}$, and IL -10 all showed increase suggesting possible error occurring during the test process. Conclusion: From the results obtained in this study, we can reason that the ginseng we use may not match the ginseng cited in the texts of the past. Anti-cancer effects of cultivated wild ginseng can be more potent than those of white and fresh ginseng.

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Cytokine Expressions with Lectins from Allomyrina dichotoma and Bombyx mori (장수풍뎅이(Allomyrina dichotoma)와 누에(Bombyx mori) 렉틴의 사이토카인 생성 양상 비교)

  • Kim, Se-Jin;Chung, See-Ryun;Jeune, Kyung-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.129-135
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    • 2005
  • Lectins from Allomyrina dichotoma (ADL) and Bombyx mori (BML) were partially purified by physiological saline extraction, ammonium sulfate fractionation, anion exchange column chromatography on DEAE Sephadex A-50 and gel filtration column chromatography on Sephadex G-200. An assay for cytokine expression was carried out by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). mRNA isolated from PBMC(human peripheral blood mononuclear cells) were stimulated with ADL(O.D.=0.2) and BML(O.D.=0.1) for various times(1,4,8,24,48 and 72 h) and various cytokine mRNA assessed by RT-PCR were shown as follows: The patterns of bands for IL-1 mRNA of BML were very similar with those from ADL and these bands were decreased along the increasing reaction times after showing a strong band at 1 h. However mRNA expressions for IL-2, IL-6, $IFN{\gamma}$ and $TNF{\alpha}$ showed different patterns between ADL and BML. With the effect of ADL, the expression of IL-2 and IL-6 mRNA were continuously detected until 72 h with the strongest band of IL-2 mRNA at 24 h. The strong bands of $IFN{\gamma}$ mRNA were observed from 4 to 8 h but the strongest one of $TNF{\alpha}$ was just observed at 1 h. Meanwhile with BML, the bands for IL-2 and $IFN{\gamma}$ were increased along the increasing reaction times until 72 h. The strongest bands were showed from 4 to 8 h with IL-6 and at 8 h with $TNF[\alpha}$. To verify quantitatively ELISA was used for assay of protein secretions of the cytokine gene with IL-2 and $IFN{\gamma}$ expressed markedly different in RT-PCR. The highest cytokine secretion for IL-2 was demonstrated at 48 h. The production of $IFN{\gamma}$ was markedly increased at 24 h and secreted highest at 72 h. These result suggest that ADL and BML, as inducers of cytokines, can elicit detectable cytokine mRNA from PBMC within the first few hours of stimulation and maintain the production of cytokines for a few days by the methods of RT-PCR and ELISA.

Particulate Matter from Asian Dust Storms Induces the Expression of Proinflammatory Cytokine in A549 Epithelial Cells (PM10이 A549 Cells에서 전염증성 Cytokine발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jung Ho;Jeon, Hyo Keun;Kim, Mi Kyeong;Kyung, Sun Yong;An, Chang Hyeok;Lee, Sang Pyo;Park, Jung Woong;Jeong, Sung Hwan
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.60 no.6
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    • pp.663-672
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    • 2006
  • Background: $PM_{10}$(Particulate matter with a diameter ($<10{\mu}m$), which is characterized by different environmental conditions, is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds. The Asian dust event caused by meteorological phenomena can also produce unique particulate matter in affected areas. This study investigated the cytokine produced by A549 epithelial cells exposed to particles collected during both the Asian dust pfenomenon and ambient air particles in a non-dusty period. Method: Air samples were collected using a high volume air sampler(Sibata Model HV500F) with an air flow at $500{\ell}/min$ for at least 6 hours. The cytokine messenger RNA(mRNA) was measured using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). The A549 cells were exposed to 10 to $500{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of a suspension containing $PM_{10}$ for 24 hours. Each was compared with those in the non-exposed control cells. Result: The mRNA levels of interleukin(IL)-$1{\alpha}$, $IL-I{\beta}$, IL-8, and the granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor(GM-CSF) increased after veing exposed to $PM_{10}$ in the ambient air particles, compared with those in the non-exposed control cells. The increase in $IL-1{\alpha}$ and IL-8 were dose dependent at a $PM_{10}$ concentration between $100{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ and $500{\mu}g/m{\ell}$. The mRNA level of IL-8 in the A549 epithelial cells was higher during the in the Asian dust period($500{\mu}g/m{\ell}$) than during the non dust period. Conclusion: A549 cells exposed to the $PM_{10}$ collected during the Asian dust period produce more proinflammatory cytokine than during non-dusty period. This cytokine enhances the local inflammatory response in the airways and can also contribute to the systemic component of this inflammatory process.

Cytokine Gene Expression of Peritoneal Tissues in Response to Mixed Infection of Bacteroides fragilis and Escherichia coli (Bacteroides fragilis와 대장균의 혼합 감염에 의한 복강 조직의 Proinflammatory Cytokine 유전자 발현 조절)

  • Kim, Jung-Mogg;Kim, Young-Jeon;Park, Hwon-Kyum;Cho, Yang-Ja
    • The Journal of the Korean Society for Microbiology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.41-48
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    • 2000
  • Bacteroides fragilis and Escherichia coli, normal colonic inhabitants, are the most frequently isolated bacteria in infected tissues, particularly in intraabdominal abscesses. This study was designed to determine whether enteric bacteria may alter the B. fragilis-induced expression of pro inflammatory cytokines in mouse peritoneal tissue (MPT). After C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with abscess-forming mixture containing B. fragilis in the presence or absence of E. coli, RNA was extracted from MPT. Expression of interleukin (IL)-$1{\alpha}$ and tumor necrosis factor $(TNF){\alpha}$ mRNA was assessed using RT-PCR and standard RNA. Each cytokine protein was also measured by ELISA. The co-inoculation of E. coli into mouse peritoneal cavity advanced the onset of abscess development by B. fragilis infection. When mouse was co-infected with E. coli and B. fragilis intraperitoneally, there was a synergistic increase in the expression of IL-$1{\alpha}$ and $TNF{\alpha}$ mRNA in MPT and this was paralleled by increased cytokine protein secretion. Mixed inoculation of heat-killed E. coli and B. fragilis did not cause a synergistic increase in those cytokine mRNA expression. These results suggest that enteric bacteria may significantly affect proinflammatory cytokine signal produced by host peritoneal cavity in response to B. fragilis infection.

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Cytokine mRNA Expression in the Small Intestine of Weanling Pigs Fed Diets Supplemented with Specialized Protein or Peptide Sources

  • Zhao, J.;Harper, A.F.;Webb, K.E. Jr.;Kuehn, L.A.;Gilbert, E.;Xiao, X.;Wong, E.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.1800-1806
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    • 2008
  • Cytokines play a central role in the mucosal immune response and are involved in regulation of nutrient absorption, metabolism and animal growth. This study investigated the effect of diet manipulation with specialized protein or peptide sources on expression of cytokine (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-${\alpha}$) mRNA abundance in different intestinal regions and at different ages post-weaning in piglets. A total of 48 (17 days of age, $6.16{\pm}0.34kg\;BW$) weanling pigs were fed either a corn-soy/whey protein basal diet, the basal diet supplemented with spray-dried plasma protein (SDPP), or the basal diet supplemented with $Peptiva^{(R)}$, a hydrolyzed marine plant protein. A fourth treatment group was fed the SDPP diet, but the feed intake level was limited (SDPP-LF). Pigs were killed at 3 and 10 d, and intestinal cytokine mRNA was measured by real-time PCR using the relative quantification method. The SDPP-LF group exhibited an increased TNF-${\alpha}$ mRNA abundance compared with the ad libitum SDPP group (p<0.05). The TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-10 mRNA abundance increased from the proximal to distal part of the intestine, and the mRNA abundance was greater (p<0.01) in the distal intestine as compared with the proximal and middle intestine. The cytokines IL-1-${\beta}$, IL-10 and TNF-${\alpha}$ mRNA abundance also increased from d3 to d10 postweaning (p<0.01). In summary, restricted feeding increased the TNF-${\alpha}$ mRNA abundance in the small intestine, however neither SDPP nor peptide supplementation affected cytokine mRNA expression. Abundance of mRNA for most cytokines examined in this study increased with age post-weaning, suggesting that during 10 d after weaning the mucosal immune system is still under development.

Effects of Korean Herbal Bathing Extracts Composition on Th2 Cytokine Production in MC/9 Mast Cells (한방 입욕제 조성물이 MC/9 mast cell에서의 Th2 cytokine 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, Moon-Hee;Choi, Jae-Song;Choi, Ae-Ryun;Ahn, Taek-Won
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.80-92
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    • 2012
  • Objectives The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of korean herbal bathing extracts composition 1 and composition 2 on Th2 cytokine production in MC/9 mast cells. Methods The effects of composition 1, 2 was analyzed by ELISA and Real-time PCR in MC/9 mast cells. Levels of IL-5, IL-13 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays(ELISA). mRNA levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13 were analyzed with Real-time PCR. Results Composition 1, 2 inhibited the IL-5, IL-13 production significantly(p<.001) in comparison to PI-control group at concentration of 100 ${\mu}g/mL$, 200 ${\mu}g/mL$. Composition 1, 2 inhibited the IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 mRNA expression significantly in comparison to PI-control group at concentration of 100 ${\mu}g/mL$, 200 ${\mu}g/mL$. Composition 1 inhibited the IL-6 mRNA expression significantly in comparison to PI-control group at concentration of 200 ${\mu}g/ml$. Composition 2 inhibited the IL-6 mRNA expression significantly in comparison to PI-control group at concentration of 100 ${\mu}g/mL$, 200 ${\mu}g/mL$. Conclusions These results indicate that composition 1, 2 has the effect of decreasing the Th2 cytokine production in the MC/9 mast cell.

Effects of TAM (Taraxacum mongolicum) on Th2 Cytokine Production in MC/9 Mast Cells (포공영(蒲公英)이 MC/9 mast cell에서의 Th2 cytokine 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, Moon-Hee;Choi, Jae-Song;Bae, Na-Young;Ahn, Teak-Won
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.54-65
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    • 2012
  • 1. Objective : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of TAM (Taraxacum mongolicum) on Th2 cytokine production in MC/9 mast cells. 2. Methods : The effects of TAM was analyzed by ELISA and Real-time PCR in MC/9 mast cells. Levels of IL-5, IL-13 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays(ELISA). mRNA levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13 were analyzed with Real-time PCR. 3. Results : 1) TAM inhibited the IL-4 production significantly in comparison to PI-control group at concentration of $50{\mu}g/ml$, $100{\mu}g/ml$, $200{\mu}g/ml$. 2) TAM inhibited the IL-13 production significantly in comparison to PI-control group at concentration of $50{\mu}g/ml$, $100{\mu}g/ml$, $200{\mu}g/ml$. 3) TAM inhibited the IL-4 mRNA expression significantly in comparison to PI-control group at concentration of $100{\mu}g/ml$. 4) TAM inhibited the IL-5 mRNA expression significantly in comparison to PI-control group at concentration of $50{\mu}g/ml$, $100{\mu}g/ml$. 5) TAM inhibited the IL-6 mRNA expression significantly in comparison to PI-control group at concentration of $100{\mu}g/ml$. 6) TAM inhibited the IL-13 mRNA expression significantly in comparison to PI-control group at concentration of $100{\mu}g/ml$. 4. Conclusions : These results indicate that TAM (Taraxacum mongolicum) has the effect of decreasing the Th2 cytokine production in the MC/9 mast cell.

Effects of atopic dermatitis induced materials on the expression of cytokine genes in human monocytes and mast cells (인간의 단핵구와 비만세포에서 다양한 아토피 유발물질이 사이토카인 유전자의 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Koung-Suk;Kim, Kyung-Jun
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.41-56
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : On an experimental basis, the effects of atopic dermatitis induced materials on the expression of cytokine genes in human monocytes (THP-1, U937) and mast cells were studied. This study was carried out to be considered a fundamental knowledge in the research on the good of oriental medicine. Methods : After culturing THP-1, U937, and HMC-1, with the three different concentrations of LPS ($1\;{\mu}g/ml$), DPE ($10\;{\mu}g/ml$), and DNCB ($1\;{\mu}g/ml$), atopic dermatitis induced materials were treated in the culture medium. To investigate cytokine genes expression patterns, with lysis buffer and separation reagent, total RNA was extracted from THP-1, U937, and HMC-1 at intervals of 0, 12, 24, and 48 hours. Both cytokine mRNA expression patterns by atopic dermatitis induced materials and change of cytokine genes expression patterns in relation to atopy by selenium were analyzed with RT-PCR. Also IL-4 and INF-$\gamma$, which were secreted in the HMC-1, were analyzed using ELISA method. Results : 1. After treating THP-1 and U937 with LPS, DPE, and DNCB, there was no significant change in cytokine genes themselves, but various cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-13, IFN-$\gamma$, IFN-a, MCP-1, B2-MG) were expressed. 2. In the case of HMC-1, the expressions of IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly increased in the analysis of mRNA expression by dust mite allergens in DPE. 3. As a result of ELISA method, it is certain that IL-4 and IFN-$\gamma$ protein were secreted in the HMC-1 by DPE. 4. Selenium, an essential trace element, decreased the IL-10 and IL-13 expression in the HMC-1 by DPE. Conclusion : The results suggest that it is necessary to choose proper atopic dermatitis induced materials and suitable cultured cells in establishment of in vitro model of atopic dermatitis.