• Title, Summary, Keyword: DES

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Optimized DES Core Implementation for Commercial FPGA Cluster System (상용 FPGA 클러스터 시스템 기반의 최적화된 DES 코어 설계)

  • Jung, Eun-Gu;Park, Il-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information Security & Cryptology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.131-138
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    • 2011
  • The previous FPGA cluster systems for a brute force search of DES keyspace have showed cost efficient performance, but the research on optimized implementation of the DES algorithm on a single FPGA has been insufficient. In this paper, the optimized DES implementation for a single FPGA of the commercial FPGA cluster system with 77 Xilinx Virtex5-LX50 FPGAs is proposed. Design space exploration using the number of pipeline stages in a DES core, the number of DES cores and the maximum clock frequency of a DES core is performed which leads to integrating 16 DES cores running at 333MHz. Also low power design is applied to reduce the loss of performance caused by limitation of power supply on each FPGA which results in fitting 8 DES cores running at 333MHz. When the proposed DES implementations would be used in the FPGA cluster system, it is estimated that the DES key would be found at most 2.03 days and 4.06 days respectively.

The Effect of Red Ginseng Ethanol Extract on the Immunotoxicity of Diethylstilbestrol in ICR Mice (마우스에 있어서 Diethylstilbestrol의 면역독성에 미치는 홍삼 Ethanol 유출물의 영향)

  • 이덕행;안영근
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.6 no.1_2
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    • pp.39-57
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    • 1991
  • The effect of red ginseng ethanol extract on the immunotoxicity of diethylstilbestrol (DES) was studied in ICR mice. ICR male mice were divided into S groups (10 mice/group), and red ginseng ethanol extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body wt., respectively) and DES (1 mg/kg body wt.) were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) to ICR mice once a day for 2 weeks. Mice were sensitized and challenged with sheep red blood cells (S-RBC). Immune response were evaluated by humoral immunity, cell-mediated immunity, non-specific immunity, and circulating leukocyte counts. The results of this study were summarized as followings: 1. The DES-treated control group as compared with normal group showed the tendency to decrease body weight rate and relative liver weight, decreased both humoral and cellular immune responses, phagocyte activity, and circulating leukocyte counts, but increased the natural killer (NK) cell activity. 2. Compared with the DES-treated control group, DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract-treated groups significantly decreased the body weight rate (P<0.01). Relative liver weight was significantly decreased in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (50mg/kg)-treated group (P<0.01), but significantly increased in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (100mg/kg)-treated group (P<0.01). Relative spleen and thymus weights were significantly enhanced in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (100 mg/kg)-treated group (P<0.01), but significantly decreased in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (200 mg/kg)-treated group (P<0.01). 3. Both humoral and cellular immune responses were significantly decreased in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract-treated groups rather than in the DES-treated control group (P<0.01). Especially, it weakened the decrease in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (100 mg/kg)-treated group. 4. Phagocyte activity and circulating leukocyte counts were significantly decreased in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract-treated groups rather than in the DES-treated control group (P<0.01). Especially, it weakened the decrease in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (100 mg/kg)-treated group. NK cell activity was significantly enhanced in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (100 mg/kg)-treated group (P<0.01), but significantly decreased in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (50 and 200 mg/kg)-treated groups (P<0.01).

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Dynamic Correction of DES Model Constant for the Advanced Prediction of Supersonic Base Flow (초음속 기저유동의 우수한 예측을 위한 DES 모델상수의 동적 보정)

  • Shin, Jae-Ryul;Choi, Jeong-Yeol
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.99-110
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    • 2010
  • The DES analysis of strong compressibility flow, LES mode is intentionally performed in boundary layer with the conventional empirical constant $C_{DES}$ value of 0.65. In this study, an expression is suggested to determine the $C_{DES}$ value dynamically by using a distribution function of the ratio of turbulence length scale and wall distance which is used in S-A DDES model for RANS mode protection. The application of the dynamic $C_{DES}$ presents better prediction than previous results those used constant but different $C_{DES}$ values.

A Spread Random Interleaver based Efficient DES Algorithm for Personal Cloud Computing Environments (개인 클라우드 컴퓨팅 환경을 위한 스프레드 랜덤 인터리버 기반의 효율적인 DES 알고리즘)

  • Chung, Yeon Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.41-48
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    • 2013
  • An efficient encryption algorithm based on the Data Encryption Standard (DES) for personal cloud computing environments is presented. The proposed algorithm improves data privacy, security and also encryption speed, compared with the triple DES. The improvement of the proposed algorithm stems from enhanced privacy inherent from the use of spread random interleaver in the place of the known substitution table for initial and final permutations in the DES algorithm. The simulation results demonstrate that the interleaver based DES (I-DES) is found to run faster than the triple DES algorithm and also offer improved security. The proposed algorithm also offers encryption for variable-length data using the Cipher Block Chaining (CBC).

Low temperature plasma deposition of microcrystalline silicon films for bottom gate thin film transistors

  • Cabarrocas, P.Roca i;Djeridane, Y.;Abramov, A.;Bui, V.D.;Bonnassieux, Y.
    • 한국정보디스플레이학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.56-60
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    • 2006
  • We review our studies on the growth of microcrystalline silicon films by the standard PECVD technique. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry studies allow the optimization of the complex film structure with respect to competing aspects of the growth process. Fine tuning the hydrogen flux, the ion energy, and the nature of the species contributing to deposition produces unique films with a fully crystallized interface with silicon nitride. These materials have been successfully incorporated in bottom gate TFTs which present mobility values in the range of 1 to 3 $cm^2/V.s$, and stable characteristics when submitted to a bias stress. The stability of these TFTs makes them suitable for driver applications in AMLCDs as well as pixel elements in OLED displays.

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Microcrystalline Si TFTs with Low Off-Current and High Reliability

  • Kim, Hyun-Jae;Diep, Bui Van;Bonnassieux, Yvan;Djeridane, Yassine;Abramov, Alexey;Pere, Roca i Cabarrocas
    • 한국정보디스플레이학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.1025-1028
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    • 2005
  • Microcrystalline Si (${\mu}c-Si$) TFTs were fabricated using a conventional bottom gate amorphous Si (a-Si) process. A unique ${\mu}c-Si$ deposition technique and TFT architecture was proposed to enhance the reliability of the TFTs. This three-mask TFT fabrication process is comparable with existing a-Si TFT procesess. In order to suppress nucleation at the bottom interface of Si, before deposition of the ${\mu}c-Si$ an $N_2$ plasma passivation was conducted. A typical transfer characteristic of the TFTs shows a low off-current with a value of less than 1 pA and a sub threshold slop of 0.7 V/dec. The DC stress was applied to verify the use of ${\mu}c-Si$ TFTs for AMOLED displays. After 10,000 s of application of the stress, the off-current was even lowered and sub-threshold slope variation was less than 5%. For AMOLED displays, OLED pixel simulation was performed. A pixel current of 13 ${\mu}A$ was achieved with $V_{data}$ of 10 V. After the simulation, a linear equation for the pixel current was suggested.

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Etude sur le v tement dans le Proche-Orient (근동지역의 복식 연구(I) -성서에서의 복식의 상징성과 고대 근동지역의 복식 연구-)

  • 오춘자
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.19
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    • pp.175-194
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    • 1992
  • Le Proche-Orient est le pays de la Bible, Le peuple He breu ancien, appartenant la race des S mits s mi-nomades, est venu avec Abraham, de m sopotamie en Palestine, terre de Canaan. Nous avons consid r les v tements du peuple des anciens H breux en nous basant sur la Bible et en observant des peintures murales et des bas-reliefs des divers payes de l'ancienne poque, Pour comprendre l' volution des v tements des gens de la pr sente r gion palestinienne, nous avons tudi les v tements traditionnels de la race b douine qui m nent jusqu' maintenant une vie nomade dans le m nent jusqu' maintenant une vie nomade dans le d sert, parce que nous n'avons pas pu connaitre le processus d' volution des v tements apr s l'ancienne poque la suite d' v nements historiques compliques. En conclusion, nous pouvons nous r sumer comme suit: 1) Nous pensons que la kimlah, costume important du peuple h breu ancien est devenu abajeh, manteau des B douins, puisque ces v tements servent prot ger le corps lors des changments de temps, et la nuit on les utilise comme couverture et comme sac pour y mettre des objets, et comme tente lors su travail. en un mot, les fonctions de la Simlah et celles de l'abajeh sont les memes l' poque ancienne et maintenant. 2) Nous pensons que la forme et l'utilisation de la Kethoneth ayant une forme de tunique et de la thob des B douins sont presque semblable. La kethoneth et la thob sont la tuniqu importante que portent jusqu' maintenant tous les peuples du Proche-Orient. 3) Comme on le voit dans la Bible, les femmes du peuple h breu et celles des B douins utilisent le voile pour couvrir la e te, et se servent d'accessoires pour d corer leur corps. A l'avenir, les vVtements des Palestiniens, dans une recherche pous approfondie, feront l'objet de a 2 me partie de l' tude des costumes du Proche-Orient.

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Die Rolle und Grenze des Gerichts in der Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit (중재절차에서 법원의 역할과 한계 - 개정 중재법과 UNCITRAL 모델법 등을 중심으로 -)

  • Jeong, Sunju
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.47-68
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    • 2000
  • Neben der staatlichen Gerichtsbarkeit gibt es eine gesetzlich legitimierte Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit durch Privatpersonen nach dem Schiedsverfahrensrecht. Diese Institution entwickelte sich zwar als $\ddot{U}bergangsstufe$ von der Selbsthilfe zur staatlichen Gerichtsbarkeit und aber erlangt zur Zeit mit dem Wirtschaftswachstum, vor allem mit der Verschmelzung des internationalen Handels eine hervorragende Stellung im Justizsystem. $F\ddot{u}r$ die weitere Entwicklung der Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit ist die $Unterst\ddot{u}tzung$ und Kontrolle des staatlichen Gerichts von großer Bedeutung. In der vorliegenden Arbeit handelt es sich $haupts\ddot{a}chlich$ um die Rolle und Grenze des Gerichts in der Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit. Dabei ist die Rolle des Gerichts in 3 Teilen geteilt untersucht, und zwar die aktive, die passive und die kontrollierende Rolle des Gerichts. Unter der ersten $geh\ddot{o}ren$ das Eingreifen des Gerichts in das Schiedsverfahren, z.B. bei der Bestellung und Ablehnung des Schiedsrichters und bei der Frage $\ddot{u}ber$ die Bedendigung des Schiedsrichteramtes und die einstweiligen Maßnahmen des Gerichts sowie die $Unterst\ddot{u}tzung$ des Gerichts bei der Beweisaufnahme. Weil das Schiedsgericht keine Zwangsgewalt besitzt, ist die Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit in bestimmten $F\ddot{a}llen$ auf die aktive Mitwirkung des Gerichts stark angewiesen. Die Rolle des Gerichts in der Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit ist aber durch die Entscheidungsbefugnis des Schiedsgerichts $\ddot{u}ber$ die eigene $Zust\ddot{a}ndigkeit$ und $\ddot{u}ber$ die $G\ddot{u}ltigkeit$ der Schiedsvereinbarung(sog. Kompentz-Kompetenz) und durch den einstweiligen Rechtsschutz durch das Schiedsgericht $eingeschr\ddot{a}nkt$. Hier $beschr\ddot{a}nkt$ sich das Gericht auf die passive Rolle. Die Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit ist außerdem der Kontrolle durch das staatliche Gericht zu unterziehen, sei es durch die Aufhebungsklage oder sei es durch die Entscheidung $\ddot{u}ber$ die Vollstreckung des Schiedsspruchs. Besonders im $Vollstreckbarerkl\ddot{a}rungsverfahren$ hat das ordentliche Gericht eine umfangreiche $\ddot{U}berpr\ddot{u}fungsm\ddot{o}glichkeit$ des Schiedsspruchs. Einerseits soll die Stellung der Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit nicht durch die Mitwirkung und Kontrolle des staatlichen Gerichts entwertet werden, andererseits ist es aber Aufgabe des Staates, die Richtigkeit der schiedsgerichtlichen Entscheidung zu garantieren. In der Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit ist auch das Rechtsstaatsprinzip aufrechterhalten zu bleiben. Abschließend ist festzustellen, daß die Schiedsgerichtsbarkeit ohne Mitwirkung des staatlichen Gerichts nicht auskommt, die Rolle des Gerichts aber auf das erforderliche Maß $beschr\ddot{a}nkt$ sein sollte.

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A Countermeasure against Brute-force Attack using Digital Holography and DES Algorithm (디지털 홀로그래피와 DES 알고리즘을 이용한 전수키 공격 대응 기법)

  • Noh, Chang-Oh;Moon, In-Kyu;Cho, Beom-Joon
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.73-78
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    • 2011
  • The DES encryption algorithm employed in information security has a strong avalanche effect, and the processing speed to encrypt is also fast. However, due to the H/W advances, the secret key length of DES having 56bits is not enough so that it is easily exposed to brute force attack. In this paper, we present a new method to significantly increase the secret key length in the DES by integration of digital holography and DES algorithm. In addition, we evaluate the encryption performance of the proposed method by measuring the avalanche effect and verify the possibility of it.

Effect of 3-Methylcholanthrene on Rat Uterus: Uterine Growth and Mechanism of Action of 3-Methylcholanthrene

  • Sheen, Yhun-Y.;Kim, Sun-S.;Yun, Hea-C.
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.276-282
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    • 1993
  • This study has been undertaken to examine the effect of 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) on rat uterine growth and to understand the mechanism of action of 3MC in rat uterus. After diethylstilbesterol(DES) or tamoxifen(TAM) or 3MC or DES plus TAM or DES plus 3MC was administered into immature female rats, uterine weight over corn oil-treated uteri. 3MC treatment had no effect on uterine weight but, DES stimulated uterine weight was inhibited by 3MC concomitant tratment. While TAM alone treatment showed slight increase in uterine wieght, inhibited uterine growth simulated by DES when it was adiministrated with DES condirect binding assay with $[^3H]$ estradiol and the relative binding affinities of 3MC and TAM were estimated by competetion assy. Estradiol tumed out to have high affinity for rat uterine estrogen receptor (kd = 0.4 nM). The relative binding affinities of TAM and 3MC were 1% and 4.7% that of DES for rat uterine estrogen receptor, respectively. 3MC was shown to have similar affinity for eat uterine estrogen receptor to that of TAM. Effects of DES 3MC and TAM administration in vivo on rat uterine estrogen recptor level were examined. It was confirmed that the estrogen, DES and antiestrogen, TAM decreased estrogen receptor levels from rat ulterus and also 3MC decreased rat uterine estrogen receptor level when rats were treated with DES, TAM and 3MC in vivo. Data indicates that 3MC acts as an antiestrogen mediated through estrogen receptor system.

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