• Title, Summary, Keyword: DNJ content

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Regional and Varietal Variation of 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) Content in the Mulberry Leaves

  • Kim, Iksoo;Kim, Jin-Won;Lee, Heui-Sam;Ha, Nam-Kyu;Ryu, Kang-Sun
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.141-147
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to find out whether there exists any content variation in 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) among regional and varietal mulberry leaves. HPLC analysis was performed for 22 samples collected from several localities in Korea and Tsushima Islands Japan. The highest content was observed in the Cheongilppong sample collected at Youngchun City, Kyungsangbuk Province (1,882.7 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g DW), whereas lowest content was observed in the Cheongilppong sample collected at Jiniu City, Kyungsangnam Province (395.65 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g DW). In the comparison of regional samples of Kaeryangppong variety, DNJ content was highest in the order of Woniu City (1,460.1) > Boungun (999.85) > Hweongsung-gun (939.12) > Cheongju City (688.78). In case of Cheongilppong, DNJ content was highest in the order of Youngchun City (1.882.8) > Sanchung-gun (1,125.3) > Sunchon City (649.17) > Byunsan-myon (441.54) > Jinju City (395.65). Average content of regional samples was higher in Kaeryangppong (1,021.7 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g DW) than that of Cheongilppong (898.87 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g DW). Average DNJ content of the wild mulberry loaves collected from Cheju Island and Tsushima Island (1,012.9$\mu\textrm{g}$/g DW) was high enough to reach to that of the regional Kaeryangppong samples. In the comparison among varietal samples collected in Suwon, the highest DNJ content was observed in YK209 (768.16 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g DW), amongst overall low DNJ content of the varietal samples. Considering a few pieces of information from our data, DNJ content appears not to be influenced solely by annual temperature of the planted areas.

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Characterization of DNJ production for large-scale fermentation of mulberry leaf

  • Kwon, O-Chul;Ju, Wan-Taek;Kim, Hyun-Bok;Sung, Gyoo-Byung;Kim, Yong-Soon
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.111-117
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    • 2017
  • Mulberry leaves containing 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) known to be a strong inhibitory effect for ${\alpha}-glucosidase$. Thus, DNJ has been recognized as a potentially important source for prevent or treat hyperglycemia. More effective method for the DNJ high-production is needed because DNJ content of natural mulberry leaf are as low as 0.1%. Many researchers have studied for the DNJ high-production in mulberry leaves such as the harvest season, fermentation using microorganisms, optimal culture conditions, and optimal extraction conditions. In order to provide for useful data that is anticipated at the level of industrial scale, we investigated ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ inhibitory activity, pH value and DNJ content in large-scale based on the optimal culture conditions for mulberry leaf fermentation of small-scale in our previous study. The ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ inhibitory activity, pH value, and DNJ content in this study were measured from the mulberry leaf fermentation broth for 7 days. During mulberry leaf fermentation, the ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ inhibitory activity and DNJ content was increased until 2 to 4 days, but after 4 day was decreased. The pH value showed a decreasing trend up to 2 day, and little changes in 2 to 4 days. However, the pH was started to increase after 4 days.

Quantitative Analysis of 1-deoxynojirimycin in Mulberry Leaves (뽕나무 유전자원의 1-deoxynojirimycin 함량 변이)

  • Kim, Hyun-Bok;Seo, Sang-Deok;Koo, Hui-Yeon;Seok, Young-Seek;Kim, Sun-Lim;Sung, Gyoo-Byung
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.20-29
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    • 2013
  • Countries of the world are competing for the collection and utilization of genetic resources, which is a resource of value-added industrialization. We are building database of silkworm and mulberry resources with morphological, genetic characteristics data etc. Moreover, recent bioactive compound has been receiving increasing attention. So we analyzed 1-deoxynojirimycin(1-DNJ) content as a this item in addition to the basic information using 363 strains(varieties) of mulberry genetic resources. They were grown under the same environment and conditions. Mulberry leaves were collected and then freeze-dried and powdered for 1-DNJ test. As a result, 1-DNJ mean content of 363 mulberry strains was $0.176{\pm}0.077%$, and the coefficient of variation (CV) was 43.5%. The variation between the strains was greatly severe. Among the tested strains, 'C1D89/29' was showed the highest content of 0.47%, whereas 'Pumbo 24' and 'Turkey E' were showed the lowest content of 0.05% respectively. The content of 1-DNJ of 16 mulberry varieties for silkworm rearing were compared. Average concentration was $0.17{\pm}0.04%$, and the coefficient of variation (CV) was 22.8%. Variation among cultivars was not significant. Finally we selected 1-DNJ high-containing 11 strains. They are as follows. 'C1D89/29', 'Hiihak', 'Jeokasibmunja', 'Gweonchil', 'Botongsibmunja', 'Jeokchuk', 'bulguksang', 'Geunsookgojo', 'Busanggeum', 'Guksang 20' and 'Taekwang' which are more than twice of the overall average content.

Quantitative Analysis of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Content Using Silkworm Genetic Resources

  • Ju, Wan-Taek;Kim, Kee-Young;Sung, Gyoo-Byung;Kim, Yong-Soon
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.162-168
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    • 2014
  • 1-Deoxynojirimycin(1-DNJ or DNJ), a component in silkworm powder, prevents glucose from being absorbed into the bloodstream from the small intestine by inhibiting ${\alpha}$-glucosidase activity. This study compared the functional components of 1-DNJ from various silkworm species using a gene database with those of 1-DNJ produced by silkworms bred through cross-combinations. We utilized comparisons of geographical origins and species of silkworms using a gene database and discovered that 1-DNJ activity was ranked in the following order by species, Japanese (SK-1) > Chinese (C48) > European (Rock191). 1-DNJ constituted varying percentages of silkworm organs in the following order, blood > epithelial tissue > body fat > silk glands. With regard to sex, 1-DNJ, levels were higher in males than females. However, 1-DNJ levels with respect to various genetic traits (blood color, silk color, and egg color) were consistent. In order to study 1-DNJ changes that occurred during cross breeding of the silkworm gene, we bred cross-combinations utilizing SK-1 and C48 silkworms. In conclusion, in order to provide information about the constituents of functional materials contained in silkworm powder, it is imperative that silkworm cross breeding occurs so that the database of functional materials extracted from silkworms will expand.

Heat Stability and Glucose-Lowering Effect of 1-Deoxynojirimycin from Silkworm (Bombyx mori) extract Powder

  • Ryu, Kang-Sun;Lee, Heui-Sam;Kim, Kee-Young;Kim, Mi-Ja;Kang, Pil-Don
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.277-281
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    • 2013
  • Silkworm powder, which contains 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), is a promising complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Korea. Silkworm powder was produced from Yeonnokjam pupae at d 3 of the 5th instar at the National Academy of Agricultural Science. The powder was derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl), and the DNJ-FMOC content was measured by HPLC. We investigated the content of 1-DNJ in the silkworm powder and its glucose-lowering effect when it was treated at different temperatures. The content of 1-DNJ was the lowest at $150^{\circ}C$, while it was constant at other temperatures. The silkworm extract powder was orally administered to diabetic mice (20 mg/kg/d) for 4 wk. Water intake did not significantly change when compared with the control group (T0). The blood glucose levels significantly decreased when mice where administered silkworm powder treated at $60^{\circ}C$ (T60) compared to the control group, but no difference was observed between the groups T100 and T150. Moreover, the blood levels of TG significantly decreased compared with the control group. Based on these results, we surmise that the properties of the silkworm extract powder were stable upon heating at $100^{\circ}C$ but not at $150^{\circ}C$.

Analysis of Functional Components of Leaves of Different Mulberry Cultivars (뽕잎 품종별 기능성 성분 분석)

  • 채주영;이준영;황인승;황보득;최필환;이완주;김진원;김선여;최상원
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.15-21
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    • 2003
  • Quantification of functional components, such as [l -deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and flavonoids] of four different cultivars (YK-209, Cheongil, Yongchon and Kaeryang) and parts (upper, middle and lower) of mulberry leaves harvested in different areas and periods was performed by HPLC to select the best Quality of mulberry leaf suitable for manufacture of functional foods. Among four mulberry cultivars, YK-209 mulberry leaf had the highest DNJ, GABA and flavonoids levels. YK-209 mulberry leaf harvested in "Yeongcheon" area had greater DNJ, GABA and flavonoid contents than those harvested in "Sangju" area. Four major flavonoids of mulberry leaf were rutin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol-3-Ο-rutinoside, astragalin, and their levels varied greatly with cultivars. YK-BO9 mulberry leaf had the highest flavonoids content among four cultivars. DNJ, GABA and flavonoid contents of young YK-209 mulberry leaf were relatively higher in the upper part than those in the middle and lower parts. Additionally, levels of DNJ, GABA and flavonoids were higher in mulberry leaves harvested in the eariler growing season (May) than in the late growing seasons (June and August) . Particularly, among four flavonoids, rutin content had the highest in the mulberry leaf harvested in May, while isoquercitrin content did the highest in the mulberry leaf harvested in June and August. These results suggest that YK-209 mulberry leaf having high amount of functional components, such as DNJ, GABA and flavonoids, may be useful as potential source of beverages and tablets.verages and tablets.

Coating rice with mulberry leaves rich in deoxynojirimycin ameliorates hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in C57BL/KsJ db/db mice

  • Lee, Joomin;Lee, Hyun-Joo;Lee, Jae-Joon
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.469-478
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Mulberry leaf (ML) has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on ${\alpha}$-glucosidase, and suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia, which may be related to its deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) content. This study was conducted to investigate the hypoglycemic and dyslipidemic effects of rice coated with ML rich in DNJ in a type 2 diabetes mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS: The mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 each): non-diabetic normal control (NC); diabetic control (DM-C), fed with 10% polished rice powder (DM-R); and fed with 10% polished rice powder coated with DNJ-rich ML (DM-DNJR). RESULTS: Supplementation with DNJR for six weeks decreased levels of fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and blood glycosylated hemoglobin; conversely, levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol showed an increase in the same treatment. In addition, weights of mesenteric, epididymal, and total adipose tissues decreased with DNJR supplementation, when compared with diabetic control db/db mice, while maltase, lactase, and sucrase activity in the small intestine were inhibited. The anti-diabetic effects were marginally greater in the DM-DNJR group than in the DM-R group. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that rice coated with ML rich in DNJ can reduce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in db/db mice, and may prove useful for individuals with diabetes.

Effect of pH values and inoculation amounts for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in mulberry leaf fermentation

  • Kwon, O-Chul;Ju, Wan-Taek;Kim, Hyun-Bok;Sung, Gyoo-Byung;Kim, Yong-Soon
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.38-44
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    • 2017
  • Mulberry leaves containing 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) have been recognized as a potentially important source for prevent or treat hyperglycemia. However, DNJ content of natural mulberry leaf are as low as 0.1%. Thus, the most effective method for increasing ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the DNJ high-production is needed. In this study, we investigated the influence of ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory activity according to different pH values (6-9) and inoculation amounts (0.1-0.5%) when Bacillus subtilis cultured on mulberry leaf powder media. We confirmed that ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory activity was difference according to culture conditions of different pH values, inoculation amounts, and fermentation times. The results of mulberry leaf fermentation according to pH values and inoculation amounts were shown that the optimal conditions for ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory activity were defined as pH 7 and 9, inoculation amount 0.4%, and incubation until 2 to 4 days. These results can be provided a basic data for the optimal culture conditions increasing ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory activity from mulberry leaf fermentation.

1-Deoxynojirimycin Content and Blood Glucose-Lowering Effect of Silkworm (Bombyx mori) Extract Powder

  • Ryu, Kang-Sun;Lee, Heui-Sam;Kim, Kee-Young;Kim, Mi-Ja;Sung, Gyoo-Byung;Ji, Sang-Deok;Kang, Pil-Don
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.237-242
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    • 2013
  • We investigated the 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ) content of extracts from silkworm larvae at each developmental stage within three silkworm varieties. We also compared the content of the following polyhydroxylated alkaloids in the silkworm extracts: 1-DNJ, fagomine, and 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB). In addition, we evaluated the glucose-lowering effects of silkworm extract powder in db/db mice. The 1-DNJ content was the highest in Yeonnokjam $5^{th}$ instar $3^{rd}$ d larvae and Hansaengjam $5^{th}$ instar $3^{rd}$ d larvae, which contained 18.4 mg/100 g dry weight and 18.3 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively. The $5^{th}$ instar $3^{rd}$ d larvae exhibited a higher content of 1-DNJ than that of $5^{th}$ instar $5^{th}$ d larvae among all varieties. The glucose-lowering effects of silkworm extracts and Yeonnokjam powder were tested on db/db mice, and the blood glucose levels were found to decrease significantly in the YR70 group. Silkworm extracts (180 mg/kg, 90 mg/kg, 45 mg/kg, and 22.5 mg/kg) and acarbose (50 mg/kg) were administered orally for 4 wk. Changes in water intake were not statistically significant between control and silkworm extract-treated groups. Compared to the control group, blood glucose levels in the silkworm extract powder-treated group decreased in the 22.5 mg/kg/d group after being administered for 4 wk. This decrease was statistically significant. Furthermore, biochemical changes in the AST(Aspartate aminotransferase), ALT(Alanine aminotransferase), TCHO(Total Cholesterol), TG(Triglyceride), LDL(Low density lipoprotein), and HDL(High density lipoprotein) levels in blood were not observed. However, statistically significant decreases in blood GLU in the 22.5 mg/kg/d group compared to that of the control group occurred. In addition, the epididymal fat weight of the silkworm extract powder-treated group decreased significantly in both the 22.5 mg/kg/d group and 180 mg/kg/d group compared to that of the control group, but there were no statistically significant changes in perirenal fat weight. These results demonstrate that silkworm extracts inhibit changes in blood glucose levels in model diabetic mice.