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Anti-oxidative and Neuroprotective Activities of Pig Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates (돈피젤라틴 효소분해물의 항산화 활성 및 신경세포보호효과)

  • Kim, Dong Wook;Park, Kimoon;Ha, Goeun;Jung, Ju Ri;Chang, Ounki;Ham, Jun-Sang;Jeong, Seok-Geun;Park, Beom-Young;Song, Jin;Jang, Aera
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.258-267
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to determine the antioxidative and neuroprotective effect of pig skin extracts (PS) and pig skin gelatin hydrolysates (LPS) using a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). The extraction yield of PS was 3 fold higher than that of LPS. The protein content of PS was about 10 fold higher than that of LPS (p<0.05). Also LPS increased antioxidative activity dose dependently, and the activity was significantly higher than PS at all concentration (p<0.05). DPPH radical scavenging activity of LPS at 50 mg/mL was 92.97%, which was similar to $1{\mu}M$ vitamin C as a positive control. ABTS radical scavenging activity of LPS (20 mg/mL) was 89.83% and oxygen radical absorbance capacity of LPS at 1 mg/mL was $141.39{\mu}M$ Trolox Equvalent/g. No significant change of human neuroblastoma cells was determined by MTT test. Cell death by oxidative stress induced by $H_2O_2$ and amyloid beta 1-42 ($A{\beta}_{1-42}$) was protected by LPS rather than PS. Acetylcholine esterase was significantly inhibited, by up to 33.62% by LPS at 10 mg/mL. Therefore, these results suggest that pig skin gelatin hydrolysates below 3 kDa have potential to be used as anti-oxidative and neuroprotective functional additives in the food industry, while further animal test should be determined in the future.

Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Useful Components from Sweet Potato Leaves (고구마 잎의 유용성분 추출조건 최적화)

  • Li, Meishan;Jang, Gwi Yeong;Lee, Sang Hoon;Kim, Sung Tae;Lee, Ji Hyun;Hwang, Se Gu;Sin, Hyun Man;Kim, Hong Sig;Kang, Tae Su;Jeong, Heon Sang
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.11
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    • pp.1749-1756
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    • 2014
  • This study was performed to establish extraction conditions for useful components from sweet potato leaves. Extraction conditions were heating temperature ($40{\sim}60^{\circ}C$), ratio of solvent to sample (10~30 mL/g), and ethanol concentrations (50~90%). The maximum lutein content was $381.88{\mu}g/g$ under the following conditions: 81.23% ethanol concentration, $46.75^{\circ}C$ temperature, and 25.78 mL/g ratio of solvent. The maximum total polyphenol content was 58.44 mg GAE/g under 67.0%, $53.90^{\circ}C$, and 29.10 mL/g, whereas maximum total chlorophyll content was 769.14 mg/100 g under 93.10%, $69.90^{\circ}C$, and 25.98 mL/g, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity of electron-donating ability ($IC_{50}$) was 0.582 mg/mL under 64.56%, $54.63^{\circ}C$, and 19.57 mL/g, whereas total antioxidant activity was 32.54 mg AA eq/g under 64.42%, $44.51^{\circ}C$, and 26.01 mL/g, respectively. Under these conditions, experimental data matched well with the predicted data. Consequently, the present study was carried out to simulate and optimize sweet potato leaves for useful component extraction.

Changes of quality characteristics of Jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus) potato powder by drying methods (건조방법에 따른 히카마 감자분말의 품질특성 변화)

  • Choi, Sun-Il;Lee, Jin-Ha;Cho, Myoung-Lae;Shin, Gi-Hae;Kim, Jae-Min;Oh, Ji-Won;Jung, Tae-Dong;Rhee, Seong-Kap;Lee, Ok-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.915-919
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    • 2015
  • This study was performed in order to provide basic data for predicting the usefulness of Jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus) as a food raw material. The changes in the physicochemical properties of freeze-dried and hot air-dried Jicama were investigated and analyzed. The moisture content of raw Jicama was 81.84%. The crude protein, crude fat, crude ash and carbohydrate content of hot air-dried Jicama powder were 2.85, 0.79, 7.93 and 88.44%, while those of freeze-dried Jicama powder were 3.93, 0.83, 7.92 and 87.32%, respectively on dry basis. Regarding the color values, the lightness of freeze-dried Jicama (92.86) was higher than that of the hot air-dried Jicama (88.01), whereas the redness (-0.67) and yellowness (3.21) of freeze-dried Jicama were lower than those of the hot air-dried Jicama (0.43) and (11.96), respectively. The brown index was lower in the freeze-dried Jicama (0.029) than in hot air-dried Jicama (0.107). The total sugar content showed no significant differences between freeze (46.49 mg/g) and hot air-dried Jicama (45.11 mg/g). Finally, the amylose content was higher in freeze-dried Jicama (5.66%) than in hot air-dried Jicama (6.63%).

Quality characteristic of Omija (Schizandra chinensis Baillon) seed oils by roasting conditions and extraction methods (볶음 조건 및 추출 방법에 따른 오미자씨유의 품질 특성)

  • Lee, Hyeon-Jeong;Cho, Jeong-Seok;Lee, Yeong-Min;Choi, Ji-Young;Sung, Jun-Hyung;Chung, Hun-Sik;Moon, Kwang-Deog
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.845-850
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    • 2015
  • The influence of different roasting temperatures, times and extraction methods on the quality characteristics of Omija (Schizandra chinensis) seed oils was investigated. Roasted Omija seeds were divided into five groups based on roasting temperature-time conditions: no roasting (Raw) and roasting [R11: $150^{\circ}C$, 10 min, R12: $150^{\circ}C$, 20 min, R21: $250^{\circ}C$, 10 min, R22: $250^{\circ}C$, 20 min (R22)]. Oils from each of the raw and roasted Omija seeds were obtained by solvent (n-hexane) and press (machine) extraction. The $L^*$ values decreased, but the $a^*$ and $b^*$ values increased with increasing the roasting temperature and time. The $L^*$ values were lower in the press-extracted oils than in the solvent-extracted oils. The peroxide value (POV) of Omija seed oils decreased with increasing the roasting temperature-time values. The POV value was higher in the press-extracted oils than in the solvent-extracted oils. ABTS (2, 2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical inhibition of Omija seed oils was higher in the solvent-extracted oils than in the press-extracted oils, but there were no significant differences between the two oils. The four major kinds of fatty acid methyl esters detected in Omija seed oils were methyl butyrate, methyl hexanoate, methyl arachidate, and methyl eicosanoate. In conclusion, Omija seed oils obtained by solvent extraction and at higher roasting temperature-time values were more effective antioxidants.

Antioxidative Activity and Component Analysis of Prunella vulgaris L. Extract/Fractions (하고초 추출물의 항산화 활성 및 성분 분석)

  • Suh, Ji Young;Seong, Joon Seob;Yun, Mid Eum;Lee, Ye Seul;Ha, Ji Hoon;Park, Dong Soon;Park, Soo Nam
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.647-657
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    • 2016
  • In this study, the antioxidative effects and active component analysis of 50% ethanol extract, ethyl acetate fraction and aglycone fraction obtained from Prunella vulgaris L. were investigated. The free radical scavenging activities ($FSC_{50}$) was investigated at 50% ethanol extract ($15.25{\mu}g/mL$), ethyl acetate fraction ($8.68{\mu}g/mL$), and aglycone fraction ($8.25{\mu}g/mL$) respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities ($OSC_{50}$) in $Fe^{3+}-EDTA/H_2O_2$ system using the luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay was investigated at 50% ethanol extract ($4.68{\mu}g/mL$), ethyl acetate fraction ($1.00{\mu}g/mL$), and aglycone fraction($1.02{\mu}g/mL$) respectively. In the cellular protective effect against $^1O_2$ induced cellular damage of human erythrocytes, extract/fractions of P. vulgaris L. were increased in a concentration dependent manner($1{\sim}25{\mu}g/mL$). Especially, ${\tau}_{50}$ of aglycone fraction at concentrations of $25{\mu}g/mL$ showed the most protective effects at 337.9 min. It's showed nine times higher (+)-${\alpha}$-tocopherol (${\tau}_{50}=38.7min$) as typical antioxidant in the $^1O_2$-induced photohemolysis of human erythrocytes. TLC and HPLC were used to analyse active components in the ethyl acetate fraction and aglycone fraction of P. vulgaris L. In ethyl acetate fraction, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, quercetin 3-${\beta}$-D-glucoside, rutin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, astragalin (kaempferol-3-O-glucoside) were identified. In aglycone fraction, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, quercetin, kaempferol were identified. These results indicated that extract/fraction of P. vulgaris L. is may be used in cosmetics industry as natural antioxidants by quenching and/or scavenging $^1O_2$ and other ROS, and protecting cellular membranes.

Effects of Cooking Method and Pasteurization Treatment on Instant Thin Rice Porridge Added with Fruits and Vegetables (조리방법 및 살균처리가 과채류를 첨가한 이유식에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Hwa-Jin;Kim, Soojung;Bang, Eun;Shin, Haehun;Cho, Hyung-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.569-576
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    • 2016
  • This study researched the effects of cooking methods on phytochemical-enriched thin rice porridge (RP) of three colors (red, yellow, and green). Each of the RPs was prepared by three cooking methods and retorted through two-steps (step 1, at $80^{\circ}C$ for 15 min; step 2, at $82^{\circ}C$ for 25 min) for pasteurization. Cooking method (CM) 1 involved heating a mixture of all ingredients while CM 2 involved addition of apple/beet (AB, red), sweet-pumpkin/cabbage (PC, yellow) or vitamin/pear (green) while heating rice flour and glutinous rice flour. CM 3 involved mixing pre-cooked fruits and vegetables with cooked thin RP. The viscosity of RP prepared by CM 1 was lower than those of other RPs (P<0.05). The result of colorimetric a value show that red and green color of AB and VP prepared by CM 2 and CM 3 were most vivid. Contents of phytochemicals and antioxidants were higher when RP was prepared by CM 2 and CM 3 compared to CM 1. ${\Delta}E$ values of PC showed no significant difference before and after pasteurization, whereas AB and VP were significantly different (P<0.05). Antioxidant activity after retorting was not significantly different from those of un-retorted RPs. The results of color, phytochemical content, and antioxidant activity show that CM 2 or CM 3 were considerably better than CM 1, whereas cooking method had no effect after two-step retorting. Therefore, uncomplicated cooking method such as CM 1 or CM 2 are suited for commercial production of RPs.

Phenolic contents and physiological properties of Pleurotus ostreatus by drying method and 30% fermented ethanol extraction for different periods (느타리버섯류의 자실체 건조 방법 및 주정 추출 기간별 페놀성 성분 함량 및 생리활성 효능 비교)

  • Yeob, So-Jin;Park, Hye-Sung;Kang, Suk-Min;Han, Jae-Gu;Lee, Kang-Hyo;Cho, Jae-Han
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.215-219
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    • 2016
  • The total polyphenol and physiological activities of Pleurotus ostreatus 30% fermented ethanol using different drying methods and extraction periods were investigated. Based on the observed polyphenol content and physiological activity, freeze-drying showed better results than hot air-drying method for P. ostreatus extracted with 30% fermented ethanol for more than 15 days. The total phenolic compound content of 'Gosol' following thefreeze-drying method for 15 days showed the highest value of $0.49{\pm}0.02mg/mL$. Freeze-drying with extraction for 30 days for ASI 2344 showed the highest antioxidant activity based on the DPPH radical scavenging rate of $35.50{\pm}3.29%$. Freeze-drying 'Gosol' for 30 days resulted inthe highest anti-inflammatory and nitrite scavenging activity of $48.40{\pm}3.38%$. Our results showed that P. ostreatus is a functional food.

Inhibitory Activities of Water Extracts of Black Ginseng on HCl/Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastritis through Anti-Oxidant Effect (흑삼 열수 추출물의 항산화 효과를 통한 염산/에탄올로 유발된 위염 억제 작용)

  • Kim, Min Yeong;Kwon, O Jun;Noh, Jeong Sook;Roh, Seong-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.9
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    • pp.1249-1256
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    • 2016
  • Black ginseng (BG) obtained by a 9-fold steaming process of Panax ginseng has been reported to have anti-oxidative, anti-obesity, and anti-diabetes effects. The current study evaluated the protective effect of BG by steaming time in an HCl/ethanol-induced acute gastritis model. BG was divided into four samples according to steaming-drying processing (Gin1, Gin3, Gin6, and BG). High performance liquid chromatography analysis, free radical scavenging activity, and total phenol and flavonoid contents were examined in ginseng and four BG samples. Compared with ginseng, BG showed a stronger radical scavenging effect and higher contents of total phenol and flavonoids. To evaluate the anti-gastritic effect of BG, mice were distributed into five groups: normal mice (N), acute gastritic mice with distilled water (CON), acute gastritic mice with 100 mg/kg of ginseng (Gin0), acute gastritic mice with 100 mg/kg of BG (BG), and acute gastritic mice with 10 mg/kg of sucralfate (SC). After 1 hour of pre-treatment with water, extracts (Gin0 and BG), or drug (SC), experimental groups except for N were orally administered 0.5 mL of 150 mM HCl/60% ethanol (v/v) mixture. Blood was collected 1 hour later from the heart, and gastric tissue was harvested. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured in serum, and related protein expression was examined by Western blot assay. In HCl/ethanol-induced acute gastritic mice, treatment with ginseng or BG improved mucosal damage in the histological evaluation. The serum ROS level significantly decreased in the BG-treated group compared with the CON group. Furthermore, expression of inflammatory cytokines significantly decreased in the BG-treated group compared with the CON group. Based on these results, antioxidant and anti-gastritic activities of ginseng were enhanced by streaming-drying processing, in part due to an increase in biological active compounds.

Neuronal Cell Protective Effect of Dendropanax morbifera Extract against High Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress (High Glucose로 유도된 산화 스트레스에 대한 황칠나무 잎 추출물의 뇌신경세포 보호 효과)

  • Kim, Jong Min;Park, Seon Kyeong;Guo, Tian Jiao;Kang, Jin Yong;Ha, Jeong Su;Lee, Du Sang;Kwon, O-Jun;Lee, Uk;Heo, Ho Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.7
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    • pp.938-947
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    • 2016
  • Antioxidant activities and neuroprotective effects of ethyl acetate fraction from Dendropanax morbifera (EFDM) against high glucose-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity were investigated to confirm their physiological activities. An 80% ethanolic extract of D. morbifera showed the highest contents of total phenolic compounds as well as 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities. The extract was fractionated using several solvents, and the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest activities in ferric reducing/antioxidant power and malondialdehyde inhibitory assays. To evaluate the neuroprotective effect based on antioxidant activities, cell viability was assessed using PC12 and MC-IXC cells in $H_2O_2$- and high glucose-induced cytotoxic assays, respectively. EFDM evidently showed neuroprotective effects in all cells (neuron-like PC12 cells and human brain-originated neuroblastoma MC-IXC cells). Inhibitory effect of the extract on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as an acetylcholine-hydrolyzing enzyme was performed to examine the effect on cognitive function. EFDM presented an AChE inhibitory effect. Finally, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the major phenolic compound of EFDM is probably a rutin.

Physicochemical Characteristics and Biological Activities of Rice and Amaranth Fermented by Bacillus subtilis KMKW4 (Bacillus subtilis KMKW4를 이용한 백미 및 아마란스 발효물의 이화학적 특성 및 생리활성)

  • Yang, Su-Jin;Lee, Rea-Hyun;Hong, Joo-Heon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.540-548
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    • 2015
  • This study examined the cultural characteristics and biological activities of fermented rice and amaranth with Bacillus subtilis KMKW4. These samples were made with various amounts of rice and amaranth [100:0 (R100), 90:10 (R90), 80:20 (R80), and 70:30 (R70)]. B. subtilis KMKW4 was used as starter for the fermentation, and its cultures at the lated logarithmic growth were inoculated for final concentration of 2% (v/v). Number of viable cells of fermented R80 (7.67 log CFU/mL) was greater than those of R100, R90, and R70 (7.48 log CFU/mL, 7.38 log CFU/mL, and 7.09 CFU/mL, respectively) during the fermentation period (120 h). Amylase activities of fermented R80 and R100 were 57.77 U/mL and 19.91 U/mL, respectively. Furthermore, amylase activities of fermented freeze-dried powders of R100 and R80 were 24.31 U/g and 9.12 U/g, respectively. Free sugar contents of R100 and R80 increased after fermentation, and that of R80 (5,454.15 mg/100 g) significantly increased compared to that of R100 (4,274.85 mg/100 g). The free amino acid content of R80 was higher than that of R100. DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging activities of 5 mg/mL of fermented freeze-dried powder (R80) were 44.21% and 89.76%, respectively. ACE inhibition rates and ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory activities were significantly higher in R80 than R100. This study suggested that fermentation of R80 might be a new potential source of antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-hypertensive agents applicable to grain enzyme-containing foods.