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Analysis of Addition Power for New Wearer of Progressive Addition Lenses (누진렌즈 안경 처음 착용자의 가입도 분석)

  • Joo, Seok-Hee;Shim, Hyun-Suk;Shim, Jun-Beom
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.247-251
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: To analyse the addition power of new wearer of progressive addition lenses. Methods: Data of 636 subjects who have been prescribed progressive addition lenses as the first time were used for analyse. The range of age for was between 41~78 years old and they visited the optical practice in Gwangju metropolitan city from 2001 to 2013Date of refractive state, gender and age were analysed. Results: The difference of addition by gender was 1.71 D in male and 1.67 D in women. The difference of addition by refractive error was 1.67 D in emmetropic patients and 1.74 D in myopic patients, 1.90 D in hyperopic patients. The difference of addition by age was1.26 D in 41~44 years old sge group, 1.48 D in 45~49 years old age group,1.72 D in 50~54 years old age group 1.84 D in 55~59 years old age group, 2.10 D in 60~64 years old age group and 2.43 D in over 65 years old age group. The difference of addition by diopter in myopic patients was 1.58 D in low myopic patients and 1.48 D in middle myopic patients, 1.67 D in high myopic patients. The difference of addition by axis of astigmatism was 1.80 D in with-the-rule astigmatism, 1.64 D in against-the-rule astigmatism and 1.65 D in oblique astigmatism. Conclusions: The Addition power of progressive lenses were different according to the types of refractive error, astigmatism axis and age.

GENERALIZED QUADRATIC MAPPINGS IN 2d VARIABLES

  • Cho, Yeol Je;Lee, Sang Han;Park, Choonkil
    • Korean Journal of Mathematics
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.17-24
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    • 2011
  • Let X, Y be vector spaces. It is shown that if an even mapping $f:X{\rightarrow}Y$ satisfies f(0) = 0, and $$2(_{2d-2}C_{d-1}-_{2d-2}C_d)f\({\sum_{j=1}^{2d}}x_j\)+{\sum_{{\iota}(j)=0,1,{{\small\sum}_{j=1}^{2d}}{\iota}(j)=d}}\;f\({\sum_{j=1}^{2d}}(-1)^{{\iota}(j)}x_j\)=2(_{2d-1}C_d+_{2d-2}C_{d-1}-_{2d-2}C_d){\sum_{j=1}^{2d}}f(x_j)$$ for all $x_1$, ${\cdots}$, $x_{2d}{\in}X$, then the even mapping $f:X{\rightarrow}Y$ is quadratic. Furthermore, we prove the Hyers-Ulam stability of the above functional equation in Banach spaces.

Isomeric Effects on Volatilization of 1,3-Dichloropropene Fumigant in Soil

  • Kim, Jung-Ho;Mallavarapu, Megharaj
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.18 no.12
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    • pp.1325-1330
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    • 2009
  • The fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) was recently proposed as a direct replacement for methyl bromide ($CH_3Br$) in soil fumigation. This study was conducted to better understand behavior phase partitioning, diffusion and volatilization of 1,3-D as affected by isomer. The Henry's law constant(KH) of cis-1,3-D and trans-1,3-D was 0.058 and 0.037 at $20^{\circ}C$, respectively. $K_H$ of cis form of 1,3-D was higher than that of trans form of 1,3-D. To compare with volatilization of 1,3-D isomer, soil column [70 cm (length)${\times}$12 cm (i.d.)] included a shank injection at 30 cm with 300 kg $ha^{-1}$. Maximum cis-1,3-D and trans-1,3-D concentration reached 57 mg $L^{-1}$ and 39 mg $L^{-1}$ at 30 cm depth at 1h after application. Cumulatively, after 10 days, 51.8% and 43.57% of applied cis-1,3-D and trans-1,3-D was emitted via volatilization, respectively. The total losses of cis-1,3-D were significantly greater than that of trans-1,3-D. Finally, cis-1,3-D and trans-1,3-D, such as isomer are dominant of 1,3-D fates in soil.

Combined 1D/2D Inundation Simulation of Riverside Farmland using HEC-RAS (HEC-RAS를 이용한 하천변 농경지의 1, 2차원 연계 침수 모의)

  • Jun, Sang Min;Song, Jung-Hun;Choi, Soon-Kun;Lee, Kyung-Do;Kang, Moon Seong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.60 no.5
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    • pp.135-147
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    • 2018
  • The objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics of combined 1D/2D inundation simulation of riverside farmland using the Hydrologic Engineering Center - River Analysis System (HEC-RAS). We compared and analyzed inundation simulation results between 1D and combined 1D/2D hydraulic simulation using HEC-RAS. Calibration and validation of stream stage were performed using three rainfall events. The coefficient of determination ($R^2$) and root mean square error (RMSE) between simulated and observed stream stage were 0.935 - 0.957 and 0.250 m - 0.283 m in calibration and validation, respectively. The inundation area showed no significant difference in 1D and combined 1D/2D simulation ($8.48km^2$ in 1D simulation, $8.75km^2$ in combined 1D/2D simulation). The average inundation depth by 1D simulation was 1.4 m deeper than combined 1D/2D simulation. In the lower inundation depth, the inundation area by combined 1D/2D simulation was larger than inundation area by 1D simulation. As the inundation depth increased, the inundation area by 1D simulation became wider. In the case of the 1D/2D combined simulation, low elevation areas along the river bank were inundated widely. Compared to 1D/2D combined simulation, the flood radius in some sections was longer in 1D simulation. In the 1D analysis, because the low altitude riverside farmlands are also assumed to stream, it is calculated that riverside farmlands have the same stage as the mainstream when the stream is overflowed. Therefore, the inundation area seems to be overestimated in those sections. In other regions, the inundation areas tend to be broken depending on overflow by each stream cross-section. In the case of river flooding, the overflow is expected to flow to the lower area depending on the terrain, such as the results of the combined 1D/2D simulation. It is concluded that the results of combined 1D/2D inundation simulation reflected the topographical characteristics of low-lying farmland.

A Study on the Constituents from the Roots of Polygala tenuifolia (원지(Polygala tenuifolia WILLD.) 뿌리의 성분연구)

  • Lee, Young-Sun;Lee, Je-Hyun;Kim, Chung-Sook;Kim, Jin-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.168-172
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    • 1999
  • Five compounds were isolated from the roots of Polygala tenuifolia (Polygalaceae). On the basis of spectroscopic evidences, the structures of these compounds were characterized as ${\alpha}-D-(6-O-sinapoyl)-glucopyranosyl(1{\rightarrow}2')-{\beta}-D-(3'-O-sinapoyl)-fructofuranoside$ (P3), ${\alpha}$-D-{6-O-(p-methoxybenzoyl)}-glucopyranosyl-$(1{\rightarrow}2')$-${\beta}$-D-{3'-O-(3',4',5'-trimethoxycinnamoyl)}-fructofuranoside(P4), ${\alpha}$-D-{6-O-(p-hydroxybenzoyl)}-glucopyranosyl-$(1{\rightarrow}2')$-${\beta}$-D-{3'-O-(3',4',5'-trimethoxycinnamoyl)}-fructofuranoside(P5), ${\alpha}-D-glucopyranosyl-(1{\rightarrow}2')-{\beta}-D-(1'-O-sinapoyl)-fructofuranoside$(P6), $1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol$(P7) respectively. ${\alpha}$-D-{6-O-(p-Methoxybenzoyl)}-glucopyranosyl-$(1{\rightarrow}2')$-${\beta}$-D-{3'-O-(3',4',5'-trimethoxycinnamoyl)}-fructofuranoside(P4) and ${\alpha}-D-glucopyranosyl-(1{\rightarrow}2')-{\beta}-D-(1'-O-sinapoyl)-fructofuranoside$(P6) were isolated for the first time from the genus of Polygala. 1,5-Anhydro-D-glucitol(P7) was isolated without hydrolysis for the first time from the root of Polygala tenuifolia.

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ON THE SIMILARITY LAW FOR FISHING NETS (그물어구의 상사법칙에 관하여)

  • KIM Dai An
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 1979
  • 본연구에서는 그물어구의 상사를 지배하는 무차원수 K를 $$K=\frac{{\nu}^n\rho_wv^{2-n}}{{d^{1+n}(\rho-\rho_w)}$$ d, p: 재료의 직경 및 밀도 $\nu,\rho_w,v$: 물의 동점성계수, 밀도 및 속도으로 정하고, 여기에서의 직경의 비를 결정하는 방법에 따라 실물과 모형과의 상사를 완전하게 그리고 근사적으로 만족시키는 조건들을 구하였다. 즉, 원전한 상사한 경우는 직경의 비를 축척비와 같게 하고, 나아가서 다른 모든 치수의 비도 축척비와 같게 함으로써 만족된다고 하였으며, 측사적 상사의 경우느 직경의 비가 축척비 $(\frac{\lambda_2}{\lambda_1})$와 같지 않아도 된다고 하여, 그물실의 직경 d, 코의 크기 $\iota$ 및 콧수 N의 비를 $$\frac{d_2}{d_1}=\frac{\iota_2}{\iota_1}=\frac{\lambda_2}{\lambda_1}{\cdot}\frac{N_1}{N_2}$$ 으로, 줄의 직경 d', 길이 $\iota'$ 및 밀도 $\rho'$의 비를 $$\frac{d_2'}{d_1'}=\sqrt{{\frac{\lambda_2}{\lambda_1}}\cdot{\frac{d_2}{d_1}}\cdot{\frac{\rho_2-\rho_{w2}}{\rho_1-\rho_{w1}}\cdot{\frac{\rho_1'-\rho_{w1}}{\rho_2'-\rho_{w2}}}}$$, $\frac{\iota_2'}{\iota_1'}=\frac{\lambda_2}{\lambda_1}$로, 부속구의 치경 $d'$, 밀도 $\rho'$ 및 수 $N'$의 비를 $$\frac{N_2'}{N_1'}=(\frac{\lambda_2}{\lambda_1})^2(\frac{d_2}{d_1})(\frac{d_1'}{d_2'})\frac{(\rho_2-\rho_{w2})}{(\rho_1-\rho_{w1})}\frac{(\rho_1'-\rho_{w1})}{(\rho_2'-\rho_{w2})}$$으로 정하였다. 이렇게 정해진 모형어구에 대해 유속 v의 비느 $K_1=K_2$로부터 $$(\frac{u_2}{u_1})^{2-n}=(\frac{\nu_2}{\nu_1})^{-n}\;(\frac{\rho_{w1}}{\rho_{w2}})\;(\frac{\rho_2-\rho_{w2}}{\rho_1-\rho_{w1}})\;(\frac{d_2}{d_1})^{1+n}$$으로 주어지므로, 이를 이용하여 어구저항 D 및 그물감의 다리에서의 장력 $\tau$의 비를 $$\frac{D_2}{D_1}=\frac{d_2(\rho_2-\rho_{w2})}{d_1(\rho_1-\rho_{w1})}(\frac{\lambda_2}{\lambda_1})^2$$ $${\frac{\tau_2}{\tau_1}=\frac{d_2\iota_2(\rho_2-\rho_{w2})}{d_1\iota_1(\rho_1-\rho_{w1})}\;{\cdot}\frac{\lambda_2}{\lambda_1}$$로 정하였다.

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COUNTING FORMULA FOR SOLUTIONS OF DIAGONAL EQUATIONS

  • Moon, Young-Gu;Lee, June-Bok;Park, Young-Ho
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.803-810
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    • 2000
  • Let N($d_1,...,{\;}d_n;c_1,...,{\;}c_n$) be the number of solutions $(x_1,...,{\;}x_n){\in}F^{n}_p$ of the diagonal equation $c_lx_1^{d_1}+c_2x_2^{d_2}+{\cdots}+c_nx_n^{d_n}{\;}={\;}0{\;}n{\geq},{\;}c_j{\;}{\in}{\;}F^{*}_q,{\;}j=1,2,...,{\;}n$ where $d_j{\;}>{\;}1{\;}and{\;}d_j{\;}$\mid${\;}q{\;}-{\;}1$ for all j = 1,2,..., n. In this paper, we find all n-tuples ($d_1,...,{\;}d_n$) such that the reduced form of ($d_1,...,{\;}d_n$) and N($d_1,...,{\;}d_n;c_1,...,{\;}c_n$) are the same as in the theorem obtained by Sun Qi [3]. Improving this, we also get an explicit formula for the number of solutions of the diagonal equation, unver a certain natural restriction on the exponents.

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Association of Puroindolines Genotypes and Grain Properties, Milling Performances and Physical Properties of Flour in Korean Wheats

  • Park, Chul-Soo;Kang, Chon-Sik;Park, Jong-Chul;Jung, Youn-Joo;Cheong, Young-Keun;Woo, Sun-Hee
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.54 no.3
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    • pp.249-259
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    • 2009
  • Puroindoline alleles, grain characteristics, milling performances and physical properties of flour of 22 Korean wheat cultivars were evaluated to determine the influence of puroindolines genotypes on grain and flour characteristics and to provide useful information for improving milling and end-use quality in Korean wheat breeding programs. Nine Korean wheat cultivars carried with Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1a, 11 cultivars had Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1b and 2 cultivars were Pina-D1b/Pinb-D1a. Korean wheats carrying with Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1a genotypes showed lower test weight and thousand kernel weight, area and roundness of grain and hardness index in grain characteristics, lower flour yield and higher proportion of break flour in milling performances and lower average particle size of flour, ash and damaged starch content, water retention capacity, yellowness-blueness and higher lightness of flour than wheats with Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1b or Pina-D1b/Pina-D1a genotypes. Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1b genotypes showed lower 1000-kernel weight, grain area, higher average of particle size of flour, higher ash and damaged starch content than Pina-D1b/Pina-D1a genotypes. There was no difference in hardness index of grain, milling performances, flour color between Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1b and Pina-D1b/Pina-D1a genotypes. These results could present the information to improve milling quality and physical properties of flour in Korean wheat breeding programs.

A study of refraction state of middle aged & manhood in Daegu (대구지역 중·장년층의 굴절상태 연구)

  • Choi, Gei-Hun
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.323-332
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    • 2004
  • This study researched the visual acuity test object and Auto-refractormeter, visual of near power. The object were composed of middle aged, the old men and women who in habit Daegu. The results were as follows : 1. The subjects consisted of 537 people, 29.98% men, 70.02% women. 2. The emmetropia was 1.12% for myopia, 2.79% for hyperopia, 96.09% for astigmatism. 3. The abnormal refraction was composition for myopic compound astigmatism(16.57%), hyperopia compound astigmatism(45.62%), Mixed astigmatism(33.89%). 4. On the Myopic Spherical Equivalent(S.E) power, the range of -0.50D ${\leq}$ M.S.E < -1.00D was 21.67%, -1.00D ${\leq}$ M.S.E < -2.00D was 48.89%, -2.00D ${\leq}$ M.S.E < -6.00D was 29.44%. 5. On the Hyperopic Spherical Equivalent(S.E) power, the range of +0.50D ${\leq}$ H.S.E < +1.00D was 28.57%, +1.00D ${\leq}$ H.S.E < +2.00D was 49.30%, +2.00D ${\leq}$ H.S.E < +6.00D was 23.13%. 6. The addition power was 1.00D(8.01%), 1.50D(8.57%), 2.00D(13.78%), 2.50D(16.57%), 3.00D(16.95%), 3.50D(17.88%), 4.00D(18.25%).

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A NOTE ON UNITS OF REAL QUADRATIC FIELDS

  • Byeon, Dong-Ho;Lee, Sang-Yoon
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.767-774
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    • 2012
  • For a positive square-free integer $d$, let $t_d$ and $u_d$ be positive integers such that ${\epsilon}_d=\frac{t_d+u_d{\sqrt{d}}}{\sigma}$ is the fundamental unit of the real quadratic field $\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{d})$, where ${\sigma}=2$ if $d{\equiv}1$ (mod 4) and ${\sigma}=1$ otherwise For a given positive integer $l$ and a palindromic sequence of positive integers $a_1$, ${\ldots}$, $a_{l-1}$, we define the set $S(l;a_1,{\ldots},a_{l-1})$ := {$d{\in}\mathbb{Z}|d$ > 0, $\sqrt{d}=[a_0,\overline{a_1,{\ldots},2a_0}]$}. We prove that $u_d$ < $d$ for all square-free integer $d{\in}S(l;a_1,{\ldots},a_{l-1})$ with one possible exception and apply it to Ankeny-Artin-Chowla conjecture and Mordell conjecture.