• Title, Summary, Keyword: Daphnia magna

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Sensitivity of Daphnia magna to the Toxic Materials by the static Test (Static Test에 의한 Daphnia magna의 환경오염물질에 대한 민감성 평가)

  • 한의정;최성헌;김진일
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.101-109
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    • 1994
  • Acute toxicity of heavy metals( mercury, cadmium lead, chromium and copper ), organophosphours insecticides( EPN, 2, 4- D, and parathion ), and other chemicals( arsenic, cyanide, and phenol ) to Daphnia magna was analyzed. Acute toxicity of heavy metals, organophosphours insecticides and other chemicals on Daphnia magna, LC$_{50}$ was showed 0.07-0.73mg/1, 0.22-1.94mg/t and 1.73-39.92mg/1 respectively. Daphnia magna to most of toxic chemicals was sensitive and then it seems to be useful except phenol in toxic test of water. Toxic chemicals were classified as Group 1 which had a high LC$_{50}$ value and the low increase rate of toxicity according to the increase of concentration, Group 2 which had a high LC$_{50}$ value and the high increase rate of toxicity, Group 3 which had a low LC$_{50}$ value and the low increase rate of toxicity. To Daphnia magna, lead, chromium, EPN, and parathion were included in Group 1; Mercury and copper in Group 2; Arsenic and cadmium in Group 3; Cyanide 2,4- D, and phenol in Group 4.

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Characteristics and Toxicity Sensitivity of Korean Dominant Species Daphnia galeata for Ecotoxicity Testing: Comparative Study with Daphnia magna (생태독성실험을 위한 한국 우점종 유리물벼룩(Daphnia galeata)의 특성 및 독성민감도: 큰물벼룩(Daphnia magna)과의 비교연구)

  • Cui, Rongxue;Kwak, Jin Il;An, Youn-Joo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.193-200
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    • 2016
  • Water flea is a widely used test species in the aquatic ecotoxicity test. In Korea, D. magna is currently used as a standard test species, however that do not inhabit in the Korean aquatic ecosystem. In this study, Daphnia galeata, which is a dominant species in the Korean aquatic ecosystem, was collected from domestic lake and investigated to suggest the D. galeata for ecotoxicity assessment in Korea. We investigated the characteristics, life span, and toxicity sensitivity compared with D. magna. The life span test of D. galeata was performed in this study, and then the results were compared to the sensitivity with D. magna to confirm the applicability for ecotoxicity assessment. The 48h-L(E)C50 values for seven heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, and Zn) of D. galeata and D. magna were collected and analyzed. As a results, shorter lifetime, less reproduction, smaller body size of D. galeata were observed compared with D. magna. D. galeata was similar or more sensitive than D. magna for seven heavy metals. Therefore, we propose that D. galeata is a suitable test species for ecotoxicity testing in Korea.

Acute Toxicity on Daphnia Magna for Electric Cable Factory Wastewater (물벼룩에 의한 전선공장폐수의 급성독성가)

  • Chae, Su-Gwon;Kim, Nam-Cheon;Kim, Geon-Heung
    • Water for future
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.61-66
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    • 1992
  • This study was to determine the static acute toxicity on Daphnia magna for the Electric cable Factory Wastewater. Activated sludge process was used to treat the wastewater with three different F/M ratios, 0.36, 0.2, 0.1 mg COD/day.mg MLSS. The results of laboratory bioassay with Daphnia magna were as follows. 1)24hr, 48hr-LC$ of the influent were 17.33% and 11.73%. 2)24hr-LC $ of effluents treated with F/M ratio 0.36,0.26 and 0.1mg COD/day.mg MLSS were 26.69% 32.70% and 38.36% respectively, 48-LC$ of these effluents were 14.48% 27.88% and 31.58% respectively. 3)According to various F/M ratios, the ratios of dffluent 48hr-LC$ to filtrated 48hr-LC$ were 1.58, 1.83 and 1.47respectively 4)Activated sludge process effluents treated with activated carbon had little toxicity on Daphnia magna.

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Acute Toxicity Evaluation to Daphnia magna of Disease Resistant(OsCK1) Rice (병저항성 GM(OsCK1)벼의 물벼룩(Daphnia magna)에 대한 급성독성 평가)

  • Oh, Sung-Dug;Lee, Kijong;Park, Soo-Yun;Ryu, Tae-Hun;Suh, Sang Jae
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.121-128
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND: The disease resistant (OsCK1) rice was generated by inserting choline kinase (CK1) and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) genes isolated from Oryza sativa and Streptomyces hygroscopicus into the genome of the rice, Nakdongbyeo. With the potential problems of safeties, the evaluations on non-target organisms are essentially required for the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops. In the present study, we conducted the evaluation of acute toxicity on Daphnia magna that commonly used as a model organism in ecotoxicological studies for non-target organism evaluation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Effect of acute toxicity to Daphnia magna by each concentration were investigated in the disease resistant (OsCK1) rice and non-genetically modified (non-GM) rice, Nakdongbyeo, as concentration (0, 1,000, 1,800, 3,240, 5,830, 10,500 and 20,000 mg/L). The OsCK1 rice used for the test was confirmed to express the OsCK1/PAT gene by the PCR(Polymerase chain reaction) and western blot analysis. Feeding test showed that no significant differences in cumulative immobility and abnormal response of Daphnia magna fed on OsCK1 rice or non-GM rice. The 48hr-$EC_{50}$ values showed no difference between OsCK1 rice (3,147.18 mg/L) and non-GM rice (3,596.27 mg/L). CONCLUSION: This result suggested that there was no significant difference in toxicity to Daphnia magna between OsCK1 rice and non-GM counterpart.

Acidity Enhances the Ability of 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide Ribonucleotide to Increase Respiration and Lipid Metabolism in Daphnia magna

  • Han, Chloe;Kottapalli, Aarthi;Boyapati, Keerti;Chan, Sarah;Jeong, Yong-Joo
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.63 no.4
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    • pp.253-259
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    • 2019
  • 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR), a structural analog of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), promotes oxidative remodeling in muscle cells. AICAR activates AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK), thus increasing lipid metabolism, respiration, and mitochondrial counts. This process is called oxidative remodeling, which enhances the physical endurance of mice. To test this drug on an invertebrate that is genetically similar to humans, we used the small water crustacean Daphnia magna, which is sensitive to changes in water conditions. We tested the effects of pH on the efficacy of AICAR using two methods. One method measured oxygen consumption of Daphnia in oxygen chambers. The other method determined lipid levels of Daphnia through fluorescent tagging of lipids. The results showed that when exposed to AICAR at pH 6.58, D. magna consumed more oxygen and had lower overall levels of lipids, which is consistent with the expected effects of AICAR, such as increased respiration and lipid metabolism.

Carbon Assimilation and Respiration of Daphnia magna with Varying Algal Food Quality

  • Park, Sang-Kyu;Goldman Charles R.
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.433-438
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    • 2006
  • To elucidate the mechanisms by which algal food quality affect Daphnia growths, we measured carbon incorporation rates and respiration rates of Daphnia magna with Cryptomonad Rhodomonas minuta, green algae Scenedesmus acutus and cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. with varying physiological states as food. Carbon assimilation rates were high with R. minuta and S. acutus and low with Synechococcus sp. showing a similar pattern to the growth rate pattern. There was no clear difference among respiration rates of three algal species. Carbon assimilation rates and respiration rates of D. magna appeared to be independent on Molar C:P ratios in algal foods. Carbon growth efficiencies (incorporated carbon per assimilated carbon amount) were lower when D. magna fed with Synechococcus sp. than fed with R. minuta or S. acutus. Analysis of variance results show that carbon assimilation rates which were sum of incorporation and respiration rates and carbon growth efficiencies were only dependant on species affiliation. Overall, our results showed that algal species with varying ${\omega}3$ polyunsaturated fatty acid content led different carbon incorporation rates and overall carbon assimilation rates of D. magna.

Genotoxicity of $CeO_2$, $SiO_2$ and $TiO_2$ Nanoparticles in the Freshwater Crustacean Daphnia magna (Daphnia magna를 이용한 세리아, 실리카, 티타늄 나노물질의 유전독성 평가)

  • Kim, Sung-Man;Choi, Jin-Hee
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.79-85
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    • 2008
  • 본 연구에서는, 세리아($CeO_2$), 실리카($SiO_2$) 및 티타늄($TiO_2$) 나노입자의 유전독성과 생태독성 평가를 위하여 바이오 모니터링에 널리 이용되는 수생생태 감시종인 Daphnia magna를 사용하였다. 합성한 나노입자 세리아와 공업적으로 상용되는 실리카 및 티타늄을 유전독성 및 생태독성평가에 이용하였다. 세리아의 경우, D. magna의 DNA의 파괴가 증가함을 통해 세리아의 유전독성 가능성을 확인할 수 있었으나, 실리카 및 티타늄의 경우에는 두 물질 모두 유전독성 영향이 나타나지 않았다. 실리카는 DNA에는 영향을 미치지 않는 것으로 보이나, 실리카에 노출된 D. magna의 사멸은 증가하는 결과를 보였다. 그러나, 티타늄에 노출된 D. magna에서는 유전독성 및 생태독성 인자의 유의적인 변화를 관찰할 수 없었다. 이상의 전체 결과를 통하여 예상할 수 있는 것은 세리아 나노입자가 D. magna에 유전독성을 일으킬 수 있다는 점이다. 이 결과는 나노입자가 광범위하게 이용되고 있으나 독성 관련 자료가 미약한 현재에 수생태 관련 독성 연구 결과로서 이바지 할 수 있을 것으로 여겨진다.

Geno- and Ecotoxicity Evaluation of Silver Nanoparticles in Freshwater Crustacean Daphnia magna

  • Park, Sun-Young;Choi, Jin-Hee
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.23-27
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    • 2010
  • Genotoxic- and ecotoxic assessments of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were conducted on the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. AgNPs may have genotoxic effects on D. magna, given that the DNA strand breaks increased when exposed to this nanoparticle. Increased mortality was concomitantly observed with DNA damage in the AgNPs-exposed D. magna, which suggests AgNPs-induced DNA damage might provoke higher-level consequences. The results of the comparative toxicities of AgNPs and Ag ions suggest that AgNPs are slightly more toxic than Ag ions. Overall, these results suggest that AgNPs may be genotoxic toward D. magna, which may contribute to the knowledge relating to the aquatic toxicity of AgNPs on aquatic ecosystems, for which little data are available.

Acute Toxicity Test for Wastewater from Several Drainage Canals and Discharges Using Daphnia Magna (생태독성도를 이용한 공단배수 및 공장배출수의 독성도 조사)

  • Park, Dong-Gyu;Bae, Hun-Kyun
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.20 no.7
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    • pp.811-818
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    • 2011
  • Daphnia Magna Stratus has been widely accepted as useful species for estimating the toxicity of chemicals to aquatic invertebrate and recommended as species for the testing chemicals from the international guideline as well as Korean guideline. The study was performed for the acute toxicity test by using water flea(D. Magna) for effluents from several wastewater treatment plants and drainage canals in GyeongBuk area. Five heavy metals, 1,4-Dioxane and Perchlorate were tested. Most Toxicity Units(TU) of Industrial wastewater effluents were less than 1 which means effluent was not toxic to D. Magna. However, effluents containing 1,4-Dioxane and Perchlorate were significantly toxic to D. Magna. Therefore, facilities should reduce the 1,4-dioxane since new regulations will force them after the year of 2011.