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Interspecific Transferability of Watermelon EST-SSRs Assessed by Genetic Relationship Analysis of Cucurbitaceous Crops (박과작물의 유연관계 분석을 통한 수박 EST-SSR 마커의 종간 적용성 검정)

  • Kim, Hyeogjun;Yeo, Sang-Seok;Han, Dong-Yeop;Park, Young-Hoon
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.93-105
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    • 2015
  • This study was performed to analyze genetic relationships of the four major cucurbitaceous crops including watermelon, melon, cucumber, and squash/pumpkin. Among 120 EST-SSR primer sets selected from the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative (ICuGI) database, PCR was successful for 51 (49.17%) primer sets and 49 (40.8%) primer sets showed polymorphisms among eight Cucurbitaceae accessions. A total of 382 allele-specific PCR bands were produced by 49 EST-SSR primers from 24 Cucurbitaceae accessions and used for analysis of pairwise similarity and dendrogram construction. Assessment of the genetic relationships resulted in similarity indexes ranging from 0.01 to 0.85. In the dendrogram, 24 Cucurbitaceae accessions were classified into two major groups (Clade I and II) and 8 subgroups. Clade I comprised two subgroups, Clade I-1 for watermelon accessions [I-1a and I-1b-2: three wild-type watermelons (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides Mats. & Nakai), I-1b-1: six watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus var. vulgaris S chrad.)] a nd C lade I -2 for melon and cucumber accessions [I-2a-1 : 4 melon cultivars(Cucumis melo var. cantalupensis Naudin.), I-2a-2: oriental melon cultivars (Cucumis melo var. conomon Makino.), and I-2b: five cucumber cultivars (Cucumis sativus L.)]. Squash and pumpkin accessions composed Clade II {II-1: two squash/ pumpkin cultivars [Cucurbita moschata (Duch. ex Lam.)/Duch. & Poir. and Cucurbita maxima Duch.] and II-2: two squash/pumpkin cultivars, Cucurbita pepo L./Cucurbita ficifolia Bouche.}. These results were in accordance with previously reported classification of Cucurbitaceae species, indicating that watermelon EST-SSRs show a high level of marker transferability and should be useful for genetic study in other cucurbit crops.

The Strategy of Characterizing Space that uses Anti-House as a Metaphor for Character's Self-Defense Mechanism - Focusing on the TV Series and the Theater version of - (캐릭터의 자아방어기제를 은유하는 '안티돔' 공간의 성격화 전략 - <에반게리온>의 TV 시리즈와 극장판 를 중심으로 -)

  • Yang, Se-Hyeok;Ryu, Beom-Yeol
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.75-106
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    • 2015
  • Animations characterize space as a strategy to effectively show the inner conflicts of characters and to highlight the theme. During the process of inner conflict, characters unconsciously use defense mechanism to protect their egos from the fear that came from deficiency, and because of the self-deceptive quality of self-defense mechanism, the reality is distorted and conflicts get intensified. This study focuses on the concept of anti-house, the space where conflicts get intensified, analyzes animations to find out the aspect of inner conflict, and interprets the characteristic of space that is used for metaphoric structure frame. Also, it aims to reveal how the defense mechanism, which intensifies the inner conflict of characters, is characterized as anti-house. The analysis in this study was mainly done with the TV series, , and the theater version of . It is because the characters have serious deficiency from broken home and have a psychological quality of closed boundary that is symbolized as 'A.T. field'. Especially, the core character, 'Shinji Ikari', shows how a character uses compulsive self-defense mechanism to deal with inner conflict and as a result, goes through ego-collapse and then introspection. This process of the character's experience is the core of the whole plot. Through analysis, the relationship between the character's self-defense mechanism and the space, anti-house(which expands to Anti-city), was inferred. The space is made up of three axes, x-axis of horizontal space, y-axis of vertical space, and in the sense that all the space has no exit, z-axis of deeper contradictory space. This thesis started with the decision that is the most suitable work in analyzing the metaphorical relationship between self-defense mechanism and anti-house. There was limitation, however, as the typical characteristics of Japanese animations, pedantic composition and the possibility of broad interpretation, hindered clear verification. Hopefully, this limitation will be overcome by following studies and this study is expected to show the importance of space in interpreting the text of animations, and to serve as database for other creative works.

A Study on Prioritization of HNS Management in Korean Waters (해상 위험·유해물질(HNS) 관리 우선순위 선정에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Young Ryun;Kim, Tae Won;Son, Min Ho;Oh, Sangwoo;Lee, Moonjin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.672-678
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    • 2015
  • The types of hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) being transported by sea in Korea are at about 6,000, HNS transport volume accounts for 19% of total tonnage shipped in Korea, and the increase rate of seaborne HNS trade in Korea is 2.5 times higher than the average increase rate of the world seaborne HNS trade. Reflecting this trend, HNS spill incidents have been frequently reported in Korean waters, and there are increasing social demands to develop HNS management technology for the preparedness, response, post-treatment and restoration in relation to HNS spill incidents at sea. In this study, a risk-based HNS prioritization system was developed and an HNS risk database was built with evaluation indices such as sea transport volume, physicochemical properties, toxicities, persistency, and bioaccumulation. Risk scores for human health and marine environments were calculated by multiplying scores for toxicity and exposure. The top-20 substances in the list of HNS were tabulated, and Aniline was ranked first place, but it needs to be managed not by individuals but by HNS groups with similar score levels. Limitations were identified in obtaining data of chronic toxicity and marine ecotoxicity due to lack of testing data. It is necessary to study on marine ecotoxicological test in the near future. Moreover, the priority list of HNS is expected to be utilized in the development of HNS management technology and the relevant technologies, after the expert's review process and making up for the lack of test data in the current research results.

Effect of LED mixed light conditions on the glucosinolate pathway in brassica rapa (배추 유묘의 글루코시놀레이트 합성 기작에 미치는 LED 혼합광의 효과)

  • Moon, Junghyun;Jeong, Mi Jeong;Lee, Soo In;Lee, Jun Gu;Hwang, Hyunseung;Yu, Jaewoong;Kim, Yong-Rok;Park, Se Won;Kim, Jin A
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.245-256
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    • 2015
  • In the agricultural industries, LEDs are used as supplementary, as well as main lighting sources in closed cultivation systems. In cultivation using artificial light sources, various light qualities have been tried to supplement fluorescent lamps to promote plant growth and metabolism. Microarray analysis of Brassica rapa seedlings under blue and fluorescent mixed with blue light conditions identified changes in three genes of the glucosinolate pathway. This attracted attention as functional materials highly expressed 3.6-4.6 fold under latter condition. We selected four more genes of the glucosinolate pathway from the Brassica database and tested their expression changes under fluorescent light mixed with red, green, and blue, respectively. Some genes increased expression under red and blue mixed conditions. The Bra026058, Bra015379, and Bra021429; the orthologous genes of CYP79F1, ST5a, and FMOGS-OX1 in Arabidopsis, are highly expressed in Brassica rapa under fluorescent mixed with blue light conditions. Further, Bra029355, Bra034180, Bra024634, and Bra022448; the orthologous genes of MAM1, AOP3, UGT74B1, and BCAT4 in Arabidopsis, are highly expressed in Brassica rapa under fluorescent mixed with red light conditions. The various light conditions had unique effects on the varieties of Brassica, resulting in differences in glucosinolate synthesis. However, in some varieties, glucosinolate synthesis increased under mixed blue light conditions. These results will help to construct artificial light facilities, which increase functional crops production.

Analysis and Evaluation of Glycemic Indices and Glycemic Loads of Frequently Consumed Carbohydrate-Rich Snacks according to Variety and Cooking Method (탄수화물 간식류 식품 및 조리방법에 따른 혈당지수 및 혈당부하지수)

  • Kim, Do Yeon;Lee, Hansongyi;Choi, Eun Young;Lim, Hyunjung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.14-23
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    • 2015
  • This study examined the glycemic indices (GIs) and glycemic loads of carbohydrate-rich snacks in Korea according to variety and cooking method. The most popular carbohydrate snacks (corn, potatoes, sweet potatoes, chestnuts, and red beans) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey nutrient database were cooked using a variety of conventional cooking methods (steaming, baking, porridge, puffing, and frying). The GIs of foods were measured in 60 healthy males after receiving permission from the University Hospital institutional review board (KMC IRB 1306-01). Blood glucose and insulin levels were then measured at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after consuming glucose, and each test food contained 50 g of carbohydrates (corn: 170.0 g, potatoes: 359.7 g, sweet potatoes: 160.3 g, chestnuts: 134.8 g, red beans: 73.1 g). GI values for test foods were calculated based on the increase in the area under the blood glucose response curve for each subject. Steamed potatoes ($93.6{\pm}11.6$), corn porridge ($91.8{\pm}19.5$), baked sweet potatoes ($90.9{\pm}9.6$), baked potatoes ($78.2{\pm}14.5$), steamed corn ($73.4{\pm}9.9$), and steamed sweet potatoes ($70.8{\pm}6.1$) were shown to be considered high GI foods, whereas baked chestnuts ($54.3{\pm}6.3$), red bean porridge ($33.1{\pm}5.5$), steamed red beans ($22.1{\pm}3.2$), fried potatoes ($41.5{\pm}7.8$), and ground and pan-fried potatoes ($28.0{\pm}5.1$) were considered as low GI foods. The results suggest that the cooking method of carbohydrate-rich snacks is an important determinant of GI values.

Molecular Identification of Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Egg Parasitoids of the Asian Corn Borer Ostrinia furnacalis, Based on ITS2 rDNA Sequence Analysis (ITS2 rDNA 염기서열 분석을 통한 Trichogramma 속(벌목: 알벌과)의 조명나방 알기생벌에 대한 종 추정)

  • Seo, Bo Yoon;Jung, Jin Kyo;Park, Ki Jin;Cho, Jum Rae;Lee, Gwan-Seok;Jung, Chung Ryul
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.247-260
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    • 2014
  • To identify the species of Trichogramma occurring in the corn fields of Korea as egg parasitoids of Ostrinia furnacalis, we sequenced the full-length of ITS2 nuclear rDNA from 112 parasitoids collected during this study. As a reference to distinguish species, we also retrieved full-length ITS2 sequences of 60 Trichogramma species from the NCBI GenBank database. On the basis of the size and 3'terminal sequence pattern of the ITS2 sequences, the Trichogramma samples collected in this study were divided into three groups (K-1, -2, and -3). Evolutionary distances (d) within and between groups based on ITS2 sequences were estimated to be ${\leq}0.005$ and ${\geq}0.080$, respectively. In the net average distance between groups or species, the d value between K-1 and T. ostriniae, K-2 and T. dendrolimi, and K-3 and T. confusum was the lowest, with values of 0.016, 0.001, and 0.002, respectively. In the phylogenetic tree, K-1 and K-2 were clustered with T. ostriniae and T. dendrolimi, respectively. However, K-3 was clustered with three different species, namely, T. confusum, T. chilonis, and T. bilingensis. NCBI BLAST results revealed that parasitoids belonging to K-1 and K-2 showed 99% identity with T. ostriniae and T. dendrolimi, respectively. Parasitoids in K-3 collected from Hongcheon showed 99-100% identity with T. confusum and T. chilonis, and one parasitoid in K-3 collected from Gochang had 98% identity with T. bilingensis, T. confusum, and T. chilonis. On the basis of these results, we infer that the species of Trichogramma collected in this study are closely related to T. ostriniae (K-1) and T. dendrolimi (K-2). However, it was not possible to distinguish species of K-3 using the ITS2 sequence alone.

A Study on the Forest Vegetation of Odaesan National Park, Korea (오대산국립공원 삼림식생에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Chang-Hwan;Oh, Jang-Geun;Lee, Nam-Sook;Choi, Young-Eun;Song, Myoung-Jun
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.61-67
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    • 2015
  • This study, which was conducted from Apr. 2013 to Jan. 2014, was carried out as part of a project of making a more detailed ecological zoning map with 1/5,000 scale. The necessity of electronic vegetation map with large scale has arisen in order to make the best use of basic research findings on resource monitoring of National Parks and to enhance efficiency in National Park management. In order to improve accuracy and speed of vegetation research process, the data base for vegetation research was categorized into five groups, namely broad-leaved forest, coniferous forest, mixed forest, rock vegetation and miscellaneous one. And then a vegetation map for vegetation research was created for the research on the site. What is in the database for vegetation research and the vegetation map reflecting findings from vegetation research showed similar distribution rate for broad-leaved forest with 71.965% and 71.184%, respectively. The distribution rate of coniferous forest (16.010%, 15.747%), mixed forest (10.619%, 12.085%), and rock vegetation (0.015%, 0.002%) did not have much difference. In a detailed vegetation map reflecting vegetation research findings, the broad-leaved mountain forest was the most widely distributed with 60.096% based on the physiognomy classification. It was followed by mountain coniferous forest (16.332%), mountain valley forest (15.887%), and plantation forest (3.558%) As for vegetation conservation classification evaluated in the national park, grade I and grade II areas took up 200.44 km2, 61.80% and 108.80 km2, 33.55% respectively. The combined area of these two amounts to 95.35%, making this area the first grade area in ecological nature status. This means that this area is highly worth preserving its vegetation. The high rate of grade I area such as climax forests, unique vegetation, and subalpine vegetation seems to be attributable to diverse innate characteristics of Odaesan National Park, high altitude, low level of artificial disturbance, the subalpine zone formed on the ridge of the mountain top, and their vegetation formation, which reflects climatic and geological characteristics, despite continuous disturbance by mountain climbing.

The Statistical Approach-based Intelligent Education Support System (통계적 접근법을 기초로 하는 지능형 교육 지원 시스템)

  • Chung, Jun-Hee
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.109-123
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    • 2012
  • Many kinds of the education systems are provided to students. Many kinds of the contents like School subjects, license, job training education and so on are provided through many kinds of the media like text, image, video and so on. Students will apply the knowledge they learnt and will use it when they learn other things. In the existing education system, there have been many situations that the education system isn't really helpful to the students because too hard contents are transferred to them or because too easy contents are transferred to them and they learn the contents they already know again. To solve this phenomenon, a method that transfers the most proper lecture contents to the students is suggested in the thesis. Because the difficulty is relative, the contents A can be easier than the contents B to a group of the students and the contents B can be easier than the contents A to another group of the students. Therefore, it is not easy to measure the difficulty of the lecture contents. A method considering this phenomenon to transfer the proper lecture contents is suggested in the thesis. The whole lecture contents are divided into many lecture modules. The students solve the pattern recognition questions, a kind of the prior test questions, before studying the lecture contents and the system selects and provides the most proper lecture module among many lecture modules to the students according to the score about the questions. When the system selects the lecture module and transfer it to the student, the students' answer and the difficulty of the lecture modules are considered. In the existing education system, 1 kind of the content is transferred to various students. If the same lecture contents is transferred to various students, the contents will not be transferred efficiently. The system selects the proper contents using the students' pattern recognition answers. The pattern recognition question is a kind of the prior test question that is developed on the basis of the lecture module and used to recognize whether the student knows the contents of the lecture module. Because the difficulty of the lecture module reflects the all scores of the students' answers, whenever a student submits the answer, the difficulty is changed. The suggested system measures the relative knowledge of the students using the answers and designates the difficulty. The improvement of the suggested method is only applied when the order of the lecture contents has nothing to do with the progress of the lecture. If the contents of the unit 1 should be studied before studying the contents of the unit 2, the suggested method is not applied. The suggested method is introduced on the basis of the subject "English grammar", subjects that the order is not important, in the thesis. If the suggested method is applied properly to the education environment, the students who don't know enough basic knowledge will learn the basic contents well and prepare the basis to learn the harder lecture contents. The students who already know the lecture contents will not study those again and save more time to learn more various lecture contents. Many improvement effects like these and so on will be provided to the education environment. If the suggested method that is introduced on the basis of the subject "English grammar" is applied to the various education systems like primary education, secondary education, job education and so on, more improvement effects will be provided. The direction to realize these things is suggested in the thesis. The suggested method is realized with the MySQL database and Java, JSP program. It will be very good if the suggested method is researched developmentally and become helpful to the development of the Korea education.

A Study on the Performance Evaluation of G2B Procurement Process Innovation by Using MAS: Korea G2B KONEPS Case (멀티에이전트시스템(MAS)을 이용한 G2B 조달 프로세스 혁신의 효과평가에 관한 연구 : 나라장터 G2B사례)

  • Seo, Won-Jun;Lee, Dae-Cheor;Lim, Gyoo-Gun
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.157-175
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    • 2012
  • It is difficult to evaluate the performance of process innovation of e-procurement which has large scale and complex processes. The existing evaluation methods for measuring the effects of process innovation have been mainly done with statistically quantitative methods by analyzing operational data or with qualitative methods by conducting surveys and interviews. However, these methods have some limitations to evaluate the effects because the performance evaluation of e-procurement process innovation should consider the interactions among participants who are active either directly or indirectly through the processes. This study considers the e-procurement process as a complex system and develops a simulation model based on MAS(Multi-Agent System) to evaluate the effects of e-procurement process innovation. Multi-agent based simulation allows observing interaction patterns of objects in virtual world through relationship among objects and their behavioral mechanism. Agent-based simulation is suitable especially for complex business problems. In this study, we used Netlogo Version 4.1.3 as a MAS simulation tool which was developed in Northwestern University. To do this, we developed a interaction model of agents in MAS environment. We defined process agents and task agents, and assigned their behavioral characteristics. The developed simulation model was applied to G2B system (KONEPS: Korea ON-line E-Procurement System) of Public Procurement Service (PPS) in Korea and used to evaluate the innovation effects of the G2B system. KONEPS is a successfully established e-procurement system started in the year 2002. KONEPS is a representative e-Procurement system which integrates characteristics of e-commerce into government for business procurement activities. KONEPS deserves the international recognition considering the annual transaction volume of 56 billion dollars, daily exchanges of electronic documents, users consisted of 121,000 suppliers and 37,000 public organizations, and the 4.5 billion dollars of cost saving. For the simulation, we analyzed the e-procurement of process of KONEPS into eight sub processes such as 'process 1: search products and acquisition of proposal', 'process 2 : review the methods of contracts and item features', 'process 3 : a notice of bid', 'process 4 : registration and confirmation of qualification', 'process 5 : bidding', 'process 6 : a screening test', 'process 7 : contracts', and 'process 8 : invoice and payment'. For the parameter settings of the agents behavior, we collected some data from the transactional database of PPS and some information by conducting a survey. The used data for the simulation are 'participants (government organizations, local government organizations and public institutions)', 'the number of bidding per year', 'the number of total contracts', 'the number of shopping mall transactions', 'the rate of contracts between bidding and shopping mall', 'the successful bidding ratio', and the estimated time for each process. The comparison was done for the difference of time consumption between 'before the innovation (As-was)' and 'after the innovation (As-is).' The results showed that there were productivity improvements in every eight sub processes. The decrease ratio of 'average number of task processing' was 92.7% and the decrease ratio of 'average time of task processing' was 95.4% in entire processes when we use G2B system comparing to the conventional method. Also, this study found that the process innovation effect will be enhanced if the task process related to the 'contract' can be improved. This study shows the usability and possibility of using MAS in process innovation evaluation and its modeling.

A Survey of Disease Occurrence in Korean Black Goats (흑염소 사육농가의 질병발생 실태조사)

  • Choe, Chang-Yong;Kang, Da-Won;Choi, Sun-Ho;Cho, Chang-Yeon;Jung, Byeong-Yeal;Son, Jun-Kyu;Ryu, Il-Sun;Hu, Tai-Young;Jung, Young-Hun;Kang, Seog-Jin;Do, Youn-Jeong;Kim, Ui-Hyung;Park, Yong-Sang;Son, Dong-Soo
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.160-164
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    • 2012
  • The goat industry has been developing for many years in Korea to meet demands for food and medicine. However, many complicated patterns of disease have arisen in goat farms as this industry has developed. In this study, disease occurrence patterns in Korean black goats were surveyed in six professional farming households in Imsil and Soonchang in the Jeonbuk province and in Hamyang and Sachon in the Gyeongnam province to understand and extend the goat disease database. We observed morbidity rates between 2.0% and 9.8% for adult goats and between 2.9% and 68.3% for kids. Kids showed a markedly higher incidence of disease when compared to adults. The rate of disease occurrence was 40.0% for floppy kid syndrome (FKS), 37.7% for diarrhea, 16.0% for respiratory disease, and 1.9% for skin disease. The observed mortality rates were 0.7% ~ 10.0%, and 2.2% ~ 24.9% for adult goats and kids, respectively. In addition, FKS, diarrhea, and respiratory disease were observed in 38.3%, 28.9%, and 10.0%, respectively, of dead goats. In conclusion, the majority of diseases in goats occur during the neonatal period, and FKS is the highest single cause of mortality in Korean black goats. Thus careful attention must be paid to kids to reduce the goat mortality rate.