• Title, Summary, Keyword: Daytime Grazing

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The Effects of Recording Interval on the Estimation of Grazing Behavior of Cattle in a Daytime Grazing System

  • Hirata, M.;Iwamoto, T.;Otozu, W.;Kiyota, D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.745-750
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    • 2002
  • The effects of recording interval (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min) on the estimation of some grazing behavior variables in beef cows and calves (<4 months old) were investigated in a daytime grazing (7 h) system utilizing a bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) pasture (a 1.1 ha paddock and a 0.4 ha resting area). Recording intervals of 10-30 min tended to underestimate the time spent grazing and ruminating and overestimate the time spent resting by animals, whereas intervals of 1-5 min resulted in almost constant estimates. In all grazing activities, the errors of estimation became larger when the recording interval exceeded 5 min. The accuracy of estimation was higher for grazing time>rumination time>resting time. An increase in recording interval always decreased estimates of the distance walked by animals. It was concluded that recording intervals of 1-5 min provide reliable estimates of the time spent grazing, ruminating and resting. It was also concluded that positioning of animals at 1 min intervals may provide estimates of walking distance with acceptable bias toward underestimation.

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF FAECES BY CATTLE IN A DAYTIME GRAZING SYSTEM

  • Hirata, M.;Higashiyama, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.603-610
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    • 1996
  • Spatial distribution of faeces by Japanese Black heifers and steers was investigated. The animals grazed a bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum $Fl\ddot{u}gge$) pasture in the daytime from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., and spent the rest of the day in a barn. The pasture consisted of three paddocks, an alley and a resting area, and the paddocks were grazed rotationally. The number of defecations and the faecal weight excreted in the pasture were greater than those expected from the proportion of time that the animals spent in the pasture. These values were correspondingly smaller in the barn. The distribution of faeces to the paddock, alley and resting area of the pasture was usually not proportional to the area of the respective places. The number of defeations and the faecal weight were usually distributed less densely in the paddock than in the resting area. The degree of aggregation of defecation in the paddock, alley and resting area varied with the meteorological factors such as the air temperature, solar radiation and rainfall during the grazing, and the intake of hay supplement of the previous day.

Spatial Distribution of Urination by Cattle in a Daytime Grazing System

  • Hirata, M.;Higashiyama, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.484-490
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    • 1997
  • Spatial distribution of urination by Japanese Black heifers and steers was investigated, and compared with the distribution of defecation. The animals grazed a bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum $Fl\ddot{u}gge$) pasture in the daytime, and spent the rest of the day in a barn. The distribution of urination to the pasture was greater than that expected from the proportion of time that the animals spent in the pasture. Correspondingly, the distribution was smaller in the barn. Such a distribution pattern of urination to the pasture and barn was similar to that of defecation, and affected by the intake of supplement on the previous day. The distribution of urination within the pasture, i.e. the distribution to the paddock, alley and resting area, was often uneven on an area basis. The animals often urinated sparsely in the alley and resting area, while they urinated in the paddock almost proportionally to its area. This was a clear contrast to the distribution pattern of defecation, which was sparse in the paddock and dense in the resting area. The degree of aggregation of urination in the paddock, alley and resting area varied with the meteorological factors and the intake of supplement.

Grazing Behavior and Locomotion of Young Bulls Receiving Different Nutritional Plans in a Tropical Pasture

  • Valente, E.E.L.;Paulino, M.F.;Detmann, E.;Filho, S.C. Valadares;Chizzotti, M.L.;Silva, A.G.;Maciel, I.F.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.1717-1725
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    • 2013
  • The objectives of this study were to compare visual observation and an electronic grazing time method and to evaluate the effects of nutritional plans on intake, grazing behavior and horizontal and vertical locomotion of young bulls in a tropical pasture. Thirty-nine Nellore young bulls with an average body weight of $345{\pm}9.3$ kg kept in pasture were used. The experimental treatments consisted of: restricted: animals kept in a plot with a low mass of forage receiving mineral mixture only; control: animals receiving mineral mixture only; HPHC: a high protein and high carbohydrate supplement; HPLC: a high protein and low carbohydrate supplement; LPHC: a low protein and high carbohydrate supplement; LPLC: a low protein and low carbohydrate supplement. GPS collars equipped with activity sensors were used. Information about head position, latitude, longitude and altitude were recorded. Daytime grazing behavioral patterns monitored by a continuous focal animal recording method was compared to behavior estimated by the activity sensor. Feed intake was estimated by a marker method. The Restricted group presented lower (p<0.05) intake of dry matter and TDN. However, difference in dry matter intake was not found (p>0.05) between non-supplemented and supplemented animals. Difference was not found (p>0.05) in daytime grazing time obtained by visual observation or the activity sensor method. The restricted group showed longer (p<0.05) grazing time (9.58 h/d) than other groups, but difference was not found (p>0.05) in the grazing time between Control (8.35 h/d) and supplemented animals (8.03 h/d). The Restricted group presented lower (p<0.05) horizontal locomotion distance (2,168 m/d) in comparison to other groups (2,580.6 m/d). It can be concluded that the use of activity sensor methods can be recommended due to their being similar to visual observation and able to record 24-h/d. While supplements with high carbohydrates reduce pasture intake, they do not change grazing behavior. Moderate supplementation (until 50% of protein requirement and 30% of energy requirement) of beef cattle on tropical pasture has no effect on daily locomotion.

Image Analysis of Bacterial Cell Size by Diurnal Changes in Lake Soyang, Korea

  • Choi, Seung-Ik;Ahn, Tae-Seok;Kato, Ken-Ji
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.300-304
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    • 1996
  • To define the effects of zooplankton and phytoplankton to bacteria, bacterial numbers, frequency of dividing cells (FDC) and size distribution were performed with image analysis in the surface layer of Lake Soyang. In August 1992, when Anabaena was blooming, the bacterial number increased at daytime. Bacterial numbers and FDC value had a negative correlation (r = 0.83, P < 0.01). Bacterial size spectrums were dynamically changed during the day and night, especially the small bacteria less than $0.5\;{\mu}m^3$. Meanwhile, in October, after the bloom, the bacterial number was only one third of that in August, even though the FDC was higher than that in August. The bacterial numbers of small size class dropped at 13:00. But the size spectrums were relatively constant during the night time. These results suggest that the bacterial growth was tightly coupled with phytoplankton during Anabaena bloom. And after the bloom, the bacterial number was controlled grazing activity of zooplankton at daytime.

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Diel Periodicity in the Drift of the Fourth Instar Micrasema quadriloba (Trichoptera: Brachycentridae) Larvae in Relation to Body Size

  • Isobe, Yu;Oishi, Tadashi;Katano, Izumi
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.38 no.spc
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    • pp.17-21
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    • 2005
  • We investigated the diel periodicity in the drift in relation to body size by field survey using the fourth instar grazing larvae of Micrasema quadriloba Martynov (Trichoptera, Brachycentridae) as a material. Although the larvae showed nocturnal drift periodicity, drift density in the nighttime was only twice that in the daytime. In both time periods, smaller individuals drifted significantly more, and the drift individuals in the daytime was the smallest in size (P< 0.05 in Sheffe's F). We discussed whether the drift of the fourth instar larvae drift behaviorally or accidentally considering larval size and food depletion.

Evaluation of Winter Barley Fields as Feeding Habitat for Waterfowl in the Dongup Reservoir System, Korea

  • Lee, Chan-Woo;Kim, Gu-Yeon;Jang, Ji-Deok;Joo, Gea-Jae
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.165-169
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    • 2006
  • As a Biodiversity Management Plan in S. Korea, barley fields are being prepared for the wintering migratory birds. However, the effectiveness of barley fields as a feeding habitat has not been evaluated. In 2003/04 wintering period, we installed exclosures in the barley fields to evaluate the waterfowl grazing effectiveness. Approximately 8,000 waterfowls used the Dongup Reservoir System and utilized the barley fields during the daytime. The white-fronted goose Anser albifrons occupied more than 90% of the all barley-feeding waterfowls. Waterfowls significantly impacted to the shoot density and biomass of barley. In the closed plot, barley shoot density gradually increased to $267{\pm}27/m^2$ in January, 2004. Shoot density in open plots (site 1) declined sharply from.15 December ($189{\pm}18/m^2$) to 5 January 2004 ($25{\pm}11/m^2$). However, barley shoot density in open plots (site 2) was stable in January 2004 because of human disturbances. The changes in barley biomass and shoot density showed similar trend in both open and closed plot. From the exclosure experiment, it was clear that barley fields were important feeding habitat for wintering waterfowls in this area. Further, human disturbances such as noise from traffic and other human activities (farming and hiking) had significant impact on waterfowls' grazing activity. Collectively, winter barley fields were effective for waterfowl feeding, but the location of barley fields should be carefully selected for the maximum utilization of the barley feeding.