• Title, Summary, Keyword: Deep Neural Network(DNN)

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Trends in Neuromorphic Software Platform for Deep Neural Network (딥 뉴럴 네트워크 지원을 위한 뉴로모픽 소프트웨어 플랫폼 기술 동향)

  • Yu, Misun;Ha, Youngmok;Kim, Taeho
    • Electronics and Telecommunications Trends
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.14-22
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    • 2018
  • Deep neural networks (DNNs) are widely used in various domains such as speech and image recognition. DNN software frameworks such as Tensorflow and Caffe contributed to the popularity of DNN because of their easy programming environment. In addition, many companies are developing neuromorphic processing units (NPU) such as Tensor Processing Units (TPUs) and Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) to improve the performance of DNN processing. However, there is a large gap between NPUs and DNN software frameworks due to the lack of framework support for various NPUs. A bridge for the gap is a DNN software platform including DNN optimized compilers and DNN libraries. In this paper, we review the technical trends of DNN software platforms.

Lightweight CNN based Meter Digit Recognition

  • Sharma, Akshay Kumar;Kim, Kyung Ki
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.15-19
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    • 2021
  • Image processing is one of the major techniques that are used for computer vision. Nowadays, researchers are using machine learning and deep learning for the aforementioned task. In recent years, digit recognition tasks, i.e., automatic meter recognition approach using electric or water meters, have been studied several times. However, two major issues arise when we talk about previous studies: first, the use of the deep learning technique, which includes a large number of parameters that increase the computational cost and consume more power; and second, recent studies are limited to the detection of digits and not storing or providing detected digits to a database or mobile applications. This paper proposes a system that can detect the digital number of meter readings using a lightweight deep neural network (DNN) for low power consumption and send those digits to an Android mobile application in real-time to store them and make life easy. The proposed lightweight DNN is computationally inexpensive and exhibits accuracy similar to those of conventional DNNs.

A study on user defined spoken wake-up word recognition system using deep neural network-hidden Markov model hybrid model (Deep neural network-hidden Markov model 하이브리드 구조의 모델을 사용한 사용자 정의 기동어 인식 시스템에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, Ki-mu;Kim, Wooil
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.131-136
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    • 2020
  • Wake Up Word (WUW) is a short utterance used to convert speech recognizer to recognition mode. The WUW defined by the user who actually use the speech recognizer is called user-defined WUW. In this paper, to recognize user-defined WUW, we construct traditional Gaussian Mixture Model-Hidden Markov Model (GMM-HMM), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA)-GMM-HMM and LDA-Deep Neural Network (DNN)-HMM based system and compare their performances. Also, to improve recognition accuracy of the WUW system, a threshold method is applied to each model, which significantly reduces the error rate of the WUW recognition and the rejection failure rate of non-WUW simultaneously. For LDA-DNN-HMM system, when the WUW error rate is 9.84 %, the rejection failure rate of non-WUW is 0.0058 %, which is about 4.82 times lower than the LDA-GMM-HMM system. These results demonstrate that LDA-DNN-HMM model developed in this paper proves to be highly effective for constructing user-defined WUW recognition system.

Automatic Parameter Acquisition of 12 leads ECG Using Continuous Data Processing Deep Neural Network (연속적 데이터 처리 심층신경망을 이용한 12 lead 심전도 파라미터의 자동 획득)

  • Kim, Ji Woon;Park, Sung Min;Choi, Seong Wook
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.107-119
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    • 2020
  • The deep neural networks (DNN) that can replicate the behavior of the human expert who recognizes the characteristics of ECG waveform have been developed and studied to analyze ECG. However, although the existing DNNs can not provide the explanations for their decisions, those trials have attempted to determine whether patients have certain diseases or not and those decisions could not be accepted because of the absence of relating theoretical basis. In addition, these DNNs required a lot of training data to obtain sufficient accuracy in spite of the difficulty in the acquisition of relating clinical data. In this study, a small-sized continuous data processing DNN (C-DNN) was suggested to determine the simple characteristics of ECG wave that were not required additional explanations about its decisions and the C-DNN can be easily trained with small training data. Although it can analyze small input data that was selected in narrow region on whole ECG, it can continuously scan all ECG data and find important points such as start and end points of P, QRS and T waves within a short time. The star and end points of ECG waves determined by the C-DNNs were compared with the results performed by human experts to estimate the accuracies of the C-DNNs. The C-DNN has 150 inputs, 51 outputs, two hidden layers and one output layer. To find the start and end points, two C-DNNs were trained through deep learning technology and applied to a parameter acquisition algorithms. 12 lead ECG data measured in four patients and obtained through PhysioNet was processed to make training data by human experts. The accuracy of the C-DNNs were evaluated with extra data that were not used at deep learning by comparing the results between C-DNNs and human experts. The averages of the time differences between the C-DNNs and experts were 0.1 msec and 13.5 msec respectively and those standard deviations were 17.6 msec and 15.7 msec. The final step combining the results of C-DNN through the waveforms of 12 leads was successfully determined all 33 waves without error that the time differences of human experts decision were over 20 msec. The reliable decision of the ECG wave's start and end points benefits the acquisition of accurate ECG parameters such as the wave lengths, amplitudes and intervals of P, QRS and T waves.

Land Cover Classification Based on High Resolution KOMPSAT-3 Satellite Imagery Using Deep Neural Network Model (심층신경망 모델을 이용한 고해상도 KOMPSAT-3 위성영상 기반 토지피복분류)

  • MOON, Gab-Su;KIM, Kyoung-Seop;CHOUNG, Yun-Jae
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.252-262
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    • 2020
  • In Remote Sensing, a machine learning based SVM model is typically utilized for land cover classification. And study using neural network models is also being carried out continuously. But study using high-resolution imagery of KOMPSAT is insufficient. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the accuracy of land cover classification by neural network models using high-resolution KOMPSAT-3 satellite imagery. After acquiring satellite imagery of coastal areas near Gyeongju City, training data were produced. And land cover was classified with the SVM, ANN and DNN models for the three items of water, vegetation and land. Then, the accuracy of the classification results was quantitatively assessed through error matrix: the result using DNN model showed the best with 92.0% accuracy. It is necessary to supplement the training data through future multi-temporal satellite imagery, and to carry out classifications for various items.

Deep Learning based Emotion Classification using Multi Modal Bio-signals (다중 모달 생체신호를 이용한 딥러닝 기반 감정 분류)

  • Lee, JeeEun;Yoo, Sun Kook
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.146-154
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    • 2020
  • Negative emotion causes stress and lack of attention concentration. The classification of negative emotion is important to recognize risk factors. To classify emotion status, various methods such as questionnaires and interview are used and it could be changed by personal thinking. To solve the problem, we acquire multi modal bio-signals such as electrocardiogram (ECG), skin temperature (ST), galvanic skin response (GSR) and extract features. The neural network (NN), the deep neural network (DNN), and the deep belief network (DBN) is designed using the multi modal bio-signals to analyze emotion status. As a result, the DBN based on features extracted from ECG, ST and GSR shows the highest accuracy (93.8%). It is 5.7% higher than compared to the NN and 1.4% higher than compared to the DNN. It shows 12.2% higher accuracy than using only single bio-signal (GSR). The multi modal bio-signal acquisition and the deep learning classifier play an important role to classify emotion.

Automated optimization for memory-efficient high-performance deep neural network accelerators

  • Kim, HyunMi;Lyuh, Chun-Gi;Kwon, Youngsu
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.505-517
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    • 2020
  • The increasing size and complexity of deep neural networks (DNNs) necessitate the development of efficient high-performance accelerators. An efficient memory structure and operating scheme provide an intuitive solution for high-performance accelerators along with dataflow control. Furthermore, the processing of various neural networks (NNs) requires a flexible memory architecture, programmable control scheme, and automated optimizations. We first propose an efficient architecture with flexibility while operating at a high frequency despite the large memory and PE-array sizes. We then improve the efficiency and usability of our architecture by automating the optimization algorithm. The experimental results show that the architecture increases the data reuse; a diagonal write path improves the performance by 1.44× on average across a wide range of NNs. The automated optimizations significantly enhance the performance from 3.8× to 14.79× and further provide usability. Therefore, automating the optimization as well as designing an efficient architecture is critical to realizing high-performance DNN accelerators.

Performance Evaluation of Deep Neural Network (DNN) Based on HRV Parameters for Judgment of Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease (관상동맥질환 위험인자 유무 판단을 위한 심박변이도 매개변수 기반 심층 신경망의 성능 평가)

  • Park, Sung Jun;Choi, Seung Yeon;Kim, Young Mo
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.62-67
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of deep neural network model in order to determine whether there is a risk factor for coronary artery disease based on the cardiac variation parameter. The study used unidentifiable 297 data to evaluate the performance of the model. Input data consists of heart rate parameters, which are SDNN (standard deviation of the N-N intervals), PSI (physical stress index), TP (total power), VLF (very low frequency), LF (low frequency), HF (high frequency), RMSSD (root mean square of successive difference) APEN (approximate entropy) and SRD (successive R-R interval difference), the age group and sex. Output data are divided into normal and patient groups, and the patient group consists of those diagnosed with diabetes, high blood pressure, and hyperlipidemia among the various risk factors that can cause coronary artery disease. Based on this, a binary classification model was applied using Deep Neural Network of deep learning techniques to classify normal and patient groups efficiently. To evaluate the effectiveness of the model used in this study, Kernel SVM (support vector machine), one of the classification models in machine learning, was compared and evaluated using same data. The results showed that the accuracy of the proposed deep neural network was train set 91.79% and test set 85.56% and the specificity was 87.04% and the sensitivity was 83.33% from the point of diagnosis. These results suggest that deep learning is more efficient when classifying these medical data because the train set accuracy in the deep neural network was 7.73% higher than the comparative model Kernel SVM.

Implementation of Face Recognition Pipeline Model using Caffe (Caffe를 이용한 얼굴 인식 파이프라인 모델 구현)

  • Park, Jin-Hwan;Kim, Chang-Bok
    • Journal of Advanced Navigation Technology
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.430-437
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    • 2020
  • The proposed model implements a model that improves the face prediction rate and recognition rate through learning with an artificial neural network using face detection, landmark and face recognition algorithms. After landmarking in the face images of a specific person, the proposed model use the previously learned Caffe model to extract face detection and embedding vector 128D. The learning is learned by building machine learning algorithms such as support vector machine (SVM) and deep neural network (DNN). Face recognition is tested with a face image different from the learned figure using the learned model. As a result of the experiment, the result of learning with DNN rather than SVM showed better prediction rate and recognition rate. However, when the hidden layer of DNN is increased, the prediction rate increases but the recognition rate decreases. This is judged as overfitting caused by a small number of objects to be recognized. As a result of learning by adding a clear face image to the proposed model, it is confirmed that the result of high prediction rate and recognition rate can be obtained. This research will be able to obtain better recognition and prediction rates through effective deep learning establishment by utilizing more face image data.

Multiple Discriminative DNNs for I-Vector Based Open-Set Language Recognition (I-벡터 기반 오픈세트 언어 인식을 위한 다중 판별 DNN)

  • Kang, Woo Hyun;Cho, Won Ik;Kang, Tae Gyoon;Kim, Nam Soo
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.41 no.8
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    • pp.958-964
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    • 2016
  • In this paper, we propose an i-vector based language recognition system to identify the spoken language of the speaker, which uses multiple discriminative deep neural network (DNN) models analogous to the multi-class support vector machine (SVM) classification system. The proposed model was trained and tested using the i-vectors included in the NIST 2015 i-vector Machine Learning Challenge database, and shown to outperform the conventional language recognition methods such as cosine distance, SVM and softmax NN classifier in open-set experiments.