• Title, Summary, Keyword: Defects

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A Video based Web Inspection System for Real-time Detection of Paper Defects during Papermaking Processes (제지공정의 실시간 결함 검출을 위한 영상 기반 웹 검사 시스템)

  • Hahn, Jong-Woo;Choi, Young-Kyu
    • Journal of the Semiconductor & Display Technology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.79-85
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    • 2010
  • In this paper, we propose a web inspection system (WIS) for real-time detection of paper defects which can cause critical fractures during papermaking process. Our system incorporates high speed line-scan camera, lighting system, and detection algorithm to provide robust and precise detection of paper defects in real-time. Since edge defects are very crucial to the paper fractures, our system focuses on the edge region of the paper instead of inspecting the whole paper area. In our algorithm, image projection and sub-pixel operation are utilized to detect the edge defects precisely and connected component labeling and shape analysis techniques are adopted to extract various kinds of the region defects. Experimental results revealed that our web inspection system is very efficient for detecting paper defects during papermaking processes.

The Effect of Domain Wall on Defect Energetics in Ferroelectric LiNbO3 from Density Functional Theory Calculations

  • Lee, Donghwa
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.312-316
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    • 2016
  • The energetics of defects in the presence of domain walls in $LiNbO_3$ are characterized using density-functional theory calculations. Domain walls show stronger interactions with antisite defects than with interstitial defects or vacancies. As a result, antisite defects act as a strong pinning center for the domain wall in $LiNbO_3$. Analysis of migration behavior of the antisite defects across the domain wall shows that the migration barrier of the antisite defects is significantly high, such that the migration of antisite defects across the domain wall is energetically not preferable. However, further study on excess electrons shows that the migration barrier of antisite defects can be lowered by changing the charge states of the antisite defects. So, excess electrons can enhance the migration of antisite defects and thus facilitate domain wall movement by weakening the pinning effect.

A Study on The Visual Inspection of Fabric Defects (시각 장치를 이용한 직물 결함 검사에 관한 연구)

  • Kyung, Kye-Hyun;Ko, Myoung-Sam;Lee, Sang-Uk;Lee, Bum-Hee
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.959-962
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    • 1988
  • This paper describes an automatic visual inspection system for fabric defects based on pattern recognition techniques. The inspection for fabric defects can be separated into three sequences of operations which are the detection of fabric defects[1], the classification of figures of fabric defects, and the classification of fabric defects. Comparing projections of defect-detected images with the predefined complex, the classification accuracy of figures of fabric defects was found to be 95.3 percent. Employing the Bayes classifier using cluster shade in SGLDM and variance in decorrelation method as features, the classification accuracy of regional figure defects was found to be 82.4 percent. Finally, some experimental results for line and dispersed figures of fabric defects are included.

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Analysis and Depth Estimation of Complex Defects on the Underground Gas Pipelines

  • Kim, Jong-Hwa;Kim, Min-Ho;Choi, Doo-Hyun
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.202-206
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    • 2013
  • In this paper, the MFL (magnetic flux leakage) signals of complex defects on the underground gas pipeline are analyzed and their depths are estimated. Since closely-located defects (complex defects) affect each other, accelerate the progress of defection, and are finally combined to one (cluster), it's meaningful to differentiate complex defects from single defects by analyzing their characteristics. Various types of complex defects are characterized and analyzed by defining the safety distance for interference. 26 artificial defects are carved on the pipeline simulation facility (PSF) to analyze the characteristics of complex defect and demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed complex defect estimation. The proposed method shows average length error of 5.8 mm, average width error of 15.55 mm, and average depth error of 8.59%, respectively.

Approximated 3D non-homogeneous model for the buckling and vibration analysis of femur bone with femoral defects

  • Mobasseri, Saleh;Sadeghi, Mehdi;Janghorban, Maziar;Tounsi, Abdelouahed
    • Biomaterials and Biomechanics in Bioengineering
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.25-35
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    • 2020
  • We carry the knowledge that the skeleton bones of the human body are not always without defects and some various defects could occur in them. In the present paper, as the first endeavor, free vibration and buckling analysis of femur bones with femoral defects are investigated. A major strength of this study is the modeling of defects in femur bones. Materialise Mimics software is adopted to model the bone geometry and the SOLIDWORKS software is used to generate the defects in bones. Next, the ABAQUS software is employed to study the behaviors of bones with defects.

Analysis of Construction Types Causing Secondary Defects in Apartment Buildings (공동주택의 2차 하자 유발공종 분석)

  • Huh, Yung-Chul;Ju, Jae-Hyun;Bang, Hong-Soon;Kim, Ok-Kyue
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Building Construction Conference
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    • pp.74-75
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    • 2019
  • There are certain types of construction that produces many defects during the construction of apartment buildings. It may be due to construction errors in the type itself, but more often, it is due to defects derived from other types of construction. Thus, to reduce such secondary defects and prevent fundamental defects in particular types of construction, academic research on the types of construction causing secondary defects should be actively conducted. In addition, as claimed in this study, the industries should work harder to improve the quality of the type of construction that causes secondary defects, rather than just trying to improve the ostensible problems. If the efforts of each sector are backed up, the disputes over defect repair in apartment building construction will reduce in general, which in turn will lead to a reduction in national loss within the construction industry.

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Association between oral health status and pulmonary ventilatory defects in adults 40 years or older (40세 이상 성인의 구강건강상태와 폐 환기장애의 관련성)

  • Park, Chung-Soon;Kim, In-Ja
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.347-358
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study is to identify the association between oral health status and pulmonary ventilatory defects. Methods: The 6th (2013-2015) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data was used. The study subjects were those aged 40-79 who had pulmonary function examination. Complex samples general linear model analysis, Complex samples cross-tabulation analysis, and Complex samples logistic regression analysis were conducted. Results: In terms of restrictive ventilatory defects, the study subjects (8.3%) who recognized that their oral health status was bad outnumbered those who recognized that their oral health status was good (6.1%) (p<0.05). Many of the study subjects who experienced difficulty in biting, chewing and/or speech, and who had an unhealthy periodontal had restrictive ventilatory defects and obstructive ventilatory defects (p<0.05). The association between oral health status and pulmonary ventilatory defects was analyzed. The findings showed that those who had unhealthy periodontal had a 1.33 times higher probability of pulmonary ventilatory defects than those who had a healthy periodontal (p<0.05). After taking into account general characteristics (age, sex, incomes, education, and smoking) of the subjects, the association between oral health status and pulmonary ventilatory defects was analyzed. The result found that only in cases where one experienced dental caries was an association with pulmonary ventilatory defects found. In other words, those who had dental caries showed a 0.73 times higher probability of pulmonary ventilatory defects than those who had no dental caries (p<0.05). Conclusions: Based on the findings of this research, oral health status was found to be associated with pulmonary ventilatory defects. To improve oral health, it is necessary to provide life-cycle stages based oral health education. Therefore, it is required to develop an oral health education program and develop a national oral health policy.

Neural Tube Defects with Abdominal Wall Defects in Sibling Dogs (복벽결손을 동반한 동복자견의 신경관결손)

  • Cho, Sung-Jin;Kim, Ok-Jin
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.467-471
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    • 2009
  • This report describes Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) with Abdominal Wall Defects (AWDs) on the sibling of Yorkshire terriers. The NTDs and AWDs are rare serious congenital defects. The NTDs are neurulation abnormality that results from to failed transformation of the neurual tube by the incomplete closure of the embryonic neural plate. These dysraphic states range form mild to severe according to developmental malformation that include fusion defects of skull (crania bifida; CB) and fusion defects of vertebrae (spina bifida; SB). The AWDs are genetic defects that results from to failed formation of abdominal wall and cavity. These dysraphic states are omphalocele and gastroschisis. The 12-month dam was delivered by caesarian section and 4 littermate had obvious malformations. One male dead stillbirth fetus (L1) was revealed the extruded abdominal viscera, omphalocele. One female fetus (L2) was died within 1 hour after birth with defects of abdominal muscle upper umbilicus, gastroschisis. 3rd fetus (L3) was died within 36 hours after parturition and revealed a copious dermal and vertebral defects on the midline thorax, upper SB asperta. 4th fetus (L4) is still growing well now at 6 months but at the 2 week age, appears hairy nevus on the frontal cranium and dorsal thoracic portion. The radiograph of L1 and L2 are shown decrease bony density of calvarium and L3 was shown defect of spinose processes of the T9-T13. On our knowledge, this is first report of the SB and CB in Yorkshire terrier. And also sibling of NTDs with AWDs that has not previously been reported in the dog.

A study on the detection probabilities of pixel defects with respect to their locations on the TFT-LCD (TFT-LCD의 품질검사기준 설정을 위한 픽셀결점 탐지도 평가)

  • 김상호;양승준
    • Proceedings of the Safety Management and Science Conference
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    • pp.283-289
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    • 2004
  • The number of pixel defects including bright and black dots on a panel is one of the critical factors determining the quality of TFT-LCD. Since pixel defects on the TFT-LCD panels are sometimes unavoidable, manufacturers have to inspect the panels so that any panel with an unacceptable number of defects will not be delivered to the buyers. However, the buyers demand for the manufacturers to meet different pixel defects tolerances (acceptable number of pixel defects on a TFT-LCD panel) around central(tight) and peripheral(loose) inspection zones. The disagreement in quality standard among different buyers also cause confusions in screening non-confirmative products and unstable yield of production. Few research has focused on the effects of defect locations on a TFT-LCD panel on their detection probabilities and the rational division of defect inspection zones. In this research, experiments were conducted to find the detection probabilities of black dot defects with respect to their varying locations on a TFT-LCD. It is proposed a rational division of inspection zone on a TFT-LCD panel on the basis of detection probabilities of the defects. With these division of inspection zones and the mean defect detection probability within each zone, it is expected to establish a more reasonable pixel defects tolerances.

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Effects of Post Annealing and Oxidation Processes on the Shallow Trench Etch Process (Shallow Trench 식각공정시 발생하는 결함의 후속열처리 및 산화곤정에 따른 거동에 관한 연구)

  • 이영준;황원순;김현수;이주옥;이정용;염근영
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.237-244
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    • 1998
  • In this stydy, submicron shallow trenches applied to STI(shallow tench isolation) were etched using inductively coupled $CI_2$/HBr and $CI_2/N_2$plasmas and the physical and electrical defects remaining on the etched silicon trench surfaces and the effects of various annealing and oxidation on the removal of the defects were studied. Using high resolution electron microscopy(HRTEM), Physical defects were investigated on the silicon trench surfaces etched in both 90%$CI_2$/ 10%$N_2$ and 50%$CI_2$/50%HBr. Among the areas in the tench such as trench bottom, bottom edge, and sidewall, the most dense defects were found near the trench bottom edge, and the least dense defects were found near the trench bottom edge, and least dense defects compared to that etched with ment as well as hydrogen permeation. Thermal oxidation of 200$\AA$ atthe temperature up to $1100^{\circ}C$apprars not to remove the defects formed on the etched silicon trenches for both of the etch conditions. To remove the physicall defects, an annealing treatment at the temperature high than $1000^{\circ}C$ in N for30minutes was required. Electrical defects measured using a capacitance-voltage technique showed the reduction of the defects with increasing annealing temperature, and the trends were similar to the results on the physical defects obtained using transmission electron microscopy.

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