• Title, Summary, Keyword: Degradation

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Effects of Halogenated Compounds on in vitro Fermentation Characteristics in the Rumen and Methane Emissions (할로겐 화합물의 첨가가 반추위 발효성상과 메탄생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, Hee-Soon;Ok, Ji-Un;Lee, Shin-Ja;Chu, Gyo-Moon;Kim, Kyoung-Hoon;Oh, Young-Kyoon;Lee, Sang-Suk;Lee, Sung-Sill
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.9
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    • pp.1187-1193
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to evaluate effects of halogenated compounds on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and methane emissions. A fistulated Holstein cow of 650 kg body weight was used as a donor of rumen fluid. Five kinds of halogenated compounds (bromochloromethane (BCM), 2-bromoethane sulfonic acid (BES), 3-bromopropanesulfonic acid (BPS), chloroform (CLF), and pyromellitic diimide (PMDI) known to inhibit methyl-coenzyme M reductase activity were added to an in vitro fermentation incubated with rumen fluid. The microbial population including bacteria, protozoa, and fungi were enumerated, and gas production including methane and fermentation characteristics were observed in vitro. The pH values ranged from 6.25 to 6.72 in all the treatments, and these showed a similar level at 48 hr. The total gas production in the treatments showed a similar pattern with C at 48 hr, whereas methane production in the treatments was lower (p<0.05) than C. Concentrations of total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and propionic acid were higher (p<0.05) in the treatments than in C at 12 hr. Therefore, halogenated compounds (BCM, BES, BPS, CLF, and PMDI) inhibited in vitro methane emissions by inhibiting methanogens in the rumen. Further studies on safety are needed.

Quality Characteristics and Granule Manufacture of Mulberry and Blueberry Fruit Extracts (오디 및 블루베리 추출물을 이용한 과립제조 및 품질특성)

  • Park, Hye-Mi;Yang, Su-Jin;Kang, Eun-Ji;Lee, Dae-Hoon;Kim, Dae-Ik;Hong, Joo-Heon
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.375-382
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    • 2012
  • The quality characteristics of granules prepared from water and 50% ethanol extracts of mulberry and blueberry were investigated. The total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents of mulberry and blueberry were higher in the 50% ethanol extract than those in the water extract. Total anthocyanin content was highest in the 50% mulberry ethanol extract (470.91 mg/100 g). Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the mulberry and blueberry extracts was 335.37 ${\mu}moles\;TE/g$ and 238.14 ${\mu}moles\;TE/g$, respectively. Superoxide radical scavenging activity of the mulberry and blueberry extracts increased with an increase in extract concentration. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of granules from the mulberry extract were 4.83 mg/mL and 3.49 mg/mL, respectively. Total anthocyanin content of granules from the mulberry and blueberry extracts was 76.26 mg/100 g and 75.26 mg/100 g, respectively. Electron donating ability and ORAC of granules from the mulberry and blueberry extracts were 45.09% and 24.10%, 87.65 ${\mu}moles\;TE/g$ and 57.59 ${\mu}moles\;TE/g$, respectively. Granules that were stored for 7 weeks at room temperature had low anthocyanin content degradation and Hunter color values (L, a, and b).

The Quality Characteristics of Rice Mash by Mixing Ratios of Rice and Rice Koji (쌀과 미입국의 배합비율에 따른 쌀 당화액의 품질특성)

  • Kim, Jin-Sook;Lee, Ji-Hyun;Chang, Young-Eun;Kim, Gi-Chang;Kim, Kyung-Mi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.12
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    • pp.2035-2041
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    • 2013
  • The effects of Aspergillus oryzae rice koji (AO) and Asp. kawachii rice koji (AK) as enzyme preparations, on the quality characteristics of rice mash were invested in this study. The amount of AORM (Asp. oryzae rice mash) and AKRM (Asp. kawachii rice mash) were 50, 100, 200% (w/w) based on 100 g of rice. Firstly, in the titer measurement result on the ${\alpha}$-amylase and glucoamylase activities of AO and AK. On the other hand, the acid protease activity has values of 31.56 unit for AO and 849.17 unit for AK. The sugar solid of the AORM and AKRM groups significantly increased as the rice koji ratio on rice was higher, which were shown with values as high as 17.63~20.53 and 17.51~19.28, respectively. Glucose and maltose were detected for free sugar of AORM. Only glucose was found in AKRM. Citric acid, malic acid, and lactic acid were detected as the organic acid of KORM; oxalic acid, citric acid, and succinic acid were detected for AKRM, and the content increased as the rice koji ratio on rice increased (P<0.05). From the above result, rice koji with useful mold is expected to be used broadly in foods by looking at the fact that it has starch degradation ability and organic acid producibility.

Influence of Fish Compositions and Trophic/Tolerance Guilds on the Fishkills in Geum-River Watershed (Backje Weir) (금강수계(백제보)에서 발생된 어류폐사에 대한 종 조성 및 트로픽/내성도 길드 영향 분석)

  • Kwon, Hyuk-Hyun;Han, Jeong-Ho;Yoon, Johee;An, Kwang-Guk
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.393-401
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    • 2013
  • The objectives of this study were to analyze structures of fish community and the ecological health using a multi-metric fish model, the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) in the Backje Weir of Geum River during two periods namely before-the-fishkill ($B_f$) and after-the-fishkill ($A_f$). The total number of fish species observed were 32 and among them 10 species (35%) were Korean endemic species. The exotic species observed were 3 which decreased by 0.4% after-the-fishkill ($A_f$). The dominant species were Opsariichthys uncirostris amurensis (13%) at the Bf period and Squalidus japonicus coreanus (17%) at the Af period in the Backje Weir. At after the fishkill ($A_{f-I}$) total biomass was about 10 times lower than the biomass before-the-fishkill ($B_f$). The biomass of Carassius auratus decreased 98% after-the-fishkill and as time passed by the biomass recovered to nearly 100%. Similar decrease in the biomass occurred in the population of Opsariichthys uncirostris amurensis, while Rhinogobius brunneus population increased. According to the structure analysis of fish community, species richness index, evenness index and species diversity index were high but after-the fishkill, the values of indices decreased. Tolerant species (64%) dominated the fish community, and the sensitive species (2%) were rare, indicating the degradation of the ecosystem. According to analysis of the multi-metric model (IBI), the mean model value of the fish community in Backje Weir was estimated as 17.5 indicating a "fair condition".

Induction of G2/M Arrest and Apoptosis by the Methanol Extract of Typha orientalis in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma HT29 Cells (포황 메탄올 추출물에 의한 인체 대장암 세포주 HT29의 G2/M Arrest 및 Apoptosis 유발)

  • Jin, Soojung;Yun, Seung-Geun;Oh, You Na;Lee, Ji-Young;Park, Hyun-Jin;Jin, Kyong-Suk;Kwon, Hyun Ju;Kim, Byung Woo
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.425-432
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    • 2013
  • Typha orientalis, also known as bulrush or cattail, is a perennial herbaceous plant found in freshwater wetlands and has been widely used in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Recent data has revealed that SH21B, a mixture composed of seven herbs including T. orientalis, exhibited an anti-adipogenic activity by the inhibition of the expression of adipogenic regulators. However, the anti-cancer effect of T. orientalis and its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the anti-cancer effect and its mechanism in the methanol extract of T. orientalis (METO) on human colon carcinoma HT29 cells. It was found that METO treatment showed cytotoxic activity in a dose-dependent manner, and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HT29 cells. The induction of G2/M arrest by METO was associated with the up-regulation of phospho-Cdc2 (Tyr15), an inactive form of Cdc2 and the down-regulation of Cdc25c phosphatase. METO also induced tumor suppressor p53 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (WAF1/CIP1) expression. In addition, METO-induced apoptosis was characterized by the proteolytic activation of caspase-3, degradation of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), and up-regulation of death receptor FAS and pro-apoptotic Bax expression. Collectively, these results indicate that the cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis induction of METO in HT29 cells allows for the possibility of its use in anti-cancer therapies.

Physiological and Biochemical Characterization of Bacillus spp. from Polychaete, Perinereis aibuhitensis (갯지렁이(Perinereis aibuhitensis)에서 분리한 Bacillus spp.의 생리생화학적 특성 분석)

  • Shin, Seyeon;Yundendorj, Khorloo;Lee, Sang-Suk;Kang, Kyoung-Ho;Kahng, Hyung-Yeel
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.415-425
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    • 2013
  • This study compared the characteristics of five Bacillus strains capable of aerobic and anaerobic growth, CBW3, CBW4, CBW9, CBW14 and EBW10. They were isolated and selected from a polychaete, Perinereis aibuhitensis, which is known as a good degrader of organic compounds in marine wetland. Based on a 16S rRNA sequence, CBW3 and CBW14 were found to share more than 99.8% similarity with B. nanhaiensis, B. arsenicus and B. barbaricus. CBW4, CBW9 and EBW10 shared 92.7%, 99.8%, and 99.8% similarity with B. anthracis, B. algicoa and B. thuringiensis, respectively. The temperature, salinity, and pH ranges of the cell growth of the Bacillus strains were $4-45^{\circ}C$, 0-17%, and pH 5-pH 9, respectively. All Bacillus strains were found to exhibit enzyme activities for the degradation of casein and starch. Notably, strain EBW10 exhibited the enzyme activities for all the tested macromolecules, DNA, casein, starch, cellulose, and four kinds of Tweens, which suggests the possibility that it had protease, amylase, cellulose, and lipase. All five Bacillus strains had alkaline phosphatase activities, and the strains CBW3, CBW4, and EBW10 also had acid phospatase. Strains CBW3 and EBW10 exhibited the enzyme activities both for esterase (C4) and esterase lipase (C8). The analysis of fatty acids revealed that in all strains, major fatty acids were anteiso $C_{15:0}$ and iso $C_{15:0}$.

Pro-apoptotic Effects of Platycodin D Isolated from Platycodon grandiflorum in Human Leukemia Cells (도라지 유래 사포닌 platycodin D에 의한 인체 백혈병세포의 apoptosis 유도)

  • Park, Sang Eun;Lee, Su Young;Shin, Dong Yeok;Jeong, Jin-Woo;Jin, Myung Ho;Park, Seon Young;Chung, Yoon Ho;Hwang, Hye Jin;Hong, Sang Hoon;Choi, Yung Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.389-398
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    • 2013
  • Platycodin D is a major constituent of triterpene saponins, which is found in the root of Platycodon grandiflorum, Platycodi Radix, which is widely used in traditional Oriental medicine for the treatment of many chronic inflammatory diseases. Several pharmacological effects of this compound have been reported recently, such as anti-inflammation, immunogenicity, anti-adipogenesis, lowered cholesterol, and anti-cancer activity. However, the mechanism by which this action occurs is poorly understood. In this study, we found that platycodin D greatly increased the potential of the anti-proliferative effect in various cancer cell lines. Our data revealed that platycodin D treatment resulted in a time- and concentration-response growth inhibition of U937 cells by inducing apoptosis, as evidenced by the formation of apoptotic bodies, chromatin condensation, and the accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 phase. Apoptosis induction of U937 cells by platycodin D correlated with an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caused the down-regulation of IAP family members. In addition, platycodin D treatment resulted in proteolytic activation of caspase-3, the concomitant degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, and the collapse of the mitochondria membrane potential (${\Delta}{\Psi}_m$). However, the cytotoxic effects induced by platycodin D treatment were significantly inhibited by z-DEVD-fmk, a caspase-3 inhibitor, which demonstrated the important role that caspase-3 played in the observed cytotoxic effect. These findings suggest that platycodin D may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for use in the control of human leukemia U937 cells. These findings also provided important new insights into possible molecular mechanisms of the anti-cancer activity of platycodin D.

Review on the Protected Areas Issues within Mid-Long Term National Plans for Territory and Environment of Korea; Focus on the "Biodiversity 2011-2020 Strategic Targets" and "Protected Areas Decision" (우리나라 국토 및 환경 분야 중장기 국가계획의 보호지역 관련 내용 고찰 - "생물다양성협약 2011~2020 전략목표" 및 "보호지역 결정문" 내용을 중심으로-)

  • Heo, Hag Young
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.3-37
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    • 2012
  • In perspective of biodiversity conservation and protected areas (PAs), the aims of the study are to review the mid-long term national plans, which deal with national territory and environment in Korea, and to find out the way to improve this issue. Key issues were drawn by referring "Biodiversity 2011-2020 Strategic Targets" and "Protected Area Decision" in CBD CoP-10 and 7 National comprehensive or basic Plans were reviewed. Quoting Biodiversity 2011-2020 Strategic Target 5, "By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced", most of national plans included various methods such as "No Net Loss of Green", "No Net Loss of Wetlands", and so on. Regarding the target 11, "By 2020, at least 17% of terrestrial and inland water, and 10% of coastal and marine areas, ecologically representative and well connected systems of PAs and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscape and seascapes", 15% by 2015 was set up as a target of total PAs in Korea and 13% by 2015 or 2020 was set up as a target of coastal and marine PAs. CBD CoP-10 Decision X/31 (Protected Areas) invites parties to develop a national long-term action plan for the implementation of PoWPA and describes 10 issues that need greater attention. National action plan for the implementation of PoWPA doesn't be mentioned at any national plans even PoWPA. Regarding the 10 issues, most of issues were well reflected within various national plans, however there is still a need to improve the details and corelation between plans. Particularly, in terms of management effectiveness evaluation (MEE), there was no national plan to directly deal with MEE even though CBD invites parties to work towards assessing 60% of the total PAs by 2015. Based on the review results, below 4 items were suggested; (1)"The Comprehensive Plan of the National Territory" needs more attention on the Biodiversity Conservation and PAs, (2)Consider to establish "National PA System Plan" embedded into "the Comprehensive Plan of National Environment", (3)Establish a "National Action Plan for the implementation of PoWPA", (4)Improve the National Plans through linking with Biodiversity 2011-2020 Strategic Targets and relevant PA key issues.

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Enzymatic Synthesis of Flame Retardant Phenolic Polymers Catalyzed by Horseradish Peroxidase (Horseradish Peroxidase 효소촉매에 의한 난연성 페놀고분자의 합성)

  • Park, Han Sol;Park, Jung Hee;Lee, Hak Sung;Ryu, Keungarp
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.111-115
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    • 2013
  • The optimum synthetic conditions of poly(p-phenylphenol) by horseradish peroxidase in dioxane:water (80:20 v/v) mixtures were studied. The stability against thermal degradation and structural properties of the synthesized phenolic resins were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. The synthetic yield of poly(p-phenylphenol) increased upon the increase of the amount of enzyme up to 0.25 mg HRP/mL, then leveled off for further increase of the enzyme usage. When sodium acetate (100 mM, pH 4~6) and sodium phosphate (100 mM, pH 7~9) were used as the buffering salts for the aqueous component (20% v/v), the synthetic yield of the resin increased at higher pH of the aqueous buffer. But when the pHs of the aqueous buffer were 6 and 9, the synthetic yield strongly depended on the types of the buffering salts; if sodium phosphate was used instead of sodium acetate at pH 6, the yield decreased by about 15% and if sodium bicarbonate was used instead of sodium phosphate, the yield decreased by almost 20%. When the pH range of the aqueous buffer was from 4 to 7, the addition of a radical mediator, 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), up to 2 mM improved the synthetic yield of the resin by about 10%. TGA experiments revealed that the thermal stability of the resin synthesized in dioxane:water (100 mM sodium phosphate, pH 9) (80:20 v/v) was high having the char yield of 47% upon the heating at $800^{\circ}C$. DCS results showed that the structures of the polymers synthesized in acidic aqueous buffers were different from those of the polymers synthesized in the basic aqueous buffers. However, all the synthesized resins were found to have the property of the thermosetting resins.

Anti-inflammatory effect of Sinhyowoldo-san Extract with regard to Pro-inflammatory Mediators in PMA plus A23187-induced Human Mast Cells (인간 비만세포에서 PMA와 A23187에 의해 유도된 전염증 매개체에 대한 신효월도산 추출물의 항염증 효과)

  • Wi, Gyeong;Yang, Da-Wun;Kang, Ok-Hwa;Kim, Sung-Bae;Mun, Su-Hyun;Seo, Yun-Soo;Kang, Da-Hye;Lim, Jae-Soo;Kim, Ma-Ryong;Kwak, Nam-Won;Kong, Ryong;Kwon, Dong-Yeul
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.117-123
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    • 2014
  • Objectives : Sinhyowoldo-san (SHWDS) is said to be a traditional medicine used for shigellosis, abdominal pain, diarrhea. But mechanism of SHWDS mediated-modulation of immune function is not sufficiently understood. To ascertain the molecular mechanisms of SHWDS 70% EtOH extract on pharmacological and biochemical actions in inflammation, we researched the effect of pro-inflammatory mediators in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)+ A23187-activated human mast cell line (HMC-1). Methods : In the present research, cell viability was measured by MTS assay. pro-inflammatory cytokine production was measured by performing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and western blot analysis to analyze the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells ($NF-{\kappa}B$). The investigation focused on whether SHWDS inhibited the expressions of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), MAPKs and $NF-{\kappa}B$ in PMA+A23187-activated HMC-1 cells. Results : SHWDS has no cytotoxicity at measured concentration (50, 100, and $250{\mu}g/ml$). SHWDS ($250{\mu}g/ml$) inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in PMA+ A23187-activated HMC-1 cells. Moreover, SHWDS inhibited cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression. In activated HMC-1 cells, SHWDS suppressed phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2) and c-jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK 1/2). Then, SHWDS suppressed activation of nuclear factor $NF-{\kappa}B$ in nuclear, degradation of IkB ${\alpha}$ in cytoplasm. Conclusions : We propose that SHWDS has an anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential, which may result from inhibition of ERK 1/2, JNK 1/2 phosphorylation and $NF-{\kappa}B$ activation, thereby decreasing the expression of pro-inflammatory genes.