• Title, Summary, Keyword: Degradation

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Degradation characteristics of pumps in nuclear power plants (원전 펌프의 성능저하 특성)

  • Lee, D.H.;Park, S.G.;Hong, S.D.;Lee, B.H.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.593-598
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    • 2008
  • In the present study, degradation characteristics of pumps in nuclear power plants were investigated to provide the information of degradation mechanism and stressors. The failure records of pumps for the periods 2000 to 2006 on INPO(Institute of Nuclear Power Operations) EPIX(Equipment Performance and Information Exchange System) DB were reviewed. The 1,834 failure records reveal that the critical areas of pump failures are bearing, mechanical seal, gasket/o-ring, shaft, impeller, coupling and packing. Based on the failure rate of critical areas, the important degradation mechanism and stressors were determined. Additionally, the relationship between degradation mechanism and stressors such as wear was examined. Finally, the monitoring parameters related to degradation and stressors were discussed for the future development of degradation evaluation and prognosis technology of pumps.

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IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF AGING-RELATED DEGRADATION OCCURRENCES IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

  • Choi, In-Kil;Choun, Young-Sun;Kim, Min-Kyu;Nie, Jinsuo;Braverman, Joseph I.;Hofmayer, Charles H.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.297-310
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    • 2012
  • Aging-related degradation of nuclear power plant components is an important aspect to consider in securing the long term safety of the plant, especially the seismic safety, since the degradation of the components affects not only their seismic capacity but their response. This can cause a change in the seismic margin of a component and the overall seismic safety of a system. To better understand the status and characteristics of degradation of components in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), the degradation occurrences of components in the U.S. NPPs were identified by reviewing recent publicly available information sources and the characteristics of these occurrences were evaluated and compared to observations from the past. Ten categories of components that are of high risk significance in Korean NPPs were identified, comprising anchorage, concrete, containment, exchanger, filter, piping systems, reactor pressure vessels, structural steel, tanks, and vessels. Software tools were developed to expedite the review process. Results from this review effort were compared to previous data in the literature to characterize the overall degradation trends.

Kinetics of Thermal Degradation of Polypropylene/Nanoclay/Wood Flour Nanocomposites

  • Mohan, D. Jagan;Lee, Sun-Young;Kang, In-Aeh;Doh, Geum-Hyun;Park, Byung-Dae;Wu, Qinglin
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.278-286
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    • 2007
  • As a part of enhancing the performance of wood-plastic composites (WPC), polypropylene (PP)/ nanoclay (NC)/ wood flour (WF) nanocomposites were prepared using melt blending and injection molding process to evaluate their thermal stability. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was employed to investigate thermal degradation kinetics of the nanocomposites both dynamic and isothermal conditions. Dynamic scans of the TGA showed an increased thermal stability of the nanocomposites at moderate wood flour concentrations (up to 20 phr, percentage based on hundred percent resin) while it decreased with the addition of 30 phr wood flour. The activation energy $(E_a)$ of thermal degradation of nanocomposites increased when nanoclay was added and the concentration of wood flour increased. Different equations were used to evaluate isothermal degradation kinetics using the rate of thermal degradation of the composites, expressed as weight loss (%) from their isothermal TGA curves. Degradation occurred at faster rate in the initial stages of about 60 min., and then proceeded in a gradual manner. However, nanocomposites with wood flour of 30 phr heated at $300^{\circ}C$ showed a drastic difference in their degradation behavior, and reached almost a complete decomposition after 40 min. of the isothermal heating. The degree of decomposition was greater at higher temperatures, and the residual weight of isothermal degradation of nanocomposites greatly varied from about 10 to 90%, depending on isothermal temperatures. The isothermal degradation of nanocomposites also increased their thermal stability with the addition of 1 phr nanoclay and of wood flour up to 20 phr. But, the degradation of PP100/NC1/MAPP3/WF30 nanocomposites with 30 phr wood flour occurs at a faster rate compared to those of the others, indicating a decrease in their thermal stability.

Degradation Characteristics of Carbon Dioxide Absorbents with Different Chemical Structures (상이한 화학적 구조를 가진 이산화탄소 흡수제의 열화특성)

  • Kim, Jun-Han;Lee, Ji-Hyun;Jang, Kyung-Ryong;Shim, Jae-Goo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.31 no.10
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    • pp.883-892
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    • 2009
  • We evaluated the degradation properties of various alkanolamine absorbents (MEA, AMP, DEA, and MDEA) having different chemical structures for $CO_2$ capture. The degradation of $CO_2$ absorbent in general was known to be caused by oxygen which is in flue gas and by heat source, respectively. To analyze the effect of $CO_2$ and $O_2$ on degree of degradation, we conducted a variety of experiments at $30^{\circ}C$ and $60^{\circ}C$ (oxidative degradation) and $130^{\circ}C$ and $150^{\circ}C$ (thermal degradation), respectively. DEA showed the worst property for oxidative degradation in the presence of oxygen among the alkanolamine absorbents. In the case of thermal degradation, the degradation of absorbent was occurred for most of absorbents at $150^{\circ}C$. Among these absorbents, MEA and DEA gave the worst results. As a result, AMP which is a primary amine and having a steric hindrance showed the best result through the degradation test. But, the degradation of absorbent proceeded easily in the case of DEA which is a secondary amine and having 2 OH groups in terminal position. Consequently, we have evaluated the degree of degradation of various absorbents having different chemical structures to give the basic data for the development of alkanolamine absorbent.

The Study on Drag Reduction Rates and Degradation Effects in Synthetic Polymer Solution with Surfactant Additives (계면활성제를 이용한 합성고분자 수용액의 마찰저항감소 및 퇴화 특성 향상 연구)

  • 이동민;김남진;윤석만;김종보
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.194-199
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    • 2001
  • The turbulent flow resistance of water solution with polymer is reduced as compared with that of pure water. This effects is named th drag reduction and offers the significant reduction of the pumping power and the energy consumption. But the intense shear forces and the high temperature experienced by the polymer solution when passing through the pipes cause the degradation a loss of drag reduction effectiveness. Especially, the degradation behavior is found to be strongly dependent on temperature. This mechanical and thermal degradation can be avoided by adding materials such as surfactant to the polymer solution, which enhance the bonding force between molecules. In the present study, Copolymer and SDS were utilized and they were mixed in 10 different mixture ratios, while total concentration was fixed as 100wppm. Degradation of Copolymer-SDS mixture solutions was investigated experimentally in closed loop at the temperature of $10^{\circ}C\; and\; 80^{\circ}C$ with various flow average velocities of 1.5 m/sec, 3.0m/sec, and 4.5m/sec. Degradation characteristics of polymer solution without surfactant show a radical loss of drag reduction effectiveness at high temperature. Degradation alleviation ability of surfactant is especially effective at high temperature. Consequently, this results show that the addition of surfactant to the polymer solution can control unfavorable degradation phenomena for high temperature systems.

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Identification of Receptor-like Protein for Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase on Yeast Vacuolar Membrane

  • Ko, Je-Sang
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.448-453
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    • 2000
  • In yeast the key gluconeogenic enzyme, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), is selectively targeted from the cytosol to the lysosome (vacuole) for degradation when glucose starved cells are replenished with glucose. The pathway for glucose induced FBPase degradation is unknown. To identify the receptor-mediated degradation pathway of FBPase, we investigated the presence of the FBPase receptor on the vacuolar membrane by cell fractionation experiments and binding assay using vid mutant (vacuolar import and degradation), which is defective in the glucose-induced degradation of FBPase. FBPase sedimented in the pellets from vid24-1 mutant after centrifugation at $15,000{\times}g$ for 15 min, suggesting that FBPase is associated with subcellular structures. Cell fractionation experiments revealed that FBPase is preferentially associated with the vacuole, but not with other organelles in vid24-1. FBPase enriched fractions that cofractionated with the vacuole were sensitive to proteinase K digestion, indicating that FBPase is peripherally associated with the vacuole. We developed an assay for the binding of FBPase to the vacuole. The assay revealed that FBPase bound to the vacuole with a Kd of $2.3{\times}10^6M$. The binding was saturable and specific. These results suggest that a receptor for FBPase degradation exists on the vacuolar membrane. It implies the existence of the receptor-mediated degradation pathway of FBPase by the lysosome.

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Extraction of Caffeine from Spent Coffee Grounds and Oxidative Degradation of Caffeine (커피 찌꺼기의 카페인 용출 및 산화분해 특성)

  • Shin, MinJeong;Kim, Young-Hun
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.27 no.12
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    • pp.1205-1214
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    • 2018
  • During the past few decades, significant increase in the consumption of coffee has led to rapid increase in the production of coffee waste in South Korea. Spent coffee waste is often treated as a general waste and is directly disposed without the necessary treatment. Spent Coffee Grounds (SCGs) can release several organic contaminants, including caffeine. In this study, leaching tests were conducted for SCGs and oxidative degradation of caffeine were also conducted. The tested SCGs contained approximately 4.4 mg caffeine per gram of coffee waste. Results from the leaching tests show that approximately 90% of the caffeine can be extracted at each step during sequential extraction. Advanced oxidation methods for the degradation of caffeine, such as $UV/H_2O_2$, photo-Fenton reaction, and $UV/O_3$, were tested. UV radiation has a limited effect on the degradation of caffeine. In particular, UV-A and UV-B radiations present in sunlight cause marginal degradation, thereby indicating that natural degradation of caffeine is minimal. However, $O_3$ can cause rapid degradation of caffeine, and the values of pseudo-first order rate constants were found to be ranging from $0.817min^{-1}$ to $1.506min^{-1}$ when the ozone generation rate was $37.1g/m^3$. Additionally, the degradation rate of caffeine is dependent on the wavelength of irradiation.

The Effects of Grain Size on the Degradation Phenomena of PZT Ceramics (입자의 크기가 PZT 세라믹스의 열화현상에 미치는 영향)

  • 정우환;김진호;조상희
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.65-73
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    • 1992
  • The effect of grain size on the time-dependent piezoelectrice degradation of a poled PZT of MPB composition Pb0.988Sr0.012 (Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 with 2.4 mol% of Nb2O5 was studied, and the degradation mechanism was discussed. Changes in the internal bias field and the internal stress both responsible for the time-dependent degradation of poled PZT were examined by the polarization reveral technique, XRD and Vickers indentation, respectively. The piezoelectric degradation increased with increasing time and grain size, and the internal bias field due to space charge diffusion decreased with increasing grain size of poled PZT. The internal bias field, however, was almost insensitive to the degradation time regardless of the grain size. On the other hand, both the x-ray diffraction peak intensity ratio of (002) to (200) and the fracture behavior including the crack propagation support that the ferroelectric domain rearrangement of larger grain size showed rapid relaxation of the internal stress compared with smaller one, which is thought the origin of the larger piezoelectric degradation in the former. In conclusion, the contribution of space charge diffusion on the piezoelectric degradation of PZT is strongly dependent on both the grain size and the composition. Thus, the relaxation of internal stress due to the ferroelectric domain rearrangement as well as the amount and time-dependence of the internal bias field due to space charge diffusion should be considered simultaneously in the degradation mechanism of PZT.

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Photocatalytic and Sonophotocatalytic degradation of alachlor using different photocatalyst

  • Bagal, Manisha V.;Gogate, Parag R.
    • Advances in environmental research
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.261-277
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    • 2013
  • The degradation of alachlor has been investigated using sonolysis (US), photocatalysis (UV) and sonophotocatalysis (US/UV) using three photocatalyst viz. $TiO_2$ (mixture of anatase and rutile), $TiO_2$ (anatase) and ZnO. The effect of photocatalyst loading on the extent of degradation of alachlor has been investigated by varying $TiO_2$ (both types) loading over the range of 0.01 g/L to 0.1 g/L and ZnO loading over the range of 0.05 g/L to 0.3 g/L. The optimum loading of the catalyst was found to be dependent on the type of operation i.e., photocatalysis alone or the combined operation of sonolysis and photocatalysis. All the combined processes gave complete degradation of alachlor with maximum rate of degradation being obtained in the case of sonophotocatalytic process also showing synergistic effect at optimized loading of photocatalyst. About 50% to 60% reduction in TOC has been obtained using the combined process of sonophotocatalysis depending on the operating conditions. The alachlor degradation fitted first order kinetics for all the processes under investigation. It has been observed that the $TiO_2$ (mixtrure of anatase and rutile) is the most active photocatalyst among the three photocatalysts studied in the current work. The effect of addition of radical enhancers and scavengers on sonophotocatalytic degradation of alachlor has been investigated in order to decipher the controlling mechanism. The alachlor degradation products have been identified using LC-MS method.

Abiotic Degradation Degradation of the Herbicide Oxadiazon in Water

  • Rahman Md. Mokhlesur;Park, Jong-Woo;Park, Man;Rhee In-Koo;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.157-161
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    • 2006
  • The performance of abiotic degradation of oxadiazon was investigated by applying zerovalent iron(ZVI), potassium permanganate($KMnO_4$) and titanium dioxide($TiO_2$) in the contaminated water. Experimental conditions allowed the disappearance of oxadiazon in the abiotic system. The degradation of this herbicide was monitored in buffer solutions having pH 3, 5 and 7 in the presence of iron powder in which the maximum degradation rate was achieved at acidic condition(pH 3) by 2% of ZVI treatment. The oxidative degradation of oxadiazon was observed in aqueous solution by $KMnO_4$ at pH 3, 7 and 10 in which the highest disappearance rate was found at neutral pH when treated with 2% of $KMnO_4$. The catalytic degradation of oxadiazon in $TiO_2$ suspension was obtained under dark and UV irradiation conditions. UV irradiation enhanced the degradation of oxadiazon in aquatic system in the presence of $TiO_2$. Conclusively, the remediation strategy using these abiotic reagents could be applied to remove oxadiazon from the contaminated water.