• Title, Summary, Keyword: Delayed voltage recovery

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Utilizing Under Voltage Load Shedding Strategy to Prevent Delayed Voltage Recovery Problem in Korean Power System

  • Lee, Yun-Hwan;Oh, Seung-Chan;Lee, Hwan-Ik;Park, Sang-Geon;Lee, Byong-Jun
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.60-67
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    • 2018
  • The presence of induction motor loads in a power system may cause the phenomenon of delayed voltage recovery after the occurrence of a severe fault. A high proportion of induction motor loads in the power system can be a significant influence on the voltage stability of the system. This problem referred to as FIDVR(Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery) is commonly caused by stall of small HVAC unit(Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioner) after transmission or distribution system failure. This delayed voltage recovery arises from the dynamic characteristics associated with the kinetic energy of the induction motor load. This paper proposes the UVLS (Under Voltage Load Shedding) control strategy for dealing with FIDVR. UVLS based schemes prevent voltage instability by shedding the load and can help avoid major economic losses due to wide-ranging cascading outages. This paper review recent topic about under voltage load shedding and compare decentralized load shedding scheme with conventional load shedding scheme. The load shedding strategy is applied to an actual system in order to verify the proposed FIDVR mitigation solution. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the problem of delayed voltage recovery in the Korean Power System.

Using the Under Voltage Load Shedding for Stability Enhancement of Power Systems Considering Induction Motor Load (유도전동기 부하 고려 시 저전압 부하차단을 이용한 전력계통 안정도 향상 방안)

  • Lee, Yun-Hwan
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers P
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    • v.65 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2016
  • Recently, proportion of the induction motor load is gradually increased. When a contingency in the power systems, it has been discovered phenomenon that the voltage is delayed recover caused mechanical characteristics of the induction motor load. It can be a serious impact on the voltage stability of the power system considering induction motor load. The scheme to mitigate this phenomenon tripping off the motors to prevent voltage drop and delayed voltage recovery on the load demand side. Fault induced delayed voltage recovery phenomenon is caused by stalling of small induction motor load in transmission level contingencies. In this paper, fault induced delayed voltage recovery phenomenon mitigation method implementation under voltage load shedding on the korean power system considering induction motor load.

An Analysis of Delayed Voltage Recovery Phenomenon according to the Characteristics of Motor Load in Korean Power System (모터부하 특성에 따른 국내 전력계통의 전압 지연 회복 현상 분석)

  • Lee, Yun-Hwan
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers P
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    • v.65 no.3
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    • pp.178-182
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    • 2016
  • FIDVR(Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery) is a phenomenon that recovery of the system voltage level delays after the fault. Cause of FIDVR phenomenon is motor load characteristic about voltage and reactive power. In low voltage condition, the motor go to stall state that consume large amount of reactive power. As a result, the voltage recovery problem is that of repeated occurrences of sustained low voltage following faults on the system. In this paper, analysis the characteristics of the motor load. And using the korean power system actual data, perform a case studies to voltage delay recovery phenomenon alleviation method. Change of each parameters by analyzing the effect on system and selecting an influence parameter. In addition, dynamic characteristic analysis of the resulting difference in the proportion by the motor load in power systems, considering the effect on the voltage stability.

Implementation of Under Voltage Load Shedding for Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery Phenomenon Alleviation

  • Lee, Yun-Hwan;Park, Bo-Hyun;Oh, Seung-Chan;Lee, Byong-Jun;Shin, Jeong-Hoon;Kim, Tae-Kyun
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.406-414
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    • 2014
  • Significant penetration of induction motor loads into residential neighborhood and commercial regions of local transmission systems at least partially determine a vulnerability to a fault induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR) event. Highly concentrated induction motor loads with constant torque could stall in response to low voltages associated with system faults. FIDVR is caused by wide spread stalling of small HVAC units (residential air conditioner) during transmission level faults. An under voltage load shedding scheme (UVLS) can be an effective component in a strategy to manage FIDVR risk and limit the any potential disturbance. Under Voltage Load Shedding take advantage of the plan to recovery the voltage of the system by shedding the load ways to alleviation FIDVR.

A Study on the FIDVR Mitigation Scheme using Dynamic Voltage Support by STATCOM (STATCOM을 활용한 FIDVR 완화 방안에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Yunhwan;Jung, Seungmin
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers P
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    • v.67 no.4
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    • pp.208-213
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    • 2018
  • In this paper, we studied the control strategy of applying STATCOM(static synchronous compensator) to mitigate the FIDVR(fault induced delayed voltage recovery) phenomenon. The proportion of motor loads is gradually increasing which might affect power system stability. Excessive reactive power consumption by the stall of the motor loads causes FIDVR phenomenon. In addition, the low inertia of the small HVAC(heating, ventilation and air conditioner) unit will not separate itself in the event of a contingency, causing system instability. For this reason, we have developed a control strategy that utilizes STATCOM efficiently through static and dynamic analysis. Case studies on a Korean power system have validated the performance of the proposed scheme under severe contingency scenarios. The results have verified that the proposed strategy can effectively mitigate FIDVR and improve the stability and reliability of the system.

Two Types of Voltage-dependent Outward Potassium Currents in Smooth Muscle Cells of Rabbit Basilar Atery

  • Kang, Tong-Mook;So, In-Suk;Uhm, Dae-Yong;Kim, Ki-Whan
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.169-183
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    • 1997
  • We have investigated the two types of voltage-dependent outward potassium (K) currents, i.e. delayed rectifier K current ($I_{K(V)}$) and 'A-like' transient outward K current ($I_{to}$) with patch-clamp technique in single smooth muscle cells (SMCs) isolated from rabbit basilar artery, and investigated the characteristics of them. The time-courses of activation were well fitted by exponential function raised to second power ($n^2$) in $I_{K(V)}$ and fourth power ($n^4$) in $I_{to}$. The activation, inactivation and recovery time courses of $I_{to}$ were much faster than that of $I_{K(V)}$. The steady-state activation and inactivation of $I_{K(V)}$ was at the more hyperpolarized range than that of $I_{to}$ contrary to the reports in other vascular SMCs. Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA; 10 mM) markedly inhibited $I_{K(V)}$ but little affected $I_{to}$. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) had similar inhibitory potency on both currents. While a low concentration of $Cd^{2+}$ (0.5 mM) shifted the current- voltage relationship of $I_{to}$ to the positive direction without change of maximum conductance, $Cd^{2+}$ did not cause any appreciable change for $I_{K(V)}$.

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Design of clock/data recovery circuit for optical communication receiver (광통신 수신기용 클럭/데이타 복구회로 설계)

  • Lee, Jung-Bong;Kim, Sung-Hwan;Choi, Pyung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Telematics and Electronics A
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    • v.33A no.11
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 1996
  • In the following paper, new architectural algorithm of clock and data recovery circuit is proposed for 622.08 Mbps optical communication receiver. New algorithm makes use of charge pump PLL using voltage controlled ring oscillator and extracts 8-channel 77.76 MHz clock signals, which are delayed by i/8 (i=1,2, ...8), to convert and recover 8-channel parallel data from 662.08 Mbps MRZ serial data. This circuit includes clock genration block to produce clock signals continuously even if input data doesn't exist. And synchronization of data and clock is doen by the method which compares 1/2 bit delayed onput data and decided dta by extracted clock signals. Thus, we can stabilize frequency and phase of clock signal even if input data is distorted or doesn't exist and simplify receiver architecture compared to traditional receiver's. Also it is possible ot realize clock extraction, data decision and conversion simulataneously. Verification of this algorithm is executed by DESIGN CENTER (version 6.1) using test models which are modelized by analog behavior modeling and digital circuit model, modified to process input frequency sufficiently, in SPICE.

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A Study on the Application of Under Voltage Load Shedding Scheme in Line Contingency considering Motor Load (모터부하를 고려한 상정사고 발생 시 저전압 부하차단 적용 방안에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Yun-Hwan
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers P
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    • v.66 no.1
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    • pp.21-26
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    • 2017
  • Failure of high-voltage transmission line, which is responsible for large-scale power transmission, can be reason for system voltage instability. There are many methods to prevent voltage instability like adjustment of equipment, the generator voltage setting, and load shedding. Among them, the load shedding, have a problem of economic loss and cascading effect to power system. Therefore, the execution of load shedding, amount and timing is very important. Conventionally, the load shedding setting is decided by the preformed simulation. Now, it is possible to monitor the power system in real time by the appearance of PMU(Phasor Measurement Unit). By this reason, some of research is performed about decentralized load shedding. The characteristics of the load can impact to amount and timing of decentralized load shedding. Especially, it is necessary to consider the influence of the induction motor loads. This paper review recent topic about under voltage load shedding and compare with decentralized load shedding scheme with conventional load shedding scheme. And simulations show the effectiveness of proposed method in resolving the delayed voltage recovery in the Korean Power System.

Imipramine Inhibits A-type Delayed Rectifier and ATP-Sensitive $K^{+}$ Currents Independent of G-Protein and Protein Kinase C in Murine Proximal Colonic Myocytes

  • Choi, Seok;Parajuli, Shankar Prasad;Lim, Geon-Han;Kim, Jin-Ho;Yeum, Cheol-Ho;Yoon, Pyung-Jin;Jun, Jae-Yeoul
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.29 no.11
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    • pp.998-1005
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    • 2006
  • The effects of imipramine on A-type delayed rectifier $K^{+}$ currents and ATP-sensitive $K^{+}\;(K_{ATP)$ currents were studied in isolated murine proximal colonic myocytes using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Depolarizing test pulses between-80 mV and +30 mV with 10 mV increments from the holding potential of-80 mV activated voltage-dependent outward $K^{+}$ currents that peaked within 50 ms followed by slow decreasing sustained currents. Early peak currents were inhibited by the application of 4-aminopyridine, whereas sustained currents were inhibited by the application of TEA. The peak amplitude of A-type delayed rectifier $K^{+}$ currents was reduced by external application of imipramine. The half-inactivation potential and the half-recovery time of A-type delayed rectifier $K^{+}$ currents were not changed by imipramine. With 0.1 mM ATP and 140 mM $K^{+}$ in the pipette and 90 mM $K^{+}$ in the bath solution and a holding potential of -80 mV, pinacidil activated inward currents; this effect was blocked by glibenclamide. Imipramine also inhibited $K_{ATP}$ currents. The inhibitory effects of imipramine in A-type delayed rectifier $K^{+}$ currents and $K_{ATP}$ currents were not changed by guanosine 5-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) ($GDP{\beta}S$) and chelerythrine, a protein kinase C inhibitor. These results suggest that imipramine inhibits A-type delayed rectifier $K^{+}$ currents and $K_{ATP}$ currents in a manner independent of G-protein and protein kinase C.

A study on the $NO_2$ gas detection characteristics of the CuTBP(Copper-tetra-tert-butylphthalocyanine) chemiresistor device (CuTBP(Copper-tetra-tert-butylphthalocyanine) 화학 저항 장치의 $NO_2$ 가스 탐지 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 구자룡;이창희;김태완;김정수
    • Electrical & Electronic Materials
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.233-238
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    • 1997
  • We have investigated gas-detection characteristics of CuTBP (Copper-tetra-tert-butylphthalocyanine) chemiresistor devices exposed to air/200ppm N $O_{2}$ gases. The CuTBP films were made by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) techniques. Sensitivity, response time, recovery time, and reproducibility of the devices were measured by current voltage characteristics. Interdigital electrode was used to improve the sensitivity. It was observed that a conductance G increases monotonically as the number of interdigital electrode finger pairs increases. As the number of interdigital electrode finger pairs increases, the sensitivity S( $G_{gas}$/ $G_{air}$) increases more than 50 times and stable. But the response time was delayed. The average recovery time of the CuTBP chemiresistor devices turned out to be about 100 second. We have also investigated applicability of the CuTBP chemiresistor device for a gas sensor.sor.

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