• Title, Summary, Keyword: Densification

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Densification of Aggregated Alumina Powder under Cyclin Compaction (반복압축하의 응집된 알루미나 분말의 치밀화)

  • Kim, K.T.;Son, G.S.;Suh, J.
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.136-142
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    • 1992
  • The effects of cyclic stress, frequency and bias-pressure on densification of Al2O3 powder cyclic compaction are investigated. The effect of frequency was not significant on densification of Al2O3 powder under cyclic compaction. The higher the cyclic stress and the lower the bias pressure, the higher densification was achieved. To obtain a higher densification, cyclic compaction was more efficient than 1 stroke compaction. A densification equation was proposed to describe an cyclic time dependent pressure-volume relation for Al2O3 powder under cyclic compaction. This equation was obtained empirically, based on the pressure-volume equation proposed by Cooper and Eaton, the time dependent densification equation by Kim and Suh and experimental data for Al2O3 powder under cyclic compaction. The agreement between the proposed equation and experimental data for Al2O3 powder under cyclic compaction was very good.

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Preform Design for the Sinter-forging Process of Arc-shaped Powdered Magnets (원호 형상을 가지는 분말자석 단조성형공정에서의 예비성형체 설계)

  • Kim, Seung-Ho;Lee, Choong-Ho;Huh, Hoon
    • Transactions of Materials Processing
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.135-142
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    • 1999
  • Tube Process(TP) is one of the processes to produce permanent magnets. Advantage claimed for this process is that it can accmplish both densification and anisotropication in one step forming. This process is distinguished from other processes since it uses deformable tube for densification of powder magnets. TP has, however, difficulties in manufacturing permanent magnets from Nd-Fe-B green powder due to folding resulted from large height reduction and localized densification. Therefore, an adequate preform is necessary to reduce folding resulted from large height reduction and localized densification. Therefore, an adequate preform is necessary to reduce folding, lead magnets into almost desired final shape and get uniform densification. In this paper, preform design for TP is carried out without a deformable tube to investigate the behaviour of magnet sinter-forging. Preform design is accomplished to increase the effective magnet area with a near net shape and uniform densification.

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Densification Behavior of Rhenium Alloy using Master Sintering Curve

  • Park, Dong Yong;Oh, Yong Jun;Kwon, Young Sam;Lim, Seong Taek;Park, Seong Jin
    • Journal of Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.7-15
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    • 2014
  • This study investigated the densification behavior of rhenium alloys including W-25 wt.%Re and Re-2W-1Ta (pure Re) during sintering. The dilatometry experiments were carried out to obtain the in-situ shrinkage in $H_2$ atmosphere. The measured data was analyzed through shrinkage, strain rate and relative density, and then symmetrically treated to construct the linearized form of master sintering curve (MSC) and MSC as a well-known and straightforward approach to describe the densification behavior during sintering. The densification behaviors for each material were analyzed in many respects including apparent activation energy, densification parameter, and densification ratio. MSC with a minimal set of preliminary experiments can make the densification behavior to be characterized and predicted as well as provide guideline to sinter cycle design. Considering the results of linearized form and MSC, it was confirmed that the W-25 wt.%Re compared to Pure Re is more easily densified at the relatively low temperature.

Influence of hot-pressing pressure on the densification of short-carbon-fiber-reinforced, randomly oriented carbon/carbon composite

  • Raunija, Thakur Sudesh Kumar;Sharma, Sharad Chandra
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.25-33
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    • 2015
  • The prime objective of this research was to study the influence of hot-pressing pressure and matrix-to-reinforcement ratio on the densification of short-carbon-fiber-reinforced, randomly oriented carbon/carbon-composite. Secondary objectives included determination of the physical and mechanical properties of the resulting composite. The 'hybrid carbon-fiber-reinforced mesophase-pitch-derived carbon-matrix' composite was fabricated by hot pressing. During hot pressing, pressure was varied from 5 to 20 MPa, and reinforcement wt% from 30 to 70. Densification of all the compacts was carried at low impregnation pressure with phenolic resin. The effect of the impregnation cycles was determined using measurements of microstructure and density. The results showed that effective densification strongly depended on the hot-pressing pressure and reinforcement wt%. Furthermore, results showed that compacts processed at lower hot-pressing pressure, and at higher reinforcement wt%, gained density gradually during three densification cycles and showed the symptoms of further gains with additional densification cycles. In contrast, samples that were hot-pressed at moderate pressure and at moderate reinforcement wt%, achieved maximum density within three densification cycles. Furthermore, examination of microstructure revealed the formation of cracks in samples processed at lower pressure and with low reinforcement wt%.

Analysis for Densification Behavior and Grain Growth of Nanocrystalline Ceramic Powder under High Temperature (나노 세라믹 분말의 고온 치밀화와 결정립 성장의 해석)

  • 김홍기;김기태
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.24 no.11
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    • pp.2749-2761
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    • 2000
  • Densification, grain growth, and phase transformation of nanocrystalline ceramic powder were investigated under pressureless sintering, sinter forging, and hot pressing. A constitutive model for densification of nanocrystalline ceramic powder was proposed and implemented into a finite element program (ABAQUS). A grain growth model was also proposed by including the effect of applied stress on grain growth when phase transformation occurs. Finite element results by using the proposed models well predicted densification behavior, deformation, and grain growth of nanocrystalline titania powder during pressureless sintering, sinter forging, and hot pressing. Finite element results by using the proposed model also well predicted experimental data in the literature for densification behavior of nanocrystalline zirconia powder during pressureless sintering and sinter forging.

Densification Behavior of Fe-Ni Alloy Nanoparticles

  • Kim, Sang-Phil;Lee, Woo-Seok;Lee, Jae-Wook;Choi, Chul-Jin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute Conference
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    • pp.531-532
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    • 2006
  • The effects of compaction pressure and sintering temperature on the densification of Fe-40wt%Ni alloy nanoparticles were analyzed. The Fe-Ni nanoparticles were fabricated by an arc-discharge method and then, compacted at three different pressures and sintered at 550 to $900\;^{\circ}C$. Densification was completed at temperature as low as $600\;^{\circ}C$ and high-pressure compaction was found to enhance densification. Densification behaviors and microstructure developments have been investigated through density measurements, electron microscopies, and hardness measurements.

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Effects of Sintering Atmosphere and Dopant Addition on the Densifcation of $SnO_2$ Ceramics (첨가제와 소결분위기가 $SnO_2$ 요업체의 치밀화에 미치는 영향)

  • 정재일;김봉철;장세홍;김정주
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.34 no.12
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    • pp.1221-1226
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    • 1997
  • The effects of sintering atmosphere and dopant addition on the behavior of densification and grain growth of SnO2 ceramics were investigated with consideration of defect chemistry. CoO and Nb2O5 were chosen as dopants, and oxygen and nitrogen were used for controlling of sintering atmospheres. With the decrease of oxygen partial pressure, densification was depressed due to evaporation of SnO2 ceramics. In the case of SnO2 sintering, the addition of CoO, which produced oxygen vacancy in SnO2 ceramics, led to acceleration of densification and grain growth. On the contrary, when Nb2O5 as a dopant producing Sn vacancy was added to SnO2 ceramics, densification and grain growth were simultaneously retarded. As results, it was conformed that diffusion of oxygen ions was rate determinant in densification and grain growth of SnO2 ceramics.

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Constitutive Models for Final Stage Densification of Powder Compacts with Power-Law Creep Deformation (Power-law 크리프 변형을 따르는 분말 성형체의 말기 치밀화 모델)

  • Yang, Hoon-Chul;Kim, Ki-Tae
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.930-939
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    • 2004
  • Constitutive models for final stage densification of metal powder compacts with power-law creep deformation were investigated. The constitutive models were implemented into a finite element program (ABAQUS) by using user subroutine CREEP and, from FEM results, useful densification curves were obtained when hydrostatic and uniaxial stress were applied to the powder compacts at various pressures and temperatures. Because the densification behavior varied as the constitutive models, the equivalent stress surface on each constitutive equation was investigated to analyze the difference of densification behavior.

A Model on the Densification of Agglomerates of Powders (분말 응집체의 치밀화에 관한 모델)

  • 김형섭;이재성
    • Journal of Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.301-307
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    • 2004
  • Successful implementation of the powder forming process requires a detailed understanding of several interacting phenomena. The aim is to better control the process variables and to optimize the design parameters. A number of studies were carried out using various constitutive models that take the density change during powder forming into account. Most of them were developed for powders and sintered porous metals, but few of them can describe powder agglomerates, whose behaviour is different from that of uniformly arranged powders. The modification is needed to account for the effect of agglomeration on densification behaviour. Incorporating powder agglomeration into a constitutive model is of considerable importance, as it provides a possibility of relating the powder densification response to microstructural characteristics of powder particles, especially in case of nano powders. In this paper, we proposed a new powder agglomerate model in order to describe the unique densification behaviour of nano powders. The proposed model was applied to the densification of powder agglomerates during cold isostatic pressing.

Effects of the Sintering Atmosphere and Ni Content on the Liquid-phase Sintering of $TiB_2$-Ni

  • Suk-Joong L. Kang;Baung, Jin-Chul;Park, Yeon-Gyu;Kang, Eul-Son;Baek, Yong-Kee;Jung, Sug-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.207-211
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    • 2001
  • The effects of the sintering atmosphere and Ni content on t도 densification of TiB$_2$-Ni have been investigated. TiB$_2$powder compacts containing 10, 20, and 30 wt% Ni were liquid-phase sintered at 1500-1$700^{\circ}C$ in vacuum or in flowing Ar. The densification was enhanced as Ni content increased. For a given Ni content, the densification was faster in compacts in compacts with larger grain size. These densification behaviors agree well with the prediction of the recently developed pore-filling theory. For samples containing high Ni contents, 80TiB$_2$-20Ni and 70TiB$_2$-30Ni, the densification was faster in vacuum than in Ar. In particular, 70TiB$_2$-30Ni was fully densified at 1$700^{\circ}C$ for 60min in vacuum. The suppressed densification in Ar was due to the entrapped Ar in the isolated pores. On the other hand, for 90TiB$_2$-10Ni, the Ar-sintering resulted in higher densification than did the vacuum-sintering. This result was attributed to the suppression of Ni volatilization by the Ar in the furnace and a retarded isolation of pores due to the limited amount of liquid in the sample. Therefore, vacuum sintering is recommended for the preparation of TiB$_2$-Ni with a high Ni content while Ar sintering is recommended for the preparation of TiB$_2$-Ni with a low Ni content.

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