• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Density

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Laser imager의 성능관리에 대한 연구

  • 이형진;인경환;이원홍;김건중
    • 대한디지털의료영상학회논문지
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.126-132
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    • 1997
  • Purpose : To apply to Program of Auto processor quality control after comparison of Film density variations with amendments to Auto density by using Check density program and Adjust density program of calibration mode into the Laser imager. Methods : Observe Check and Adjust density variations on the Control chart with standard step and value during seven months from December, 1995 to June, 1956 extending twice a week. (1) Measure density value on the steps after printing out 17-step sensitometric pattern of the Check density program. (2) In the same way, measure density values after amending density by using Adjust density program If they are exceeding allowable error limit. Results : In case of Check density program, the exceeding limit rates of Density difference(DD) and Middle density(MD) are: FL-IM3543 DD=75%. MD=72.5%, FL-IMD DD=0%. MD=30.8%(14.5%) After amending density by using Adjust density program, the exceeding limit rates of all both Laser imager were zero percent. The standard deviations are show lower FL-IM D than FL-IM3543 on the Check density control chart, but higher on the Adjust density control chart. Conclusion : (1) Check density variations by printingout sensitometric pattern extending once a week at least for quality control of the Laser imager. (2) In case of a dusty place, check the Laser beam transmission after cleaning Laser optical unit extending once a month. (3) Be sure to measure and check density values by using adjust density program if they are exceeding allowable error limit. (4) Maintain much better film density by performing the adjust density program even if check density values are existed within normal limit.

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UNDER-DENSITY REGIONS AND THE PRIMORDIAL DENSITY FIELD

  • KIM MINSUN;PARK CHANGBOM
    • 천문학회지
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.109-115
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    • 1998
  • We show that the low density regions of the matter distribution preserve the properties of the primordial density field better than the high density regions. We have performed a cosmological N-body simulation of large-scale structure formation in the standard CDM cosmology, and studied the evolution of statistics of under-density and over-density regions separately. The rank-order of the under-density regions is closer to the original one compared to that of the over-density regions. The under-density peaks (or voids) has moved less than over-density peaks (or dense clusters of galaxies) from their initial positions. Therefore, the under-density regions are more useful than the over-density regions in the study of the statistical property of the primordial density field.

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REA를 고려한 Lineament density map의 작성 방안 연구

  • 김규범;조민조;이강근
    • 한국지하수토양환경학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.97-99
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    • 2003
  • Lineament density maps can be used for the quantitative evaluation of relationship between lineaments and groundwater occurrence. There are several kinds of lineament density maps including lineament length density, lineament cross-points density, and lineament counts density maps. This paper reports the usefulness of the representative elementary area (REA) concept for lineament analysis. This concept refers to the area size of the unit circle to calculate the lineament density factors distributed within the circle: length, counts and cross-points counts. The circle is a unit circle that calculates the sum of the lineament length, lineament counts and the number of cross-points within it. The REA is needed to obtain the best representative lineament density map prior to the analysis of relation between lineaments and groundwater well yield or other groundwater characteristics. A basic lineament map for the Yongsangang-Seomjingang watershed of Korea, drawn from aerial black-and-white photographs of 1/20, 000 scale was used for demonstrating the concept. From this study, the conclusions were as follows: (1) the REA concept can be efficiently applied to the lineament density analysis and mapping, (2) for whole Yongsangang-Seomjingang watershed which has 6, 502 lineaments with an average lineament length of 3.3 km, the lower limits of each REA used for drawing the three density maps were about 1.77 $\textrm{km}^2$ (r=750 m) for lineament length density, 7.07 $\textrm{km}^2$ (r=1, 500 m) for lineament counts density, and 4.91 $\textrm{km}^2$ (r=1, 250 m) for lineament cross-points density, respectively, (3) the lineament densities are inversely proportional to the size of REA, and the REA can be calculated with this inversely linear regression model, (4) if the average lineament density values for the whole study area are known, the most accurate density maps can be drawn using the REAs obtained from each linear regression model, and (5) but critical attention should be paid to draw lineament counts density and lineament cross-points density maps because.

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가상공극개념을 이용한 연구자석의 전체전자기력과 상호체적력밀도 계산 (Evaluation of Global Force and Interaction Body Force Density in Permanent Magnet Employing Virtual Air-gap Concept)

  • 이세희
    • 전기학회논문지
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    • v.58 no.2
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    • pp.278-284
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    • 2009
  • The global force and interaction body force density were evaluated in permanent magnets by using the virtual air-gap scheme incorporating the finite-element method. Until now, the virtual air-gap concept has been successfully applied to calculate a contact force and a body force density in soft magnetic materials. These force calculating methods have been called as generalized methods such as the generalized magnetic charge force density method, the generalized magnetizing current force density method, and the generalized Kelvin force density method. For permanent magnets, however, there have been few research works on a contact force and a force density field. Unlike the conventional force calculating methods resulting in surface force densities, the generalized methods are novel methods of evaluating body force density. These generalized methods yield the actual total force, but their distributions have an irregularity, which seems to be random distributions of body force density. Inside permanent magnets, however, a smooth pattern was obtained in the interaction body force density, which represents the interacting force field among magnetic materials. To evaluate the interaction body force density, the intrinsic force density should be withdrawn from the total force density. Several analysis models with permanent magnets were tested to verify the proposed methods evaluating the interaction body force density and the contact force, in which the permanent magnet contacts with a soft magnetic material.

식사의 철분밀도에 따른 남녀 대학생의 식품섭취 패턴 및 철분 영양상태의 차이 (Comparisons of Food Intake Patterns and Iron Nutritional Status by Dietary Iron Density Among College Students)

  • 현태선;연미영;한영희;황석연;구혜진;김선영
    • 대한영양사협회학술지
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.71-80
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    • 2003
  • Food intake patterns and iron nutritional status of male and female college students were studied based on dietary iron density. Dietary data were collected using the method of 24-hour recalls for 3 consecutive days from 106 students, and fasting blood were drawn to measure iron nutritional status indicators such as total iron binding capacity, serum iron, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell count. Mean daily iron intakes of male and female students were 13.3㎎ and 10.0㎎, which were 107% and 63% of the RDA, respectively. However, dietary iron density were similar between male and female students as 5.9㎎/1,000㎉ and 5.7㎎/1,000㎉, respectively. The diets were divided into two groups according to iron density; high iron density group (6㎎/1,000㎉ or more) and low iron density group (less than 6㎎/1,000㎉). The students in high density group had lower intakes of energy, especially fat, than those in low density group. Female students in high density group showed significantly higher intakes of iron, and non-heme iron and folate than those of low density group. The students in high density group consumed more rice, hamburger, and eggs, while those in low density group consumed more Ra-myon and alcoholic beverages. The students in high density group consumed greater proportions of iron from plant-origin foods. Vegetables, legumes and seasonings were the food groups that female students in high density group consumed significantly more than those in low density group. Also the percentages of female students with iron deficiency were higher in low density group. These results suggest that diet with high iron density is important to improve iron nutritional status of women, and further research about the effective way to increase iron density in our diet is needed.

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The Bandwidth from the Density Power Divergence

  • Pak, Ro Jin
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.435-444
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    • 2014
  • The most widely used optimal bandwidth is known to minimize the mean integrated squared error(MISE) of a kernel density estimator from a true density. In this article proposes, we propose a bandwidth which asymptotically minimizes the mean integrated density power divergence(MIDPD) between a true density and a corresponding kernel density estimator. An approximated form of the mean integrated density power divergence is derived and a bandwidth is obtained as a product of minimization based on the approximated form. The resulting bandwidth resembles the optimal bandwidth by Parzen (1962), but it reflects the nature of a model density more than the existing optimal bandwidths. We have one more choice of an optimal bandwidth with a firm theoretical background; in addition, an empirical study we show that the bandwidth from the mean integrated density power divergence can produce a density estimator fitting a sample better than the bandwidth from the mean integrated squared error.

A note on nonparametric density deconvolution by weighted kernel estimators

  • Lee, Sungho
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.951-959
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    • 2014
  • Recently Hazelton and Turlach (2009) proposed a weighted kernel density estimator for the deconvolution problem. In the case of Gaussian kernels and measurement error, they argued that the weighted kernel density estimator is a competitive estimator over the classical deconvolution kernel estimator. In this paper we consider weighted kernel density estimators when sample observations are contaminated by double exponentially distributed errors. The performance of the weighted kernel density estimators is compared over the classical deconvolution kernel estimator and the kernel density estimator based on the support vector regression method by means of a simulation study. The weighted density estimator with the Gaussian kernel shows numerical instability in practical implementation of optimization function. However the weighted density estimates with the double exponential kernel has very similar patterns to the classical kernel density estimates in the simulations, but the shape is less satisfactory than the classical kernel density estimator with the Gaussian kernel.

자기 변형 기술을 이용한 액체 밀도 측정의 보정 기술 (Calibration Technique of Liquid Density Measurement using Magnetostriction Technology)

  • 서무교;홍영호;최인섭
    • 전자공학회논문지
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    • v.51 no.8
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    • pp.178-184
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    • 2014
  • 자기 변형 기술의 거리 측정을 응용하여, 중력과 액체 밀도에 대응하는 부력의 평형 위치를 측정하는 액체 밀도 센서를 개발하였다. 이 시스템의 정밀도 향상을 위해, 액체 밀도변화에 따른 밀도 센서의 이동거리 사이의 관계식을 유도하고, 이를 이용하여, 액체 밀도 센서의 2 점 보정 방법을 마련하였다. 제작된 액체 밀도 센서 시스템과 유도된 관계식을 사용하여 액체의 밀도들을 측정하였다. 측정된 결과들을 U-tube 진동주기 측정방식의 고 정밀 밀도 측정기(Oscillating U-tube density meter: 분해능 0.000001 g/cc)의 측정결과와 비교하였다. 그 결과 두 액체 밀도 측정 시스템간의 측정 편차가 0.001 g/cc 미만임을 확인하였다.

매립장의 반입쓰레기 성상변화에 따른 다짐밀도 조사연구 (The Investigation Study of Compaction Density by Waste Composition Change in Landfill Site)

  • 정병길;최영익;김정권
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.397-403
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate weighted compaction density according to a leading density in truck, a compaction density of solid waste and composition ratios of solid waste fur calculation of a capacity of the landfill sites. The experiments for calculations of in-place density at landfill site have been conducted in S landfill site at B City. The size of vessel for measuring the compaction density was $1m^3(1m{\times}1m{\times}1m)$. The experiment tests have been carried out methods (1 time for bulldozer and 4 times for compactor) that do contain all of specification at the landfill site. Average of the loading density at the landfill site was $0.264\;ton/m^3$ ($0.113{\sim}0.487\;ton/m^3$). When the loading density for each compositions was compared, the composition of the highest average loading density ($0.474\;ton/m^3$) was miscellaneous wastes. The composition of the lowest average loading density ($0.120 ton/m^3$) was general solid waste. The reported results indicated that the compaction density at the landfill site was $0.538\;ton/m^3$, which was calculated with weighted incoming ratios of compositions. The ranges of the density for each composition were from $0.021\;ton/m^3$ to $0.221\;ton/m^3$. When the compaction density for each composition was compared, the composition with the highest average compaction density ($0.221\;ton/m^3$) was miscellaneous wastes. The composition with the lowest average compaction density ($0.021\;ton/m^3$) was general solid wastes.

Modified Local Density Estimation for the Log-Linear Density

  • Pak, Ro-Jin
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.13-22
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    • 2000
  • We consider local likelihood method with a smoothed version of the model density in stead of an original model density. For simplicity a model is assumed as the log-linear density then we were able to show that the proposed local density estimator is less affected by changes among observations but its bias increases little bit more than that of the currently used local density estimator. Hence if we use the existing method and the proposed method in a proper way we would derive the local density estimator fitting the data in a better way.

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