• Title, Summary, Keyword: Density

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Correlation between Coil Configurations and Discharge Characteristics of a Magnetized Inductively Coupled Plasma

  • Cheong, Hee-Woon
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.222-228
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    • 2016
  • Correlation between coil configurations and the discharge characteristics such as plasma density and the electron temperature in a newly designed magnetized inductively coupled plasma (M-ICP) etcher were investigated. Radial and axial magnetic flux density distributions as well as the magnetic flux density on the center of the substrate holder were controllable by placing multiple circular coils around the etcher. The plasma density increased up to 60.7% by arranging coils (or optimizing magnetic flux density distributions inside the etcher) properly although the magnetic flux density on the center of the substrate holder was fixed at 7 Gauss.

Effect of Panel Density and Resin Content on Properties of Medium Density Fiberboard

  • Hong, Min-Kug;Lubis, Muhammad Adly Rahandi;Park, Byung-Dae
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.444-455
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of panel density and resin content on properties of medium density fiberboard (MDF) to obtain some insights on MDF properties as a function of panel density and resin content. MDF panels with different panel densities such as 650, 700, 750 and $800kg/m^3$ were manufactured by adjusting the amount of wood fibers in the mat forming. MDF panels were also fabricated by spraying 8, 10, 12, and 14% of urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins onto wood fibers in a drum-type mechanical blender to fabricate MDF panels with a target density of $650kg/m^3$. As the panel density and resin content increased, the internal bonding (IB) strength of MDF panel consistently increased. Modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE) and screw withdrawal resistance (SWR) had a similar trend to the IB strength. In physical properties, thickness swelling (TS) and water absorption (WA) decreased with an increase in both panel density and resin content. In addition, the formaldehyde emission (FE) which increased as the panel density and resin content became greater. In overall, the panel density of MDF had more significant effect than the resin content in all properties of MDF panels, indicating that it was better to adjust the panel density rather than the resin content for MDF manufacture.

Effects of Store Density and Perceived Price Benefit of Sale on Perceived Crowding (점포 밀도와 세일의 가격혜택이 혼잡성 지각에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Kyungae;Heo, Soonim
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.613-624
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    • 2015
  • This study examined: 1) the effect of store density on perceived crowding 2) the difference of perceived price benefit of sale by store density 3) the effect of perceived price benefit and store density on perceived crowding and 4) the effect of perceived crowding and price benefit on shopping behaviors. Store density and perceived crowding were categorized into social and spatial dimensions. Data were collected with 6 (high, medium, and low social and spatial densities) * 2 (sale and no-sale) between-subjects experimental designs. A total of 395 responses were analyzed. The results revealed that social density affected social crowding, but spatial density had no effect on perceived crowding. Price benefit of sale was not different by store density. The sale itself did not affect perceived crowding. Under the social density situation, perceived price benefit reduced spatial crowding and social crowding showed a positive effect on purchase behavior while spatial crowding had a negative effect. However, the most important effect on purchase behavior was price benefit. The study implies that social density (not spatial density) is important for consumer behavior and retail strategies.

Density Distributions of Metallic Compounds in Particulate Matters (粒子狀 物質中 金屬成分의 密度分布)

  • 허문영;김형춘;손동헌
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.9-18
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    • 1986
  • For identification and apportionment of sources emitting particulate matters in environment, the multi-elemental characterization of size-density fractionated particulate matters was carried out. Eight types of samples were tested; soil, flyash released from burning of bunker-Coil, diesel oil, coal, and soft coal, urban road-way dust, urban dust fall, and airborne particulate matter. The fractions of particulate matters obtained by heavy liquid separation methos with a series of dichloromethane-bromoform were then analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry for Ni, Cr, Cu, An, Fe, Al, and Mg. Each sample showed a different concentration profile as a function of density, and a number of useful conclusions concerning characterization of elemental distribution were obtained. From the density distributions of elements in soil, the maximum value was found for all elements in the density range of 2.2 $\sim 2.9g.cm^{-3}$, including the density of $SiO_2$. However, the distribution of metallic compounds with the density lower than $2.2g.cm^{-3}$ was prevalent in urban roadway dust, urban dust fall, and airborne particulate matter. And the density distribution curves of these urban dusts also have the higher distribution at the density of 2.2 - 2.9g.cm^{-3}$, including the density of wind-blown silica. This tendency generally was prevalent in the natural source elements, such as Al, Fe, Mn, and Mg. The maximum values were found in the density ranges of 1.3 $\sim 2.2g.cm^{-3}$ from the density distribution of elements in oil fired flyash. These distributions of anthropogenic source elements, such as Zn, Ni, Cu, and Cr were higher predominately than those of natural source elements. And the higher distribution was found in the density range of $2.2 \sim 2.9g.cm^{-3}$ from the density distribution of elements in coal and soft-coal fired flyash. These distributions showed similar patterns to soil. But anthropogenic source elements somewhat predominated at the density ranges of $1.3 \sim 2.2g.cm{-3} and 2.9g.cm^{-3}$ to soil. Therefore the higher distribution of anthropogenic source elements in the density ranges of $1.3 \sim 2.2g.cm^{-3} and 2.9g.cm^{-3}$ was considered as anthropogenic origin.

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A Quantitative Comparison of Fibroblasts, Collagen and Elastic Fiber Densities in the Young and Aged Rat Skin

  • Song, In-Yong;Jeong, Myung-A;Lee, Jae-Hyoung
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.55-60
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    • 2007
  • Computerized image processing and analysis system was used for quantitative assessment of skin tissue components in color histological sections. The purpose of this study was to determine that the changes in the collagen fiber density and elastic fiber density in dermis in the rat skin as aging. And also to determine that the correlation between fibroblast density and collagen fiber density and elastic fiber density in the aged rat skin. Ten weeks old ($130{\sim}150g$) eight and fifty-four weeks old ($300{\sim}350g$) eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The full-thickness skin biopsy specimens were prepared serial sections and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome and Verhoeff-van Gieson. The collagen fiber and the elastic fiber were identified using the image analysis processing system and then calculated the collagen fiber density rate and the elastic fiber density rate in the dermis. It also identified fibroblast and calculated fibroblast density in the dermis. By using a Student's t-test, a decrease in the collagen fiber density rate (t=-4.650, P<0.001) and the elastic fiber density rate (t=-6.494, P<0.001) of dermis can be observed in aged rats as compared with the young rats. A Student's t-test showed a significantly less fibroblast density in the aged rats than the young rats (t=-4.497, P<0.001). There were significantly positive correlation between the fibroblast density and the collagen fiber density rate (r=.69, P<0.001) and the elastic fiber density rate (r=.91, P<0.001). These results indicate that the aging may decrease the collagen fiber density and elastic fiber density due to reduced the proliferative and synthetic activity of fibroblast in the dermis.

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3-D Topology Optimization by a Nodal Density Method Based on a SIMP Algorithm (SIMP 기반 절점밀도법에 의한 3 차원 위상최적화)

  • Kim, Cheol;Fang, Nan
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.412-417
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    • 2008
  • In a traditional topology optimization method, material properties are usually distributed by finite element density and visualized by a gray level image. The distribution method based on element density is adequate for a great mass of 2-D topology optimization problems. However, when it is used for 3-D topology optimization, it is always difficult to obtain a smooth model representation, and easily appears a virtualconnect phenomenon especially in a low-density domain. The 3-D structural topology optimization method has been developed using the node density instead of the element density that is based on SIMP (solid isotropic microstructure with penalization) algorithm. A computer code based on Matlab was written to validate the proposed method. When it was compared to the element density as design variable, this method could get a more uniform density distribution. To show the usefulness of this method, several typical examples of structure topology optimization are presented.

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Effects of Dietary Ca Level and Hormones on Bone Density of Mouse (식이 Ca 수준과 호르몬 투여가 생쥐가 골밀도에 미치는 영향)

  • 정차권
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.29 no.9
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    • pp.943-949
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    • 1996
  • Bone mineral density depends largely on the status of dietary minerals such as Ca, P, Mg, and F and proteins, physical activities, parathyroid hormone(PTH), calcitonin(CT), and vitamin D. The decrease of bone density often results in bone fractures and osteoporosis which is prevalent among postmenopausal women. This study was intended to examine the role of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and cholecaliferol in bone density of mice that were fed different dual photon energy beams. We have measured three major parts of the bone : whole body, head and femur. The results are summarized as follows : 1) Bone mineral density (BMD) was more increased by feeding high Ca diet compared to that of the low Ca diet. 2) Both PTH and Vit D3 enhanced BMD in all of the different Ca levels. 3) When the dietary Ca was deequate CT showed a synergistic effect with PTH in boosting bone density, while CT+Vit D3 showed a negative effect. 4) CT tended to inhibit the effect of increasing bone density by PTH and Vit D3 in medium and low Ca groups. 5) The effect of increasing bone density by PTH in the head of mouse increased when dietary Ca was lower : The increment of bone density by PTH in high, medium, and low Ca was 3%, 8%, 19%, respectively. 6) Femur bone density was affected significantly by dietary Ca levels than hormones. The above observations indicate that bone mineral density can be improved by high dietary Ca and hormone injections including PTH, CT and cholecalciferol, and thus proper dietary and hormonal treatment may be used in preventing bone fractures and osteoporosis.

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An Analysis of Electric-field Density into Mountain Area Using DTED (디지털 지도를 이용한 산악지형의 전계강도 분석)

  • Lim, Joong-Soo;Chae, Gyoo-Soo;Park, Young-Chul;Kim, Min-Nyum
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.852-857
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    • 2006
  • This paper presents a precision method to calculate the electric field density of mountain area using digital terrain elevation data(DTED). Generally we calculate the electric field density of a point adding a direct field density and horizontal reflection field density between two points. In this paper, we consider a vertical reflection field density from vertical surface near the wave propagation line between transmitter and receiver. The vertical reflection electric field have different propagation path and polarization from a horizontal reflection field. And the total electric field density adding horizontal field density and vertical reflection value is more accurate than a direct path electrical field density or direct field density adding a horizontal reflection field density.

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Development of Simple Density Measurement System for Watermelons (수박 밀도의 간편 계측시스템 개발)

  • 최규홍;이강진;최동수;김기영;손재룡
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.167-174
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    • 2004
  • Density is a physical property which contains information relating to the internal quality of fruits and vegetables, and can be used as an index for nondestructive quality evaluation. Density sorting has been employed by farmers for some agricultural products since ancient times. In this study, an automatic density measuring system based on the platform scale or water displacement method was developed for density sorting of watermelon. It consisted of water tan, load cell, net tray, electric motor, limit switch, control system and its program. The resolution of density was 0.001 g/㎤. In order to calibrate and evaluate the accuracy, the density was measured using a balloon kept in cold water. It showed 1.002 g/㎤ which almost correspond to real density of water. Test results with 6 watermelons and 3 replications showed that the standard deviations of the dens were 0.001∼0.004 g/㎤. The relationship between density and internal quality of watermelon was investigated using the system. The densities of hollow watermelons were less than 0.950 g/㎤, it was apparent that the density of the watermelon was related to the degree of hollowness. But the soluble solid contents and internal defects could not be estimated from the density.

Measurement of electron density of atmospheric pressure Ne plasma jet by laser heterodyne Interferometer with voltage

  • Lim, Jun Sup;Hong, Young June;Choi, Eun Ha
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.140.1-140.1
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    • 2015
  • Currently, As Plasma application is expanded to the industrial and medical industrial, Low temperature plasma characteristics became important. Especially in Medical industrial, Low temperature plasma directly adapted to human skin, so their plasma parameter is important. One of the plasma parameters is electron density, some kinds of method to measuring electron density are Thomson scattering spectroscopy and Millimeter-wave transmission measurement. But most methods is expensive to composed of experiment system. Heterodyne interferometer system is cheap and simple to setting up, So we tried to measuring electron density by Laser heterodyne interferometer. To measuring electron density at atmospheric pressure, we need to obtain the phase shift signal. And we use a heterodyne interferometer. Our guiding laser is Helium-Neon laser which generated 632 nm laser. We set up to chopper which can make a laser signal like a pulse. Chopper can make a 4 kHz chopping. We used Needle jet as Ne plasma sources. Interference pattern is changed by refractive index of electron density. As this refractive index change, phase shift was occurred. Electron density is changed from Townsend discharge's electron bombardment, so we observed phenomena and calculated phase shift. Finally, we measured electron density by refractive index and electron density relationship. The calculated electron density value is approximately 1015~1016 cm-3. And we studied electron density value with voltage.

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