• Title, Summary, Keyword: Deposition flux

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Numerical simulation of wet deposition flux by the deposition model (침적 모형에 의한 습성침적 플럭스 수치모의)

  • 이화운;문난경;임주연
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.11 no.12
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    • pp.1235-1242
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study is to estimate wet deposition flux and to investigate wet deposition characteristics by using the ADOM model. Wet deposition flux of highly reactive $SO_2$ is estimated by applying observed meteorological parameters and concentrations of chemical species to the ADOM model. Wet deposition is largely dependent on large scale precipitation and cloud thickness. Wet deposition flux of sulfate depends on $SO_2$ oxidation in clouds. When large amount of $SO_2$ is converted to sulfate, deposition flux of sulfate increases, but wet deposition flux of $SO_2$ is small. On the whole, the pattern of sulfate wet deposition flux agrees with the typical pattern of sulfate wet deposition that is high in the summer(July) and low in the winter(January).

Estimations of the $SO_2$Dry Deposition Flux at Urban Areas in Korea (우리나라 도시지역의 $SO_2$건성침적 플럭스 산출)

  • 이종범;김용국;박일환
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out estimating the dry deposition flux of $SO_2$at eight urban areas in Korea during one year of 1996. To calculate the deposition flux, deposition velocities were calculated by turbulence parameters estimated from routine meteorological data. Also, hourly averaged $SO_2$concentrations which calculated from air pollution monitoring data of each city were used. The dry deposition velocities were mostly higher in the coastal areas than the other areas, which would be caused by relatively strong wind. And, they were high in the daytime because of turbulence activities. The deposition flux of $SO_2$is mainly related to the atmospheric concentration. The annual average $SO_2$concentration and the deposition flux were 22.62ppb and 1510.52g/$\textrm{km}^2$/hr at Pusan respectively. Also, the flux was higher in winter than other season, which was a significant contribution of exhausted fuel for heating. While the deposition velocity was high to 0.688cm/sec at Yosu in case of strong wind and small cloud cover, the deposition flux was high to 1597.4g/$\textrm{km}^2$/hr at Pusan in case of weak wind and small cloud cover.

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Seasonal Variations of $SO_2$Dry Deposition Velocity Obtained by Sonic Anemometer-Thermometer (초음파 풍속온도계를 이용한 $SO_2$건성침착속도의 계절변화 특징)

  • 이종범;박세영
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.465-478
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    • 1998
  • In this study, seasonal variations of the dry deposition velocity and deposition flux for the sulfur dioxide were analysed. The field observation was performed during one year (from November 1, 1995 to October 31, 1996) in Chunchon basin. The turbulence data were measured by 3-dimensional sonic anemometer/thermometer, and were estimated by mean meteorological data obtained at two heights (2.5 m and 10 m) of meteorological tower. Also, the estimation methods were evaluated by comparing the turbulence data. The results showed that the estimated dry deposition velocity and turbulence parameter such as uc and sensible heat flux using mean meteorological data were relatively similar to the sonic measurements, but all showed somewhat large differences. The dry deposition velocity was large in summer and small in winter mainly due to canopy resistance (rc). The major factor which affects diurnal variation of the velocity was aerodynamic resistance (rw). The SO2 dry deposition flux was large in winter and small in summer in Chunchon.

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Measurement of Dry deposition at Seoul, Chunchon and Anmyon-do by Using Filter pack Method (필터팩을 이용한 서울과 춘천, 안면도의 건성 강하량 측정)

  • Kim, Man-Goo;Kang, Mi-Hee;Hong, Young-Min;Park, Ki-Jun;Lee, Bo-Kyung;Lee, Dong-Soo;Kim, San
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.19-29
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    • 2001
  • Atmospheric concentrations of acidic pollutant were measured by the 4 stage filter pak method at Chunchon and by the 3 stage filter pack method at Seoul and Anmyon-do from January to December 1998. The sample was collected for 24 hours on every Wednesday. Concentrations of particulate matters were highest at Anmyon-do. The particulate concentration was much higher during the warm season than other seasons. While the particulate concentration was higher during the warm season, the concentration of gaseous matter was higher in winter. Dry deposition flux was calculated by using reported deposition velocities and concentration of pollutants measured in this study. The dry deposition velocities used in this study for SO$_2$, SO$_{4}^{2}$, HNO$_3$,NO$_{3}^{-}$ and NH$_3$ were 0.29, 0.15, 2.08( 2.13 only for Anmyon-do), 0.20 and 1.00cm/sec, respectively. At Chunchon, annual sulfur flux originated from dry deposition was 384 kg/$textrm{km}^2$, and the flux from wet deposition was 782kg/$textrm{km}^2$. Dry deposition of sulfur was 33% of total sulfur deposition. The annual nitrogen flux originated from dry deposition was 1,892kg/$textrm{km}^2$. And the flux from wet deposition was 1,066kg/$textrm{km}^2$. Dry deposition of nitrogen was 64% of total nitrogen deposition. Dry deposition as well as wet deposition have to be considerd in the study on acidification of environment such as soil or watershed.

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Estimation and Characteristics of Atmospheric Deposition Flux of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the Masan and Haengam Areas of Korea (마산과 행암 지역으로 유입되는 다환방향족탄화수소(PAHs)의 대기 침적 플럭스 산정과 특성)

  • Lee Su-Jeong;Moon Hyo-Bang;Choi Min-kyu
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.121-131
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    • 2006
  • Atmospheric bulk (wet and dry) samples were monthly collected in Masan and Heangam areas of Korea, to assess the deposition flux and seasonal variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Deposition fluxes of PAHs in bulk samples were determined using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer detector (GC/MSD). Particle deposition fluxes from Masan and Haengam areas varied from 13 to $87\;g/m^2/year$ and from 5 to $52\;g/m^2/year$, respectively. PAHs deposition fluxes in atmospheric bulk samples in Masan and Haengam areas ranged from 135 to $464\;{\mu}g/m^2/year$ and from 62.2 to $194\;{\mu}g/m^2/year$, respectively. Atmospheric deposition fluxes of particles and PAHs in this study were comparable to or slightly lower values than those from different locations in Korea and other countries. PAHs profiles of atmospheric deposition bulk samples showed slightly different from two sampling areas, however the predominant species of PAHs were similar. Indeno (1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, phenanthrene compounds were the most detected PAHs in deposition bulk samples. Carcinogenic PAHs occupied the contribution of approximately $30-40\%$ of the total PAHs deposition fluxes. The non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) was used, to assess the differentiation of PAHs source between two sampling areas. The result suggests that PAHs contamination sources were different according to the location and season surveyed. There was no an apparent relationship between the PAHs deposition flux against temperature and rainfall amount, even though summer season with the highest temperature and the largest amount of precipitation showed the lowest PAHs deposition flux. Benzo(e)pyrene/benzo(a)pyrene ratio indicated that the photo-degradation process was one of important factors to the seasonal variation of PAHs with the lower deposition fluxes.

Gas/Particle Level and Dry Deposition Flux of Atmospheric PCBs

  • Yeo, Hyun-Gu;Park, Ki-Chul
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.10-16
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    • 2003
  • Atmospheric samples were conducted from September 2001 to July 2002 with GPS-l PUF sampler in rural site to concentration distributions of gas/particle PCBs and to calculate dry deposition flux of PCBs. $\Sigma$PCBs concentrations of gas/particle PCBs were 59.29$\pm$48.83, 6.56$\pm$6.59 pg/㎥, respectively. Gas contribution (%) of total PCBs (gas + particle) was 90% which existed gas phase in the atmosphere. The particle contribution (%) of PCB congeners increased relatively more of the less volatile congeners with the highest chlorine number. The correlation coefficients (r) between total PCBs and temperature ($^{\circ}C$) showed negative correlation in - 0.62 (p<0.0l) for particle phase, positive correlation in 0.63 (p<0.01) for gas phase. In other word, particle phase PCBs is enriched in colder weather which could be due to greater in corporation of condensed gas phase at low temperature. The calculated dry deposition of total PCBs (gas + particle) was 0.008, 0.008 $\mu\textrm{g}$ $m^{-2}$ da $y^{-l}$ which showed maximum dry deposition flux in December, minimum data in July Bs in the atmosphere. The calculated dry deposition fluxes of total PCBs were influenced by particle phase PCBs even though PCBs in the atmosphere were present primarily in the gas phase.e.

Estimation of Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition over the Yellow Sea Region (황해 지역의 질소와 황 침적 추정)

  • 김진영;김영성;이승복;문길주
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.217-229
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    • 2003
  • The amounts of nitrogen and sulfur deposited in the region of the Yellow Sea in both dry and wet forms were estimated by using the measurement data published in tile literature during tile past 10 years. In the estimation of dry deposition, concentrations at ground stations including those at a station on the Chinese side and concentrations from shipboard and aircraft measurements were used as well as deposition velocities. Wet deposition flux was determined at ground stations on the Korean side either by taking the flux data themselves or by calculating them from precipitation data in the literature. The dry deposition flux over the Yellow Sea was much greater than those China was confirmed from the fact that the total amount summing wet and dry depositions exceeded the emission amount from Korea. Dry deposition was principally made in the gaseous form due to a larger deposition velocity. Nevertheless, since the deposition velocity over water was smaller than that over the ground, dry deposition of oxidized nitrogen was smaller than wet deposition. As a whole, wet depositions of nitrogen and sulfur were 2.3 and 1.9 times 1arger than corresponding dry depositions, respectively.

Deposition flux of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls(DLPCBs) in urban environment of Busan (도심 지역의 다이옥신류 폴리염화비페닐류의 침적 플럭스)

  • Mun, Hyo-Bang;Lee, Su-Jeong;Choe, Hui-Gu;Ok, Gon
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.469-478
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    • 2004
  • Atmospheric bulk (wet and dry) samples were monthly collected in an urban environment (Daeyeon-dong) of Busan over a year, to assess the deposition flux and seasonality of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DLPCBs) using stainless steel pots. Deposition fluxes of DLPCBs in bulk samples were determined using high resolution gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Particle deposition fluxes in the urban environment varied from 23 to 98 $mg^2$/year (mean 41 $gm^2$/year). DLPCB deposition fluxes in atmospheric bulk samples ranged from 0.09 to 0.77 ng-$TEQ/m^2$/year (mean 0.35 ng-$TEQ/m^2$/year). Seasonal atmospheric deposition fluxes of DLPCBs were high in winter and low in summer. Atmospheric deposition fluxes of particles and DLPCBs in this study were comparable to or slightly lower values than those of different locations in the world. Monthly DLPCB profiles in deposition bulk samples were similar over a year. Non-ortho PCBs were higher contributions to the total DLPCBs fluxes than mono-ortho PCBs. In particular, PCB 126 had the highest concentrartion (>75%) in all deposition samples, followed by PCB 169 and PCB 156. A highly positive correlation was found among the deposition fluxes of DLPCB species, suggesting the possibility of that the DLPCB contamination originated from one source. The deposition fluxes of DLPCBs were not significantly correlated with temperature and the amount of precipitation even though the summer season with the highest temperature and the largest amount of precipitation showed the lowest DLPCB deposition flux.

IDENTIFICATION OF POSSIBLE MERCURY SOURCES AND ESTIMATION OF MERCURY WET DEPOSITION FLUX IN LAKE ONTARIO FROM LAKE ONTARIO ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION STUDY (LOADS)

  • Han, Young-Ji
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.306-315
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    • 2005
  • Total gas phase mercury (TGM) concentrations and event wet-only precipitation for Hg were collected for nine months (from April, 2002 to Dec., 2002) at Sterling, NY on the shoreline of Lake Ontario. TGM concentrations measured in this study ($3.02{\pm}2.14\;ng/m^3$) were in somewhat high range compared to other background sites. Using simplified quantitative transport bias analysis (SQTBA) possible sources affecting high Hg concentration in Sterling was identified, and they are coal-fired power plants located in southern NY and Pennsylvania. Wet deposition measured at Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) sites including Pt. Petre and Egbert, ON were compared with data obtained at the Sterling to estimate the total mercury wet deposition flux to Lake Ontario. The wet deposition flux was calculated to be the highest at the Sterling site ($7.94\;{\mu}g/m^2$ from April, 2002 to Dec. 2002) and the lowest at the Egbert ($3.92\;{\mu}g/m^2$), due to the both the difference in precipitation depth and Hg concentration in the precipitation. The deposition measured at the Sterling site is similar to Lake Michigan deposition of $6-14\;{\mu}g/m^2$ (converted for ninth months) measured for Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study (LMMBS).

The Study on the Seasonal Variations and Chemical Compositions of Atmospheric Deposition Flux Measured with Dustfall around Tae-an peninsula (태안반도주변 강하분진량의 계절변화와 그 성상에 관한 연구)

  • Chun, Sang-Ki;Kim, Yong-Chul;Lee, Sung-Chul
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.127-133
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    • 1998
  • The atmospheric deposition flux was measured with dustfall from July of 1997 to July of 1998 at nine sampling sites located in Tae-an peninsula to examine the seasonal variations. The results showed that the average dry deposition was higher in spring than the other seasons. Thus, it is considered that yellow sand is one major source of the additional deposition flux in spring. There also appeared the higher measurement of deposition at the sites nearby road (like Hagampo, Bangali and Sinduri) in summer, and it is assumed that the heavy traffic caused by summer visitors was the main factor of that. For more accurate study, the qualitiative analysis should be taken on the deposited materials.

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