• Title, Summary, Keyword: Descriptive statistics

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Comparison of Efficiency of Learning Descriptive Statistics with Computer Software (소프트웨어를 이용한 기술통계 교육의 효과 비교)

  • 송필원
    • Journal of the Korean School Mathematics Society
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.45-63
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    • 2003
  • This study is a research about the effect on achievement, retention and attitude of learning descriptive statistics with the computer software. For this study, 60 students are randomly divided two groups, one is an experimental group using software, the other one is a control group using lecture type of learning statistics. For the analysis, both groups are divided three subgroups according to mathematical ability. Also the topic "descriptive statistics" is divided by 5 subtopics. The test is divided three parts(computation, concept and application) according to knowledge type. The attitude toward statistics is investgated with questionaire and interview with both groups. The achievement test is taken after 8 class periods. The retention test were administered together six weeks after achievement test. The experimental group achieved significantly better than in concept type while the control group performed significantly better than the experimental group in computation type. With respect to the attitude toward statistics, lower ability students may have been negatively affected by the use of software.

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Middle School Students' Statistical Inference Engaged in Comparing Data Sets (자료집합 비교 활동에서 나타나는 중학교 학생들의 통계적 추리(statistical inference)에 대한 연구)

  • Park, Min-Sun;Park, Mi-Mi;Lee, Kyeong-Hwa;Ko, Eun-Sung
    • School Mathematics
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.599-614
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    • 2011
  • According to prior research studies, comparison of two data sets promote informal and formal statistical reasoning, which may mediate descriptive and inferential statistics. However, there has been relatively little attention given to the mediation of both descriptive and inferential statistics. We attempted to identify which statistical concepts or factors students used and how they applied concepts or factors to make decisions when they compared data sets. We also investigated the characteristics and changes of the view of concepts and factors. As a result, we identified that students paid attention to data value, center, spread, and sample, which are important factors of inferential statistics. Students' understanding of each factors were sometimes appropriate for inferential statistics, but sometimes not. From the results, we suggest instructional ideas for a task which can connect descriptive and inferential statistics.

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A quantitative analysis of the use of statistics in library and information science (문헌정보학 분야의 통계기법 사용에 관한 계량적 연구)

  • 사공철;최정희
    • Journal of Korean Library and Information Science Society
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    • v.20
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    • pp.31-60
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    • 1993
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze quantitatively the use of statistics, especially inferential statistics, in library and information science. Thus this study compared the use of statistics in library and information science with it in social work and education. The results of this study are as follows: First, the result is that, when the proportions of articles in each of the three categories of use are compared, library and information science is deficient in the use of inferential statistics and unusually productive of articles in 'No Statistics' category and 'Descriptive Statistics Only' category. Second, ANOVA showed no significant difference in the means for number of articles with no statistics and for articles with descriptive statistics only, but did show a statistically significant difference for the means for number of articles with inferential statistics. That is, the use of inferential statistics in library and information science was very less than the other subject areas. Third, a comparison of the numbers of various inferential statistics for each of the three subject areas indicated that the differences were not significant. This fact means that the quality of inferential statistics used in library and information science was similar to the other subjects.

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The consideration for methods of statistical analysis about the thesis published in the journal of korean oriental medical Ophthalmology & Otolaryngology & Dermatology from 2003 to 2005 (2003년부터 2005년까지 안이비인후피부과 학회지에 게재된 논문들의 통계적 분석 방법에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Keoo-Seok;Nam, Hae-Jung;Park, Owe-Suk;Kim, Hee-Jeong;Cha, Jae-Hoon;Kim, Yoon-Bum
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.134-145
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    • 2006
  • Objective : This study was carried out to investigate what type of assumption and conditions are needed for the application of various statistical techniques such as descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance, correlation analysis, regression analysis and chi-square test and to evaluate that they are used correctly in the research process. Methods : One more methods of statistical analysis were used in 91 papers among 162 papers selected from the journal of Korean oriental medical Ophthalmology & Otolaryngology & Dermatology from April 2003 to December 2005. So we analysed the type of statistical analysis method in 91 papers(clinical and experimental study) and assessed the their validity of statistical techniques by the check list consisting of 34 items(3 items for validity assessment of descriptive statistics, 6 items for t-test, 7 items for analysis of variance, correlation analysis and regression analysis, respectively, 4 items for chi-square test) Results : 1. The type of 65(40%) cases is experimental trial, the type of 55(34%) cases is case report, the type of 26(16%) cases is clinical trial and the type of 16(10%) cases is review, in 91 papers using statistical techniques among 162 papers selected from the journal of Korean oriental medical Ophthalmology & Otolaryngology & Dermatol-ogy from April 2003 to December 2005. 2. One more methods of statistical analysis were used in the experimental and clinical study. When we classified 125 units using statistical analysis methods in 91 papers according to statistical techniques such as descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance, correlation analysis, regression analysis and chi-square test, the number of independent sample t-test is 33(26%), the number of only descriptive statistics is 28(22%), the number of independent sample t-test is 33(26%), the number of only descriptive statistics is 28(22%), the number of one way ANOVA is 15(12%), the number of non-parametric test 10(8%). 3. After carrying out one way ANOVA, the number of using multiple comparison methods is 15(Scheffe:6(26%), Duncan:4(17%), Dunnett:3(13%), Tukey:2(9%)) out of 23 (total case carrying out one way ANOVA). 8(35%) out of 23 did not enforce multiple comparison methods after carrying out one way ANOVA. 4. From the assessment of validity about 63 cases using statistical techniques(except descriptive statistics), 5(8%) cases are proper, the other 58(92%) are improper, so we recognized a serious misuse of statistical application in our journal. 5. The number of case below 10 sample size in experimental and clinical study(except descriptive statistics) is 31(34%) and frequent. Also the number of case containing no mention of sample size is 41(45%, including culture study). 6. For example of statistical error, there are wrong choice of statistical technique, lack of check on standard assumption(such as standard distribution, equivariance, independence), and so on. Conclusions : We investigated the validity of statistical analysis methods in our journal by check list consisting of 34 items and suggested correct statistical analysis methods. We should practice the spread of education about statistical analysis methods and precis application, enhance objectivity and reliability of our thesis and further correspond with purpose of scientific study.

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Statistical Methods Used in Articles of the Korean Journal of Acupuncture (경락경혈학회지 게재논문에 사용된 통계방법)

  • Kim, Jung-Eun;Kang, Kyung-Won;Lee, Min-Hee;Lee, Sanghun
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2013
  • Objectives : The purpose of the present study was to examine statistical methods used in articles published on the Korean Journal of Acupuncture from 2007 through 2012. Methods : Statistical methods and statistical packages used in original articles applied with descriptive statistics or inferential statistics were organized. Results : Out of a total of 195 original articles, 18 articles used descriptive statistics only and 177 articles used inferential statistics. 142 articles used 12 types of statistical packages. SPSS was used most at 97 times(63.4%). The number of descriptive statistical methods used was a total of 417 and among them 193 were presented as tables(46.3%) and 224 were presented as graphs(53.7%). The number of inferential statistics applied was a total of 256 and analysis of variance was used most at 90 times(35.2%). The number of parametric statistical methods used was a total of 170(75.6%) and that of nonparametric statistical methods used was a total of 55(24.4%). Analysis of variance and two sample t-test were most employed in both clinical and non-clinical research. The number of multiple comparison methods applied was a total of 67 and the number of Scheffe methods among them was most at 26 times(37.7%). Conclusions : In the present study, statistical methods used in the journal over the last six years were examined. The result of this study is considered to be a basic material to be referred to when evaluating the quality of the medical journal.

Analysis of Statistical Methods Currently used in Toxicology Journals

  • Na, Jihye;Yang, Hyeri;Bae, SeungJin;Lim, Kyung-Min
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.185-191
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    • 2014
  • Statistical methods are frequently used in toxicology, yet it is not clear whether the methods employed by the studies are used consistently and conducted based on sound statistical grounds. The purpose of this paper is to describe statistical methods used in top toxicology journals. More specifically, we sampled 30 papers published in 2014 from Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Archives of Toxicology, and Toxicological Science and described methodologies used to provide descriptive and inferential statistics. One hundred thirteen endpoints were observed in those 30 papers, and most studies had sample size less than 10, with the median and the mode being 6 and 3 & 6, respectively. Mean (105/113, 93%) was dominantly used to measure central tendency, and standard error of the mean (64/113, 57%) and standard deviation (39/113, 34%) were used to measure dispersion, while few studies provide justifications regarding why the methods being selected. Inferential statistics were frequently conducted (93/113, 82%), with one-way ANOVA being most popular (52/93, 56%), yet few studies conducted either normality or equal variance test. These results suggest that more consistent and appropriate use of statistical method is necessary which may enhance the role of toxicology in public health.

A Kernel Estimator of Hazard Ratio (위험비(危險比)의 커널추정량(推定量))

  • Choi, Myong-Hui;Lee, In-Suk;Song, Jae-Kee
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.79-90
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    • 1992
  • We consider hazard ratio as a descriptive measure to compare the hazard experience of a treatment group with that of a control group with censored survival data. In this paper, we propose a kernel estimator of hazard ratio. The uniform consistency and asymptotic normality of a kernel estimator are proved by using counting process approach via martingale theory and stochastic integrals.

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Statistical Errors of Articles Published in the Journal of Oriental Rehabilitation Medicine(I) (한방재활의학과학회지의 통계적 오류에 관한 고찰(I))

  • Park, Tae-Yong;Heo, Tae-Young;Shin, Byung-Cheul
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.105-130
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to assess the statistical methods errors used in the journal of Oriental Rehabilitation Medicine(JORM) and to identify the types of errors in statistical analysis. Methods : We reviewed quantitative articles that were published in the JORM from January 2005 through October 2009. Those were not used by statistical analysis such as literature studies, case study, review articles were not included in this analysis. A total of 296 articles was reviewed. We evaluated the adequacy and the validity of the statistical techniques with our checklist established be modified Lee's checklist, and three statistical evaluators assessed together to minimize bias. Results : Of the 222 articles, 213 were used in inferential and descriptive statistics. Of those 80% of articles adopting descriptive and inferential statistics were detected having statistical errors. One articles used 1.7 statistical method unit generally. Most frequently employed statistics were student t-test, one way ANOVA. pearson correlation analysis, Mann-whitney U test, paired t-test, and chi-square test in their order. However, most frequent statistics having errors were similar in order. The most common statistic errors were as follow: 1. absence of normality test, 2. misuse between paired test and unpaired test, 3. wrong choice of repeated measures analysis without consideration of time variables, 4, increase of Type I error by using inappropriate multiple test, 5. inappropriate application of discrete or categorical data instead of continuous data in correlation analysis, 6. poor consideration of basic consumption in chi-square test, 7. confusion between frequency comparison and average comparison, 8. mentioning the statistical technique without using it. Conclusions : We found various mistake or misuses in the applications of statistical methodologies in the articles published in the JORM. Careful consideration of statistical use and review from the specialist of statistics are warranted for improving the quality of JORM.

Factors Related to the Quality of Life of the Elderly (노인의 삶의 질 영향 요인)

  • Kim, Kwuy-Bun;Sok, So-Hyune R.
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.331-340
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to examine the factors related to quality of life in elderly. Methods: This was a descriptive correlation study. The subjects were 356 elderly over 65 years old. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and multiple regression with a SAS statistics. Results: The predictors of quality of life in elderly were depression, life satisfaction, self esteem, economic state, family support, perceived health state, and age. These factors explained 71.9% of the total variance. Conclusion: These findings suggest the need to develop nursing strategy to improve quality of life in elderly. To improve the quality of life in elderly, the above major influencing factors should be considered.

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Factors Influencing Yangsaeng in Middle aged women (중년여성의 양생에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Yi, Su-Jeong;Kim, Ae-Kyung
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.39-47
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study was a descriptive research to investigate the impact for middle aged women of health perception, self-efficacy, family support on Yangsaeng, a traditional Oriental way of promoting health. Method: Data were collected through questionnaires from 277 middle aged women. Collected data were analyzed using PASW Statistics 18. Analysis included descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise multiple regression. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in Yangsaeng according to average monthly household income. There was a significant positive correlation between Yangsaeng and self-efficacy, family support, and health perception. Health perception, family support, self-efficacy, and monthly income were found to be significant predictors (36%) of Yangsaeng. Conclusion: To promote Yangsaeng in middle aged women, nurses should focus on factors identified in this study when developing nursing interventions for health promotion.