• Title, Summary, Keyword: Digestibility

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Heat and High-Pressure Treatments on In Vitro Digestibility and Allergenicity of Beef Extract

  • Han, Gi-Dong
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.523-528
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    • 2006
  • The digestibility of heat- or high-pres sure-treated beef extracts was evaluated with an in vitro simulated gastric digestion model and each sample also underwent immune assay to detect its antigenicity with the sera of beef allergic patients. Heat treatment of the beef extracts considerably decreased their digestibility, whereas high-pressure treatment at 200 MPa improved their digestibility compared with the control, but the difference was not significant. The digestibility of the high pressure-treated beef extract was generally higher than that of the heat-treated samples. Depending on the degree of digestion, the degree of antigenicity of the main beef allergens decreased. On the basis of these results, we hypothesized that the allergenicity of beef could be eliminated if the allergenic proteins are sufficiently digested in the digestive organ, leading to the suggestion that the digestibility of allergenic proteins must be improved in food processing. In conclusion, high-pressure processing is a more acceptable food processing technique for beef considering its digestibility.

Effects of Dietary Energy Concentration and Lysine on the Digestible Energy Ratio for Apparent Amino Acid Digestibility in Finishing Barrows

  • Cho, S.B.;Lee, H.J.;Chung, I.B.;Long, H.F.;Lim, J.S.;Kim, Y.Y.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.232-236
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    • 2008
  • This experiment was performed to investigate the effects of two energy levels and four lysine:digestible energy (DE) ratios on the apparent digestibility of nutrients in finishing pigs. The experiment was conducted using a $2{\times}4$ randomized complete block (RCB) design with three replicates. Twenty-four cross-bred finishing barrows ((Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire)${\times}$Duroc) with an average body weight of $64.2{\pm}0.69kg$ were assigned to one of eight treatments. Each barrow was placed in an individual metabolism crate and dietary treatment and water was provided ad libitum. Diets were designed to contain lysine:ME ratios of 1.5, 1.8, 2.1 and 2.4 g/Mcal at 3.35 and 3.6 Mcal/kg of diet in a $4{\times}2$ factorial arrangement. Dry matter (DM), ash, Ca and P digestibility were not affected by energy density or lysine:DE ratios. Crude fat digestibility increased as the energy density increased from 3.35 to 3.6 Mcal of DE/kg. Increasing the lysine:DE ratio also increased crude protein digestibility. There were no interactions between energy density and lysine:DE ratio in terms of nutrient digestibility. Nitrogen excretion via feces was not affected by energy density and lysine:DE ratio, while nitrogen excretion via urine was significantly affected by energy density and lysine:DE ratio. The apparent digestibility of all amino acids except for isoluecine, arginine and aspartic acid as well as average values of essential amino (EAA), non-essential amino acids (NEAA) and total amino acid digestibility (p>0.05) were not affected by energy density. The apparent digestibility of all amino acids except for leucine, proline, alanine and tyrosine, NEAA and total amino acid digestibility were significantly affected by lysine: DE ratio (p<0.05). Interactive effects of energy and lysine:DE ratio also significantly affected amino acid digestibility except for isoleucine, alanine, cystine, leucine, phenylalanine, glutamine and proline (p<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that maintaining the appropriate lysine:DE ratio becomes more important as the energy density of the diet increases. Consequently, increasing the lysine:DE ratio can result in increased crude protein digestibility and urinary nitrogen excretion, although apparent protein digestibility and nitrogen excretion were not affected by energy density Furthermore, increasing the lysine:DE ratio also increased the apparent digestibility of essential amino acids, except for leucine, regardless of energy density. The optimum lysine:DE ratio for maximum essential amino acid digestibility of the $64.2{\pm}0.69kg$ pig is approximately 2.4 g of lysine/Mcal of DE.

Effects of exogenous phytase and xylanase, individually or in combination, and pelleting on nutrient digestibility, available energy content of wheat and performance of growing pigs fed wheat-based diets

  • Yang, Y.Y.;Fan, Y.F.;Cao, Y.H.;Guo, P.P.;Dong, B.;Ma, Y. X.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of adding exogenous phytase and xylanase, individually or in combination, as well as pelleting on nutrient digestibility, available energy content of wheat and the performance of growing pigs fed wheat-based diets. Methods: In Experiment 1, forty-eight barrows with an initial body weight of $35.9{\pm}0.6kg$ were randomly assigned to a $2{\times}4$ factorial experiment with the main effects being feed form (pellet vs meal) and enzyme supplementation (none, 10,000 U/kg phytase, 4,000 U/kg xylanase or 10,000 U/kg phytase plus 4,000 U/kg xylanase). The basal diet contained 97.8% wheat. Pigs were placed in metabolic cages for a 7-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. Nutrient digestibility and available energy content were determined. Experiment 2 was conducted to evaluate the effects of pelleting and enzymes on performance of wheat for growing pigs. In this experiment, 180 growing pigs ($35.2{\pm}9.0kg\;BW$) were allocated to 1 of 6 treatments according to a $2{\times}3$ factorial treatment arrangement with the main effects being feed form (meal vs pellet) and enzyme supplementation (0, 2,500 or 5,000 U/kg xylanase). Results: In Experiment 1, there were no interactions between feed form and enzyme supplementation. Pelleting reduced the digestibility of acid detergent fiber (ADF) by 6.4 percentage units (p<0.01), increased the digestibility of energy by 0.6 percentage units (p<0.05), and tended to improve the digestibility of crude protein by 0.5 percentage units (p = 0.07) compared with diets in mash form. The addition of phytase improved the digestibility of phosphorus (p<0.01) and calcium (p<0.01) by 6.9 and 7.6 percentage units respectively compared with control group. Adding xylanase tended to increase the digestibility of crude protein by 1.0 percentage units (p = 0.09) and increased the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (p<0.01) compared with control group. Supplementation of the xylanase-phytase combination improved the digestibility of phosphorus (p<0.01) but impaired NDF digestibility (p<0.05) compared with adding xylanase alone. In Experiment 2, adding xylanase increased average daily gain (p<0.01) and linearly improved the feed:gain ratio (p<0.01) compared with control group. Conclusion: Pelleting improved energy digestibility but decreased ADF digestibility. Adding xylanase increased crude protein digestibility and pig performance. Phytase increased the apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium. The combination of phytase-xylanase supplementation impaired the effects of xylanase on NDF digestibility.

Comparison of the Digestibility of Grain and Forage by Sheep, Red and Fallow Deer

  • Ru, Y.J.;Glatz, P.C.;Miao, Z.H.;Swanson, K.;Falkenberg, S.;Wyatt, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.800-805
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    • 2002
  • Two experiments were conducted to compare digestibility of 12 diets in sheep, red and fallow deer. No differences (p>0.05) between sheep, red and fallow deer in digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and digestible energy content for all diets were found except for the sorghum diet and medic hay. Sheep and fallow deer digested the sorghum diet better than red deer. An in vitro study showed that sheep had a lower in vitro dry matter digestibility and digestible energy content than both red and fallow deer, with a significant interaction between animal species and feed ingredient. Deer digested straws and hays better (p<0.05) than sheep. In vitro digestibility was lower (p<0.05) than in vivo digestibility, but significantly correlated with in vivo digestibility for red and fallow deer. The in vitro method for digestibility estimation has potential as a rapid feed evaluation system for deer, but needs further validation.

Effect of Stage of Maturity and Cultivars on the Digestibility of Whole Maize Plant and its Morphological Fractions

  • Firdous, R.;Gilani, A.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.8
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    • pp.1228-1233
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    • 1999
  • A study was conducted on four maize cultivars to determine the dry matter and fibre digestibility as influenced by advancing plant age. Samples of maize cultivars Akbar, Neelum, UM-81 and IZ-31 were harvested at weekly intervals/ growth stages. The samples of morphological fractions such as leaf and stem were also collected at various growth stages. Whole mixed fodder and different fractions of maize plant were analysed for their chemical composition and in vitro digestibility. The results showed that in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of whole maize plant, leaf and stem decreased significantly with advancing stage of maturity. Digestibility of NDF, ADF, hemicellulose and cellulose decreased significantly in all plant parts with advancing plant age/growth stages. Maximum values for the digestibility of dry matter and various cell wall constituents were observed in leaf, followed by whole plant and stem fractions. Cultivars were observed to have significant effect of IVDMD and digestibility of NDF, ADF and cellulose in all plant fractions. The results indicated that digestibility of maize fodder was affected by stage of maturity and cultivars. However, maturity had a greater effect on digestibility in all plant fractions than did cultivars. Dry matter contents were found to be significantly and negatively correlated with IVDMD of whole plant and its leaf and stem fractions. Based on correlations, regression equations were computed to predict IVDMD.

AMINO ACID DIGESTIBILITY TO PIGS IN VARIOUS FIBER SOURCES 2. TRUE DIGESTIBILITY OF AMINO ACIDS IN ILEAL DIGESTA AND FECES

  • Nongyao, A.;Han, In K.;Choi, Y.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.211-218
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    • 1991
  • The effects of dietary fiber on true digestibility of amino acids by growing pigs were studied, using semi-purified diets formulated from alfalfa meal, cassava leaf meal, rubber seed meal and leucacna meal at 20% level. A protein-free diet including 5% cellulose was formulated for correcting the endogenous amino acid loss. Across all the diets, arginine was the most digestible while the least at ileal level was threonine; methionine and/or histidine at fecal level respectively. The true digestibility value of amino acids at ileal level were higher than at fecal level except control diet (cellulose). The true digestibility values at ileal level were similar for all diets but differed at fecal level in different magnitude. These results indicate that undigestible compound in individual feedstuff might confound. True digestibility should be studied together for accurate diet formulation as apparent digestibility decreased when their amino acid concentration in the diet was reduced.

Evaluation of the Apparent Ileal Digestibility (AID) of Protein and Amino Acids in Nursery Diets by In vitro and In vivo Methods

  • Cho, J.H.;Kim, I.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.1007-1010
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    • 2011
  • The objective was to evaluate in vitro prediction of ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids (AA) for current nursery pig diets (n = 10) by using pepsin and pancreatin incubations. To compare in vivo ileal digestibility, forty nursery pigs (4 pigs per diet) with an initial BW of $12.2{\pm}2.7$ kg were surgically equipped with T-cannula in the distal ileum. In all cases, the values of in vitro digestibility were higher than those of in vivo digestibility (p<0.05). With regard to the relationships of essential and non essential AA (CP), the $r^2$ value was 0.76. With regard to AA, high relationships were observed in Ile, Thr, and Gly (0.85, 0.83, and 0.89, respectively). Also, there was a lower relationship for Arg, Met, Ala, Asp, Glu, Pro, Ser, and Tyr with $R^2$ values of 0.56, 0.54, 0.40, 0.54, 0.45, 0.24, 0.49, and 0.35, respectively between in vitro and in vivo digestibility. The EAA relationship ($R^2$ = 0.71) was generally higher than that of NEAA ($R^2$ = 0.50) numerically. In conclusion, there were strong linear relationships between in vivo and in vitro ileal digestibility (CP, Ile, Thr, and Gly). In vitro prediction of ileal digestibility (CP, Ile, Thr, and Gly) seems to have significant potential for practical application.

Evaluation of fat sources (lecithin, mono-glyceride and mono-diglyceride) in weaned pigs: Apparent total tract and ileal nutrient digestibilities

  • Cho, Jin-Ho;Chen, Ying Jie;Yoo, Jong-Sang;Kim, Wan-Tae;Chung, Il-Byung;Kim, In-Ho
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.130-133
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of lecithin, mono-glyceride and mono-diglyceride on apparent total tract and ileal nutrient digestibilities in nursery pigs. Twenty [(Landrace$\times$Yorkshire)$\times$ Duroc] barrows were surgically fitted with simple T-cannulas. Dietary treatments included 1) CON (basal diet: soy oil), 2) LO (lecithin 0.5%), 3) MO (mono-glyceride 0.5%), 4) MG (mono-glyceride 1.0%) and 5) MDG (mono-diglyceride 1.0%). In apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, dry matter (DM) and gross energy (GE) digestibilities of MDG treatments were higher than LO and MG treatments (p<0.05). In nitrogen (N) digestibility, LO treatment showed the lowest compared to others (p<0.05). The digestibility of crude fat was higher in MDG treatment than CON and LO treatments (p<0.05). In apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, DM digestibility was higher in MDG treatment than LO and MG treatments (p<0.05). GE digestibility was higher in MDG treatment than LO, MO and MG treatments (p<0.05). N digestibility of MDG treatment was greater than LO treatment (p<0.05). Also, the digestibility of crude fat was higher in MDG treatment than CON and LO treatments (p<0.05). In conclusion, mono-diglyceride can increase apparent total tract nutrient and apparent ileal nutrient digestibilities of DM, GE, N and crude fat.

Amino Acids and Protein Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Availability of Barley Ration in Response to Grind® Enzyme in Broiler Chickens

  • Saki, Ali Asghar;Mirzayi, S.;Ghazi, Sh.;Moini, M.M.;Naseri Harsini, R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.614-621
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    • 2010
  • Increasing accuracy of broiler diet formulation based on amino acid digestibility in comparison to application of total amino acids could lead to more feed efficiency and productivity. This experiment was conducted for determination of sampling site (excreta and ileum) and recognition of the effects of a commercial enzyme ($Grind^{(R)}$ Danisco, Finland) on metabolizable energy, protein and amino acid digestibility of barley. This study was modulated by a marker in 21-day old Arbor Acres chickens. Corn-soybean meal was used as a control diet and, in the other two treatments, barley (at a level of 40%) with and without enzyme as the test ingredient were supplemented to the basal diet. Chromic oxide was included in all diets (0.5%) as an indigestible marker. Apparent metabolizable energy (AME), corrected by nitrogen (AMEn) and apparent digestibility of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, alanine, tyrosine, valine and methionine were significantly (p<0.05) higher in feces than ileum. Protein digestibility of diet and barley was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the ileum than in feces. Apparent digestibility of tryptophan, proline, methionine, phenylalanine and lysine was increased significantly (p<0.05) by enzyme supplementation. In contrast, no response was observed in AME, AMEn, and protein digestibility of the diet and barley by enzyme supplementation. The results of this study have shown that AME and amino acid digestibility were increased in feces, in contrast an adverse effect was observed for protein digestibility of the diet and barley.

Relationship between the structure and composition of rumen microorganisms and the digestibility of neutral detergent fibre in goats

  • Liu, Kaizhen;Wang, Lizhi;Yan, Tianhai;Wang, Zhisheng;Xue, Bai;Peng, Quanhui
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.82-91
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    • 2019
  • Objective: This experiment was conducted to compare the structure and composition of ruminal microorganisms in goats with high and low neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility. Methods: Nineteen crossbred goats were used as experimental animals and fed the same total mixed rations during the 30-day pre-treatment and 6-day digestion trialperiods. All faeces were collected during the digestion period for measuring the NDF digestibility. Then, high and the low NDF digestibility individuals were chosen for the high NDF digestibility group (HFD) and low NDF digestibility group (LFD), respectively. Rumen contents were collected for total microbial DNA extraction. The V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified using universal primers of bacteria and sequenced using high-throughput sequencer. The sequences were mainly analysed by QIIME 1.8.0. Results: A total of 18,694 operational taxonomic units were obtained, within 81.98% belonged to bacteria, 6.64% belonged to archaea and 11.38% was unassigned microorganisms. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were the predominant microbial phyla in both groups. At the genus level, the relative abundance of fifteen microorganisms were significantly higher (p<0.05) and six microorganisms were extremely significantly higher (p<0.01) in LFD than HFD. Overall, 176 core shared genera were identified in the two groups. The relative abundance of 2 phyla, 5 classes, 10 orders, 13 families and 15 genera had a negative correlation with NDF digestibility, but only the relative abundance of Pyramidobacter had a positive correlation with NDF digestibility. Conclusion: There were substantial differences in NDF digestibility among the individual goats, and the NDF digestibility had significant correlation with the relative abundance of some ruminal microorganisms.