• Title, Summary, Keyword: Digestion

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A Study about the Correlation of the Angle of Costal Arch with Digestion and BMI

  • Lee, Hee-Seung;Park, Seong-Sik
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.90-95
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study is to evaluate if there is significant correlations between the angle of costal arch and digestion, and BMI(Body Mass Index). Methods : To know the correlation between digestion and the angle of costal arch, we hand-measured the angle of costal arch and made questionnaire about digestion. We analysed the data with Pearson product-moment correlation analysis using SPSS 12.0. Results : There is proportional correlation between the angle of costal arch and digestion. Also wider costal arch shows better appetite, faster speed of eating and more quantity of meal. And someone having wider costal arch has less digestion disorder after eating heavy foods or being anxious. And there is proportional relation between angle of the angle of costal arch and BMI. Conclusions : There is significant correlation between the angle of costal arch and digestion as wider costal arch can digest better. Also it has proportional relation between the angle of costal arch and BMI. We expect that further study about morphology of abdomen will develop our abdominal examination and diagnostic methods.

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Pressure Cycling Technology-assisted Protein Digestion for Efficient Proteomic Analysis

  • Choi, Hyun-Su;Lee, Sang-Kwang;Kwon, Kyung-Hoon;Yoo, Jong-Shin;Ji, Kelly;Kim, Jin-Young
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.599-604
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    • 2011
  • In typical proteomic analysis, trypsin digestion is one of the most time-consuming steps. Conventional proteomic sample preparation methods use an overnight trypsin digestion method. In this study, we compared high-pressure cycling technology (PCT) during enzyme digestion for proteome analysis to the conventional method. We examined the effect of PCT on enzyme activity at temperatures of 25, 37, and $50^{\circ}C$. Although a fast digestion (1 h) was used for the standard protein mixture analysis, the PCT-assisted method with urea showed better results for protein sequence coverage and the number of peptides identified compared with the conventional method. There was no significant difference between temperatures for PCT-assisted digestion; however, we selected PCT-assisted digestion with urea at $25^{\circ}C$ as an optimized method for fast enzyme digestion, based on peptide carbamylation at these conditions. The optimized method was used for stem cell proteome analysis. We identified 233, 264 and 137 proteins using the conventional method with urea at $37^{\circ}C$ for 16h, the PCT-assisted digestion with urea at $25^{\circ}C$ for 1 h, and the non-PCT-assisted digestion with urea at $25^{\circ}C$ for 1 h, respectively. A comparison of these results suggests that PCT enhanced the enzyme digestion by permitting better access to cleavage sites on the proteins.

Efficient Sample Digestion Method for Uranium Determination in Soil using Microwave Digestion for Alpha Spectrometry (마이크로파 용해장치를 활용한 토양 중 우라늄의 알파분광분석법)

  • Kim, Chang Jong;Cho, Yoon Hae;Kim, Dae Ji;Chae, Jung Seok;Yun, Ju Yong
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.213-218
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    • 2012
  • Alpha spectrometry has been typically used for determination of the uranium isotopes in soil. For a number of uranium analysis in soil samples, rapid sample digestion with limited quantities of mixed acid containing HF will give a contribution for effective management of uranium analysis. Microwave digestion system is evaluated for rapid sample digestion using reference uranium soil (IAEA-375 soil). For completion of 0.5 g of soil digestion by microwave, 3 ml of HF in a 10 ml of mixed acid is minimum requirement volume for completed soil digestion for 80 minutes. Microwave digestion is timely effective techniques for uranium measurement using alpha spectrometry compared to the other methods (open vessel digestion, closed vessel digestion) due to rapid sample digestion. In addition, it can be reduced the occurrence of hazardous substances by minimizing the amount of HF.

A REVIEW OF THE MICROBIAL DIGESTION OF FEED PARTICLES IN THE RUMEN

  • McAllister, T.A.;Bae, H.D.;Yanke, L.J.;Cheng, K.J.;Ha, J.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.303-316
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    • 1994
  • Microbial digestion of feed in the rumen involves a sequential attack culminating in the formation of fermentation products and microbial cells that can be utilized by the host animal. Most feeds are protected by a cuticular layer which is in effect a microbial barrier that must be penetrated or circumvented for digestion to proceed. Microorganisms gain access to digestible inner plant tissues through damage to the cuticle, or via natural cell openings (e.g., stomata) and commence digestion from within the feed particles. Primary colonizing bacteria adhere to specific substrates, divide to form sister cells and the resultant microcolonies release soluble substrates which attract additional microorganisms to the digestion site. These newly attracted microorganisms associate with primary colonizers to form complex multi-species consortia. Within the consortia, microorganisms combine their metabolic activities to produce the diversity of enzymes required to digest complex substrates (e.g., cellulose, starch, protein) which comprise plant tissues. Feed characteristics that inhibit the microbial processes of penetration, colonization and consortia formation can have a profound effect on the rate and extent of feed digestion in the rumen. Strategies such as feed processing or plant breeding which are aimed at manipulating feed digestion must be based on an understanding of these basic microbial processes and their concerted roles in feed digestion in the rumen.

Biomethanation of Sewage Sludge with Food Waste Leachate Via Co-Digestion

  • Shin, Jingyeong;Kim, Young Beom;Jeon, Jong Hun;Choi, Sangki;Park, In Kyu;Kim, Young Mo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.8
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    • pp.1513-1518
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    • 2017
  • Anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste leachate (FWL) were performed by assessing methane production and characterizing microbial communities. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of waste activated sludge (WAS) alone produced the lowest methane ($281ml\;CH_4$), but an approximately 80% increase in methane production was achieved via co-digestion of WAS and FWL ($506ml\;CH_4$). There were less differences in the diversity of bacterial communities in anaerobic digesters, while archaeal (ARC) and bacterial (BAC) amounts reflected AD performance. Compared with the total ARC and BAC amounts in the mono-digestion of WAS, the ARC and BAC amounts increased two and three times, respectively, during co-digestion of FWL and WAS. In characterized archaeal communities, the dominant ratio of hydrogenotrophic methanogens in the mono-digestion of WAS approached nearly a 1:1 ratio of the two acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens in the co-digestion of FWL and WAS. The ARC/BAC ratio in the digesters varied in the range of 5.9% to 9.1%, indicating a positive correlation with the methane production of AD.

A review of anaerobic digestion systems for biodegradable waste: Configurations, operating parameters, and current trends

  • Van, Dinh Pham;Fujiwara, Takeshi;Tho, Bach Leu;Toan, Pham Phu Song;Minh, Giang Hoang
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2020
  • With benefits to the human health, environment, economy, and energy, anaerobic digestion (AD) systems have attracted remarkable attention within the scientific community. Anaerobic digestion system is created from (bio)reactors to perform a series of bi-metabolism steps including hydrolysis/acidogenesis, acetogenesis, and methanogenesis. By considering the physical separation of the digestion steps above, AD systems can be classified into single-stage (all digestion steps in one reactor) and multi-stage (digestion steps in various reactors). Operation of the AD systems does not only depend on the type of digestion system but also relies on the interaction among growth factors (temperature, pH, and nutrients), the type of reactor, and operating parameters (retention time, organic loading rate). However, these interactions were often reviewed inadequately for the single-stage digestion systems. Therefore, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of both single-stage and multi-stage systems as well as the influence of the growth factors, operating conditions, and the type of reactor on them. From those points, the advantages, disadvantages, and application range of each system are well understood.

Development of a Dynamic System Simulating Pig Gastric Digestion

  • Chiang, C.-C.;Croom, J.;Chuang, S.-T.;Chiou, P.W.S.;Yu, B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.10
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    • pp.1522-1528
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this study was to develop a model for simulating gastric digestion in the pig. The model was constructed to include the chemical and physical changes associated with gastric digestion such as enzyme release, digestion product removal and gastric emptying. Digesta was collected from the stomach cannula of pigs to establish system parameters and to document the ability of the model to simulate gastric digestion. The results showed that the average pH of gastric digesta increased significantly from 2.47 to 4.97 after feed consumption and then decreased 140 min postprandial. The model described the decrease in pH within the pigs' stomach as $pH_t=5.182e^{-0.0014t}$, where t represents the postprandial time in minutes. The cumulative distribution function of liquid digesta was $V_t=64.509e^{0.0109t}$. The average pepsin activity in the liquid digesta was 317Anson units/mL. There was significant gastric emptying 220 min after feed consumption. The cybernetic dynamic system of gastric digestion was set according to the above data in order to compare with in vivo changes. The time course of crude protein digestion predicted by the model was highly correlated with observed in vivo digestion (r = 0.97; p = 0.0001), Model prediction for protein digestion was higher than that observed for a traditional static in vitro method (r = 0.89; p = 0.0001).

Ex vivo Digestion of Milk from Red Chittagong Cattle Focusing Proteolysis and Lipolysis

  • Islam, Mohammad Ashiqul;Ekeberg, Dag;Rukke, Elling-Olav;Vegarud, Gerd Elisabeth
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.559-567
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    • 2015
  • Ex vivo digestion of proteins and fat in Red Chittagong Cattle milk from Bangladesh was carried out using human gastrointestinal enzymes. This was done to investigate the protein digestion in this bovine breed's milk with an especial focus on the degradation of the allergenic milk proteins; ${\alpha}_{s1}$-casein and ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin and also to record the generation of peptides. Lipolysis of the milk fat and release of fatty acids were also under consideration. After 40 min of gastric digestion, all the ${\alpha}_s$-caseins were digested completely while ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin remained intact. During 120 min of duodenal digestion ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin was reduced, however, still some intact ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin was observed. The highest number of peptides was identified from ${\beta}$-casein and almost all the peptides from ${\kappa}$-casein and ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin were identified from the gastric and duodenal samples, respectively. No lipolysis was observed in the gastric phase of digestion. After 120 min of duodenal digestion, milk fat showed 48% lipolysis. Medium (C10:0 to C16:0) and long (${\geq}C17:0$) chain fatty acids showed 6% to 19% less lipolysis than the short (C6:0 to C8:0) chain fatty acids. Among the unsaturated fatty acids $C18:1{\sum}others$ showed highest lipolysis (81%) which was more than three times of $C18:2{\sum}all$ and all other unsaturated fatty acids showed lipolysis ranging from 32% to 38%. The overall digestion of Bangladeshi Red Cattle milk was more or less similar to the digestion of Nordic bovine milk (Norwegian Red Cattle).

Application of a Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion Process to Industrial Waste Activated Sludge Treatment

  • Kim, Young-Kee;Eom, Yong-Suk;Oh, Byung-Keun;Lee, Won-Hong;Choi, Jeong-Woo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.570-576
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    • 2001
  • Thermophilic aerobic bacteria were applied in the degradation of industrial waste activated sludge (WAS) on a laboratory scale expreiment. The performance of digestion was estimated by measuring the reduction of total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and total organic carbon (TOC). Among three strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus and three strains of Thermus species, B. stearothemophilus ATCC 31197 showed the best overall efficiency level for the degradation of industrial WAS, which was collected from a wastewater treatment plant in an oil refinery factory. Industrial WAS coul be successfully detraded in a batch digestion with ATCC 31197. The stability of the digestion process with ATCC 31197 was successfully verified by semi-continuous (fill-and-draw) digestion experiment. From the results of this study, it was shown that the thermophilic aerobic digestion process with ATCC 31197 could efficiently be applied to the degradation of industrial WAS.

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The Study about Morphology of Mouth according to Sasang Constitution and its Correlation with Digestion (사상체질별 입의 형태와 소화기능과의 상관성에 관한 연구)

  • Ban, Duk-Jin;Park, Seong-Sik
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.127-138
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    • 2009
  • 1. Objectives To examine appearances is essential of diagnosing Sasang constitution. It has been studied in various way, we focus the correlation between morphology of mouth and digestion. 2. Methods We have collected 231 cases of participants who were diagnosed sasnag constitution and measured morphology of mouth and analyzed the correlation between morphology of mouth and digestion. 3. Results and conclusions In result of analyzing the relation between morphology of mouth and digestion, morphology of mouth have correlation with digestion. And also morphology of mouth have correlation with digestion according to sex and sasang constitution.

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