• Title, Summary, Keyword: Digestion

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Introduction of Kjeldahl Digestion Method for Nitrogen Stable Isotope Analysis (δ15N-NO3 and δ15NNH4) and Case Study for Tracing Nitrogen Source (Kjeldahl 증류법을 활용한 질산성-질소 및 암모니아성-질소 안정동위원소비 분석 및 질소오염원 추적 사례 연구)

  • Kim, Min-Seob;Park, Tae-Jin;Yoon, Suk-Hee;Lim, Bo-La;Shin, Kyung-Hoon;Kwon, Oh-Sang;Lee, Won-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.147-152
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    • 2015
  • Nitrogen (N) loading from domestic, agricultural and industrial sources can lead to excessive growth of macrophytes or phytoplankton in aquatic environment. Many studies have used nitrogen stable isotope ratios to identify anthropogenic nitrogen in aquatic systems as a useful method for studying nitrogen cycle. In this study to evaluate the precision and accuracy of Kjeldahl processes, two reference materials (IAEA-NO-3, N-1) were analyzed repeatedly. Measured the ${\delta}^{15}N-NO_3$ and ${\delta}^{15}N-NH_4$ values of IAEA-NO-3 and IAEA-N-1 were $4.7{\pm}0.2$‰ and $0.4{\pm}0.3$‰, respectively, which are within recommended values of analytical uncertainties. Also, we investigated spatial patterns of ${\delta}^{15}N-NO_3$ and ${\delta}^{15}N-NH_4$ in effluent plumes from a waste water treatment plant in Han River, Korea. ${\delta}^{15}N-NO_3$ and ${\delta}^{15}N-NH_4$ values are enriched at downstream areas of water treatment plant suggesting that dissolved nitrogen in effluent plumes should be one of the main N sources in those areas. The current study clarifies the reliability of Kjeldahl analytical method and the usefulness of stable isotopic techniques to trace the contamination source of dissolved nitrogen such as nitrate and ammonia.

Anaerobic Co-Digestion Characteristics of Food Waste Leachate and Sewage Sludge (BMP test를 통한 음폐수와 하수슬러지의 병합소화 특성 평가)

  • Lee, Suyoung;Yoon, Young-Sam;Kang, Jun-Gu;Kim, Ki-Heon;Shin, Sun Kyoung
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.21-29
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    • 2016
  • We mix food waste leachate and sewage sludge by the proportion of 1:9, 3:7 and 5:5. It turns out that they produced 233, 298 and 344 $CH_4{\cdot}mL/g{\cdot}VS$ of methane gas. The result suggests that as the mixing rate of food waste leachate rises, the methane gas productions increases as well. And more methane gas is made when co-digesting sewage sludge and food waste leachate based on the mixing ratio, rather than digesting only sewage sludge alone. Modified Gompertz and Exponential Model describe the BMP test results that show how methane gas are produced from organic waste. According to the test, higher the mixing rate of food waste leachate is, higher the methane gas productions is. The mixing ratio of food waste leachate that produces the largest volume of methane gas is 3:7. Modified Gompertz model and Exponential model describe the test results very well. The correlation values($R^2$) that show how the results of model prediction and experiment are close is 0.92 to 0.98.

Chemical Properties and Immuno-Stimulating Activities of Crude Polysaccharides from Enzyme Digests of Tea Leaves (녹차 효소 처리 다당의 화학적 특성 및 면역증진 활성)

  • Park, Hye-Ryung;Suh, Hyung Joo;Yu, Kwang-Won;Kim, Tae Young;Shin, Kwang-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.664-672
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    • 2015
  • In order to develop new immuno-stimulating ingredients from mature leaves of green tea, crude polysaccharides were isolated from pectinase digests of tea leaves (green tea enzyme digestion, GTE-0), after which their immuno-stimulating activities and chemical properties were examined. GTE-0 mainly contained neutral sugars (54.9%) such as glucose (14.2%), arabinose (12.2%), rhamnose (11.1%), and galacturonic acid (45.1%), which are characteristic of pectic polysaccharides. The anti-complementary activity of GTE-0 was similar to that of polysaccharide K (used as positive control). Number of morphologically activated macrophages was significantly increased in the GTE-0-treated group. GTE-0 significantly augmented $H_2O_2$ and reactive oxygen species production by murine peritoneal macrophage cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas production of nitric oxide showed the highest activity at a dose of $100{\mu}g/mL$ among all tested concentrations. Murine peritoneal macrophages stimulated with GTE-0 showed enhanced production of various cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factors-${\alpha}$ in a dose-dependent manner. Further, GTE-0 induced higher phagocytic activity in a dose-dependent manner. In ex vivo assay for cytolytic activity of murine peritoneal macrophages, GTE-0-treated group showed significantly higher activity compared to the untreated group at an effector-to-target cell ratio of 20. The above results lead us to conclude that polysaccharides from leaves of green tea have a potent immuno-stimulating effect on murine peritoneal macrophage cells.

Study on the Whitening Efficacy and Skin Barrier by Lysosome-related Organelle Extract (LOE) from Egg White (난백(Egg White)에서 추출한 리소좀 추출물(LOE)의 미백 효능 및 피부장벽에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Da Hee;Jeon, Gyeongchan;Yoon, Jihee;Min, Jiho;Park, Si Jun;Kim, Jung Su;Hwang, Ee Taek;Hwang, Hyung Seo
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.389-397
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    • 2019
  • Lysosomes are cellular organelles involved in energy metabolism and intracellular digestion in eukaryotic cells, including protease, nuclease, glycosidase, lipase, and phosphatase. Our previous studies have confirmed that egg white lysosomes had melanin decolorization and reduction activity. However, there have been few studies on skin barrier and skin regeneration as well as inhibition of melanin production by egg white lysosomes on B16F10 melanocyte cell line. In this study, we attempted to identify the effect of lysosome-related organelle extract (LOE) extracted from egg white on the melanin content change and skin barrier enhancement in cells. First, cytotoxicity evaluation was performed on B16F10 melanocyte cell line to confirm the whitening efficacy of LOE. Cytotoxicity by LOE was not observed at 20 mg/mL concentration, but cytotoxicity was observed at 40 mg/mL, and the maximum concentration value was set to 20 mg/mL in all subsequent experiments. LOE samples of 5, 10, 20 mg/mL inhibited melanin production by 61.5 ± 4.0%, 61.4 ± 7.3%, 58.3 ± 8.3%, respectivly, compared to α-MSH, a negative control in melanin contents assay. MITF mRNA expression was reduced by about 39.7 ± 3.2% compared to the α-MSH treatment group. TEER assay using HaCaT showed that LOE increased TEER resistance in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that LOE is involved in strengthening the skin barrier. LOE also increased the TEER resistance under TNF-α treatment. Skin barrier was normally restored by LOE even under the condition of inflammation. LOE had a positive effect on cell division and cell migration promotion, confirmed by the observing the effect of promoting cell migration by LOE through cell migration assay. Taken together, we expect that LOE can be developed as a cosmetic material to enhance has effects on skin regeneration and skin barrier strengthening as well as whitening function if enzyme stabilization and formulation technology are combined.

A Study on Fat Content in Commercial Retort Foods - Crude Fat, Saturated Fatty Acid and Trans Fatty Acid - (시판 레토르트식품의 지방함량 조사 - 조지방, 포화지방, 트랜스지방산 중심으로 -)

  • Jeong, Da-Un;Im, June;Kim, Cheon-Hoe;Kim, Young-Kyoung;Park, Yoon-Jin;Om, Ae-Son
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.652-659
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to provide nutrition information to consumers by analyzing crude fat, saturated and trans fatty acids in commercial retort foods (n=70). The following sauce products of curries (n=21) and black-bean-sauces (n=16), other sauces (n=17) and instant cooking foods (n=16) were collected. Crude fat contents were quantified with the Rose-Gottlieb method using acid digestion. While saturated and trans fatty acids were examined by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (FID). Crude fat, saturated and trans fatty acid content ranges were $0.47{\pm}0.42{\sim}12.80{\pm}0.07g/100g$, $0.24{\pm}0.02{\sim}17.41{\pm}0.41g/100g$, $0.00{\pm}0.00{\sim}0.46{\pm}0.05g/100g$, respectively. Maximum recovery of analysis values was crude fat (119.7%), saturated fat (119%) and trans fatty acid (90%) compared the actual amounts based on the reference value indicated on the nutrition label. The analyzed samples were found to be compliant with nutrition label standard, because the contents of crude fat, saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid were less than 120% of the reference value indicated on the nutrition label in retort foods. Therefore, the nutrition information on retort foods available to consumers was found to be trustworthy.

Quality Characteristics and Retarding Retrogradation of Sponge Cakes containing Red Yeast Rice(Monascus nuruk) Flour (홍국(Monascus nuruk) 분말을 첨가한 스폰지 케이크의 품질 특성 및 노화 억제 분석)

  • Song, Ka-Young;Kim, Jong-Hee;O, Hyeon Bin;Zhang, Yangyang;Kim, Young-Soon
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.11-21
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    • 2016
  • This study investigated the quality characteristics and retarding retrogradation of sponge cakes made with red yeast rice (RYR) flour. RYR (Monascus nuruk) is known to help digestion, smooth blood flow, and have anti-cancer, anti-microbial, and inhibitory effects against biosynthesis of cholesterol and blood pressure. This studys aim' was to find the optimal proportion of RYR flour in sponge cake. RYR sponge cakes were prepared with various levels (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) replacement of wheat flour and were designated as the control (without RYR), RYR5, RYR10, RYR15 and RYR20 respectively. Specific gravity was the lowest in RYR15 at 0.57, and the baking loss rate was not significantly different among the samples (p<0.05). The dough yield was the highest in RYR15 at 96.61. The moisture contents was highest in order, control, RYR5, and RYR15 at 28.67%, 28.18%, and 26.82% respectively. The L-value of crust tended to increase according to the level of RYR, but the L-value of crumb decreased in accorddance with the the content of RYR. The a-value of crust also decreased according to the level of RYR, although the a-value of crumb increased in response to higher levels of RYR. The b-value tended to decrease with increases of RYR (p<0.05). RYR5 exhibited the highest pH at 8.63, compared with RYR15 (8.57). The hardness, which was measured after cooling for 1 hour, was the lowest in RYR15 at $163.33g/cm^2$ and the springiness was not different significantly (p<0.05). Cohesiveness was the highest in RYR10 at 133.06%. The chewiness was the highest in RYR10 at $391.63g{\cdot}cm$ and lowest in RYR15 ast $169.62g{\cdot}cm$. Avrami equation showed that RYR15 and RYR20 had the lowest Avrami exponent (n) at 0.0664 and 0.4983 respectively. Time constant (1/k) was the highest in RYR15 at 200.00. Sensory evaluation revealed that RYR15 was the highest in color (5.50), flavor (4.95), sweetness (4.90), chewiness (4.75), and overall acceptability (4.60).

Effects of Co-digestate application on the Soil Properties, Leachate and Growth Responses of Paddy Rice (통합혐기소화액의 시용이 벼 생육 및 논토양 환경에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Seung-Gil;Shin, Joung-Du;Kwon, Soon-Ik;Park, Woo-Kyun;Lee, Deog-Bae;Kim, Jeong-Gyu
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 2010
  • Livestock manures have a potential to be a valuable resource with an efficient treatment. In Korea, 42 million tons of livestock manure were generated in 2008, and 84 % of them were used for compost and liquid fertilizer production. Recently recycling of livestock manure for biogas production through anaerobic digestion is increasing, but its utilization in agriculture is still uncertified. In this study, there was applied co-digestate to the paddy for rice cultivation based on N supplement. Co-digestate was fertilizer fermented with pig slurry and food waste combined with the ratio of 70:30(v:v) in its volumetric basis. For assessing the safety of co-digestate, it was monitored the contents of co-digestate for seasonal variation, resulted in no potential harm to the soil and plant by heavy metals. The results showed that soil applied with co-digestate was increased in exchangeable potassium, copper and zinc mainly due to the high rate of pig slurry in co-digestate applied. Considering high salt content due to the combination with food waste, strict quality assurances are needed for safe application to arable land though it has valuable fertilizer nutrient. Leachate after treatment showed that the concentration of nitrate nitrogen washed out within two weeks. Considering the salt accumulation results in soil, it is highly recommended that the application rate of co-digestate should not exceed the crop fertilization rate based on N supplement. With these results, it was concluded that co-digestate could be used as an alternative fertilizer for chemical fertilizer. More study is needed for the long-term effects of co-digestate application on the soil and water environment.

The Effect of Ammonia and Sodium Hydroxide Treatment on the Storage and Rumen Microbial Fiber Degradation in Silage of Rice Straw Contaminated Mycotoxin (암모니아 및 가성소다 처리가 Mycotoxin 오염 사료용 볏짚의 사일레지 저장 및 반추위 미생물의 섬유소 분해에 미치는 영향)

  • Sung, Ha Guyn
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.80-86
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted to research on the efficacy of chemical treatment as an effective method for reducing mycotoxin in rice straw silage. As a chemical treatment method, ammonia and sodium hydroxid were treated at 4% level of rice straws contaminated with mycotoxin, and the effects of silage storage on fungal toxin reduction, fermentation quality, and fiber digestion were evaluated. Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and fumonisin B1, B2 as well as deoxynivalenol were not detected in all experimental groups, and ochratoxin A and zearalenone were detected. Ochratoxin A was detected lower in the chemical treatment than control (41.23 g / kg) (p<0.05). Zearalenone showed lower results in sodium hydroxide treatment (297.44 ㎍ / kg) than control (600.33 ㎍ / kg) and ammonia treatment (376.00 ㎍ / kg) (p<0.05). The pH of rice straw silage was the lowest in ammonia treatment and the highest in sodium hydroxide treatment (p<0.05). The lactic acid contents of control and ammonia treatments were similar, but sodium hydroxide treatment was the lowest (p<0.05). Propionic acid was higher in the control than in the chemical treatments (p<0.05), and showed similar contents in the ammonia and sodium hydroxide treatment. Both the rumen microbial degradation rate of NDF and ADF showed the highest in sodium hydroxide treatment, followed by ammonia treatment, and the control showed the lowest level (p<0.05). Therefore, the results of this study are demonstrated to have a good effect on the treatment of ammonia and sodium hydroxide to reduce the mycotoxins and increase the rumen microbial degradation rate in the rice straw silage. Sodium hydroxide treatment was more effective in reducing mycotoxins and improving fiber degradation rate than ammonia treatment, but it is thought to have an inefficient effect on silage fermentation in rice straw silage.

Effects of Replacing Rice Straw with By-products of Medical Herbs on the in vitro Fermentation Characteristics (한약재 부산물의 대체 수준이 in vitro 발효특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Shin-Ja;Shin, Nyeon-Hak;An, Jung-Jun;Chu, Gyo-Moon;Moon, Yea-Hwang;Lee, Sung-Sill
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.69-79
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to estimate effects of by-products of medical herbs replacing rice straw on in vitro fermentation characteristics. Each trial was composed of five treatments including medical herbs : rice straw (%) = 20 : 80 (T1), 40 : 60 (T2), 50 : 50 (T3), 100 : 0 (T4) and the control. Each treatment had eight fermentation times (3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours) with three replications. The gas production and DM degradation were significantly (P<0.05) increased by supplementation, especially T4, during the whole fermentation periods. Methane production increased along with addition of by-products similar to the gas production and DM degradation. The pH values ranged from 5.39 to 6.80 and were significantly (P<0.05) decreased by supplementation of by-products of medical herbs. Microbial growth rates reached the peak at between 36 and 48h, thereafter tended to decrease. Although there were no significant differences in the enzyme activities, there was a tendency of increase in T4 treatment. From above results, the replacement levels, particularly 100% replacement of rice straw by by-products of medical herbs, resulted in improving the in vitro fermentation characteristics such as increasing gas production, microbial growth and DM degradation. Also it may help digestion by increasing enzyme activities.

A bibliographic study on medical science ancient period (上古時代) and the era of the old-Korea (古朝鮮時代) (상고시대(上古時代)와 고조선시대(古朝鮮時代)의 의학(醫學)에 관(關)한 문헌적(文獻的) 고찰(考察))

  • Kwon, Hak Cheol;Park, Chan-Guk
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.3
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    • pp.218-247
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    • 1989
  • As mentioned above, I got the next conclusion since I had considered the medical contents of the ancient period(上古時代) and the era of the old-Korea(古朝鮮時代) through several bibliographic records. 1. There were Pung-baeg(風伯), Uh-sa(雨師), Un-sa(雲師) that were the names of the governmental officials during the ancient period of Whan-ung(桓雄). Among them, Uh-sa specially managed the treatment for diseases. When we think of the significance of Pung(風)-which means the winds, Uh(雨)-which means the rain, Un(雲)-which means of clouds, we will find out that the human life will be affected by all kinds of phenomena of the nature. So I can infer that ancestries could prevent and treat diseases with adjusting them tn the changes in the weather. 2. There were five government officials(五事) in the ancient period of Whan-ung(桓雄上古時代). They are Uh-ga(牛加), Ma-ga(馬加), Ku-ga(狗加), Cheo-ga(猪加) and Yang-ga(羊加), and had charges of five important duties. Among them, Cheo-ga was set to a charge of treatment for diseases. So we can notice that there existed people who treated for diseases professionally. When we think of the meanings of Uh(牛)-which intends cows or bulls. Ma(馬)-which intends horses, Ku(狗)-which intends dogs, Cheo(猪)-which intends wild boars and Yang(羊)-which intends sheep, we can see that livestocks would be raised at that time, and they came to have more chances to digest meat. Since the digestion of meat became to be a burden on the stomach and the intestines, it might cause a lot of indigestive troubles. 3. When I compared Tan-gun Pal-ga(檀君八加) with the Oh-ga(五加) in the ancient period of Whan-ung(桓雄上古時代), I could tell that the community of Tan-gun's period is more advanced and specialized than one of Whan-ung's. When I think of the next sentence ; "The Prince Imperial, Bu-u(夫虞) become to be a Ro-ga(鷺加), who treat for diseases professionally.", I am sure that the treatment for diseases was more importment than any other things, because he was the third son of Tan-gun(檀君). 4. According to Tan-gun(檀君) mythology, Whan-ung(桓雄) came down from the heaven of the pure Yang(純陽) to the earth and then changed into a man who had had more Yang(陽) than Yin(陰). And a bear came up from the underground(or the cave) to the ground and then changed into a women who had had more Yin(陰) than Yang(陽). So both of them became to hold together. This story implicated that ancestors had taken a serious view of each of them, namely the ancestors didn't give the ascendance to the one side of them, and made much account of the mutual harmony. So I am sure that this fact coincided with the basic theories of oriental medical science. To refer to two proverbs of Tan-gun mythology that are "Ki-Sam-Chil-Il(忌三七日)" which means caring for twenty one days, and "Pul-Gyon-Il-Gwang-Baeg-Il(不見日光百日)" which means keeping indoors for one hundred days, I can tell you that "twenty-one-day" involves the principle of the birth of life, and "one-hundred-day" contains a preparatory period or the period of death to bear another life. 5. From the medical stuff, such as wormwood(艾), garlic(蒜), or wonder-working herbage(靈草), that had been written at the bibliographic papers of the ancient period(上古時代) and the era of the old-Korea(古朝鮮時代), I consider that many people might get a lot of women's diseases, indigestive troubles, and other diseases that were caused by the weakness, but with using various spices, such as the leaves of water pepper(蔘), they could prevent the occurrance of all kinds of diseases previously. So I regard this treatment as the medicine from food. 6. One of the sayings at Nae-gyong(內經) is that "The stone accupuncture(砭石) came from the orient." We can see both "wonder-wor-king wormwood(靈草)" and "dried wormwood(乾艾)" in the several bibliographic papers of the ancient history of the old-Korea(朝鮮上古史). From these records, I can be convinced that ancestors would utilize the acupuncture(針) and the moxa cautery(灸) to cure a patient of a disease. 7. Even though someone claimed that the book, "medical science and chemistry(醫學化學)" and "medical treatment(醫學大方)" had had been written during the ancient period of the old-Korea(上古朝鮮時代), such a fact can't have been ascertained historical evidence. But it has been handed down that there existed the original phonetic alphabet, such as the "Ka-Im-To alphabet(加臨土文字)" at that time. The terms about the diseases, which had been occurred at the community of the old-Korea(古朝鮮地域), were recorded fragmentarily at other records after that time. The origin of confucianism came from the race of the eastern barbarians, and Tae-Ho-Pok-Hi(太嗅伏義) and the king. Sun(舜) came from the eastern barbarians, too. The divination of tortoise shells at the country of Un(殷) is another from which was developed at the eastern barbarians' fortune-telling of animal bones. From these facts, I can infer that, by all means, they might record the medical knowledge which had been stored for thousands of years while contacting with china directly.

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