• Title, Summary, Keyword: Digestion

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Meta-analysis of the Efficacy of Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Wang, Zhao;Wu, Xiao-Ling;Zeng, Wei-Zheng;Xu, Gui-Sen;Xu, Hui;Weng, Min;Hou, Juan-Ni;Jiang, Ming-De
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.691-694
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: By carrying out a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that compared sorafenib or combined chemotherapy with placebo or combined chemotherapy, the effectiveness of sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma was evaluated in the present study, which also provided clinical practice guidelines of evidence-based-medicine. Methods: We reviewed PubMed citations concerning sorafenib treating hepatocellular carcinoma in randomized controlled trials from Jan 2000 to July 2012. All the literature was extracted by Cochrane systematic reviews and underwent meta-analysis with RewMan 5.0 software. Results: Finally, four papers documenting randomized controlled studies were included. Compared with controls, sorafenib was shown to significantly increase overall survival (OS), time to progression (TTP), and disease control rates (DCR), but not the time to symptom progression (TTSP) in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. The incidence of grade-III/IV adverse reactions, including hand-foot-skin reactions, diarrhea, hypertension and skin rash or desquamation, in sorafenib treatment group was higher than that in controls. However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of hypodynamia between the two groups. Conclusions: Sorafenib exerts significant curative effects in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Status of Anaerobic Digestion Facility for Pig-slurry in Korea (국내 가축분뇨 혐기소화시설 현황 및 운영실태 분석)

  • Jeong, Kwang-Hwa;Kim, Jung-Gon;Han, Duk-Woo;Kwag, Jung-Hun
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to survey and inspect the currently operating anaerobic digestion facilities for animal manure. Recently, the number of anaerobic digestion facility for livestock manure is on the rise thanks to growing interest in developing alternative energy. A anaerobic digestion system has been constructed in large scale farms or animal manure public resource center. Currently, most animal manure anaerobic digestion facilities in operation are producing biogas from the pig slurry which contains 97% water. Methane gas can be used to operate a engine generator which then produces electricity. Anaerobic digestate, a by-product of digestion, is mostly utilized as a liquid fertilizer after curing processing. Only in a few cases, it can be discharged after wastewater treatment process. The problem of anaerobic digestate treatment is the imbalance of C/N ratio. The content of N was too high to keep it into normal process.

Performance Estimation of SBR Aerobic Digestion Combined with Ultrasonication by Numerical Experiment (수치실험을 통한 초음파 결합형 SBR 호기성 소화의 거동 예측)

  • Kim, Sunghong;Kim, Donghan;Lee, Dongwoo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.815-826
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    • 2013
  • Using a developed mathematical model and calibrated kinetic constants, numerical experiments for a aerobic digestion of wastewater sludge by SBR aerobic digestion process combined with ultrasonication (USSBR) were performed in this study. It simulated well the phenomena of the decomposition of particulate organics and the release of organic nitrogen and transformation. To achieve 40 % of particulate organics removal, USSBR process requires only 6 days of SRT and 14 W/L of ultrasonic power whereas SBR aerobic digestion process requires 12 days of SRT. Based on the model simulation results, an empirical equation was presented here. This equation will be used to predict digestion efficiency for the given variables of SRT and ultrasonic power dose. USSBR aerobic digestion process can reduce the nitrogen concentration. The optimal operation strategy for the simultaneous removal of solids and soluble nitrogen in this process is estimated to 7 days of SRT with 14 W/L of ultrasonic power dose while anoxic period was 6 hours out of 24 hours of cycle time. In this condition, 40 % of particulate organics as well as 36 % of total nitrogen will be removed and the soluble nitrogen concentration of the centrate will be lower less then 40 mg/L.

Low Protein Digestibility of Beef Puree in Infant In Vitro Digestion Model

  • Lee, Seonmin;Jo, Kyung;Hur, Sun Jin;Choi, Yun-Sang;Kim, Hyun-Joo;Jung, Samooel
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.1000-1007
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    • 2019
  • This study investigated protein digestibility of beef puree in infant and adult in vitro digestion models. The simulated digestive juices for infant and adult were prepared. Protein digestibility of beef puree was calculated in the gastric and gastrointestinal compartments. The 10% trichloroacetic acid soluble nitrogen and α-amino group contents of gastric digesta were lower in the infant in vitro digestion model than those in the adult in vitro digestion model (p<0.05). In addition, the gastrointestinal digesta from the infant in vitro digestion model had lower value of the 10% trichloroacetic acid soluble nitrogen and α-amino group contents than those of the adult in vitro digestion model (p<0.05). The results of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the remarkable bands of actin and myosin light chain B were found in the digesta of beef puree from the infant in vitro digestion model. The results of this study revealed the lower protein digestibility of beef puree in infants compared to that in adults. Therefore, the development of ways to increase digestibility of meat protein can improve the nutritional quality of meat products for infants.

Effect of biogas production to different anaerobic digestion systems and feeding stocks (혐기소화 공정 및 원료 유형별 바이오가스 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, JoungDu;Hong, Seung-Gil;Park, Woo-Kyun;Park, SangWon
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.66-73
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    • 2011
  • Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biogas production to different systems and feeding stocks. For the biogas production through operating the temperature phase anaerobic digestion(TPAD) with different feeding stocks, the stage state of biogas production with 70% of methane concentration in the thermophilic digestion tank with co-digestion of food waste and swine manure(40 : 60) was delayed at 3.5 times, but its mesophilic tank was short for 5 days as relative to the swine manure. The cumulative methane production in the thermophilic digestion tank with co-digestion of food waste and swine manure was started with greater than its swine manure at 60 days after digestion periods. However, its mesophilic tank with swine manure was great at 3 days after digestion periods. For aspect of anaerobic digestion processes with swine manure, it was appeared that the stage state of biogas production rate in TPAD was shorter than the two phase anaerobic digestion system.

Influence of Wheat Straw Pelletizing and Inclusion Rate in Dry Rolled or Steam-flaked Corn-based Finishing Diets on Characteristics of Digestion for Feedlot Cattle

  • Manriquez, O.M.;Montano, M.F.;Calderon, J.F.;Valdez, J.A.;Chirino, J.O.;Gonzalez, V.M.;Salinas-Chavira, J.;Mendoza, G.D.;Soto, S.;Zinn, R.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.823-829
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    • 2016
  • Eight Holstein steers ($216{\pm}48kg$ body weight) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to evaluate effects of wheat straw processing (ground vs pelleted) at two straw inclusion rates (7% and 14%; dry matter basis) in dry rolled or steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on characteristics of digestion. The experimental design was a split plot consisting of two simultaneous $4{\times}4$ Latin squares. Increasing straw level reduced ruminal (p<0.01) and total tract (p = 0.03) organic matter (OM) digestion. As expected, increasing wheat straw level from 7% to 14% decreased (p<0.05) ruminal and total tract digestion of OM. Digestion of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and starch, per se, were not affected (p>0.10) by wheat straw level. Likewise, straw level did not influence ruminal acetate and propionate molar proportions or estimated methane production (p>0.10). Pelleting straw did not affect ($p{\geq}0.48$) ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, and starch, or microbial efficiency. Ruminal feed N digestion was greater (7.4%; p = 0.02) for ground than for pelleted wheat straw diets. Although ruminal starch digestion was not affected by straw processing, post-ruminal (p<0.01), and total-tract starch (p = 0.05) digestion were greater for ground than for pelleted wheat straw diets, resulting in a tendency for increased post-ruminal (p = 0.06) and total tract (p = 0.07) OM digestion. Pelleting wheat straw decreased (p<0.01) ruminal pH, although ruminal volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and estimated methane were not affected ($p{\geq}0.27$). Ruminal digestion of OM and starch, and post-ruminal and total tract digestion of OM, starch and N were greater (p<0.01) for steam-flaked than for dry rolled corn-based diets. Ruminal NDF digestion was greater (p = 0.02) for dry rolled than for steam-flaked corn, although total tract NDF digestion was unaffected (p = 0.94). Ruminal microbial efficiency and ruminal degradation of feed N were not affected (p>0.14) by corn processing. However, microbial N flow to the small intestine and ruminal N efficiency (non-ammonia N flow to the small intestine/N intake) were greater (p<0.01) for steam-flaked than for dry rolled corn-based diets. Ruminal pH and total VFA concentration were not affected ($p{\geq}0.16$) by corn processing method. Compared with dry rolled corn, steam-flaked corn-based diets resulted in decreased acetate:propionate molar ratio (p = 0.02). It is concluded that at 7% or 14% straw inclusion rate, changes in physical characteristics of wheat straw brought about by pelleting negatively impact OM digestion of both steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets. This effect is due to decreased post-ruminal starch digestion. Replacement of ground straw with pelleted straw also may decrease ruminal pH.

The controversial points and a remedy on evaluation of heavy metal contamination in standard method for examination of soil in Korea. (국내 토양오염 공정시험방법중 중금속 관련 오염평가의 문제점과 개선책)

  • 오창환;유연희;이평구;박성원;이영엽
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.63-83
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    • 2001
  • Heavy metals are extracted from stream sediments, roadside soils and sediments and soils and tailings from mining area using partial extraction, acid digestion and HF-digestion. Compared to amounts of heavy metals extracted using partial extraction, those extracted using acid digestion are higher by 2.0∼221 times in Cu, 2.4∼2806 times in Pb, 1.3∼121 times in Cd, 14. 1∼1300885 times in Fe, 1.2∼272 times in Mn, 1.3∼373 times in Zn, 2.2∼1735 times in Cr. There is no special relationship between the extracted amounts of heavy metals using partial extraction and those using acid digestion. However, it is possible that there is a certain relationship between those using acid digestion and those using HF-digestion. Although partial extraction, which extracts less amounts of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb) from soil compared to acid digestion, is used in domestic standard method for examination of soil, domestic soil standard for heavy metals in non-agricultural and industrial areas is higher than soil standard in foreign countries which use acid digestion. For improvement of the domestic standard method for assessment of soil, it is suggested to lower the domestic soil standard for heavy metals or to change pretreatment method for extracting heavy metals from partial extraction to acid digestion with modifying the soil standard.

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Comparisons of sample preparation (acid digestion and microwave digestion) and measurement (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry) in the determination of bone lead (골중납 측정의 시료 전처리 (산분해법과 마이크로웨이브 분해법)와 측정 방법 (유도결합 플라즈마 질량분석법과 흑연로 원자 흡수 분광 광도법)의 비교)

  • Yoon, Chungsik;Choi, Inja;Park, Sungkyun;Kim, Rokho
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.152-158
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to evaluate two sample digestion procedures and instrumental determination parameters for analysis of lead in bone. Amputated human legs were treated by acid digestion or microwave dissolution prior to spectrometric analysis. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) were used for determining bone lead levels. Recovery efficiencies using standard reference material from acid digestion measured by ICP-MS were in good agreement with those of the certified value, but in cases of acid digestion by GF-AAS and microwave digestion by both two methods, recovery underestimated and overestimated, respectively. For the bone samples, the lead concentrations obtained by ICP-MS after acid digestionwere in good agreement with those by GF-AAS (correlation coefficient = 0.983), but GF-AAS gave systematically higher values than ICP-MS. While a good agreement between two analytical methods after microwave digestion was also obtained (correlation coefficient = 0.950), bone lead concentrations from microwave were relatively higher than those from acid digestion. In conclusion, the use of the simple nitric acid digestion procedure at an ambient temperature coupled to ICP-MS seems to be efficient for the determination of lead in bone in consideration for both the convenience and validity.

Effects of Combining Feed Grade Urea and a Slow-release Urea Product on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy in Steers Fed Diets with Different Starch:ADF Ratios

  • Lopez-Soto, M.A.;Rivera-Mendez, C.R.;Aguilar-Hernandez, J.A.;Barreras, A.;Calderon-Cortes, J.F.;Plascencia, A.;Davila-Ramos, H.;Estrada-Angulo, A.;Valdes-Garcia, Y.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.187-193
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    • 2014
  • As a result of the cost of grains, the replacement of grains by co-products (i.e. DDGS) in feedlot diets is a common practice. This change produces diets that contain a lower amount of starch and greater amount of fibre. Hypothetically, combining feed grade urea (U) with slow release urea (Optigen) in this type of diet should elicit a better synchrony between starch (high-rate of digestion) and fibre (low-rate of digestion) promoting a better microbial protein synthesis and ruminal digestion with increasing the digestible energy of the diet. Four cannulated Holstein steers ($213{\pm}4$ kg) were used in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design to examine the combination of Optigen and U in a finishing diet containing different starch:acid detergent fibre ratios (S:F) on the characteristics of digestive function. Three S:F ratios (3.0, 4.5, and 6.0) were tested using a combination of U (0.80%) and Optigen (1.0%). Additionally, a treatment of 4.5 S:F ratio with urea (0.80% in ration) as the sole source of non-protein nitrogen was used to compare the effect of urea combination at same S:F ratio. The S:F ratio of the diet was manipulated by replacing the corn grain by dried distillers grain with solubles and roughage. Urea combination did not affect ruminal pH. The S:F ratio did not affect ruminal pH at 0 and 2 h post-feeding but, at 4 and 6 h, the ruminal pH decreased as the S:F ratio increased (linear, p<0.05). Ruminal digestion of OM, starch and feed N were not affected by urea combination or S:F ratio. The urea combination did not affect ADF ruminal digestion. ADF ruminal digestion decreased linearly (p = 0.02) as the S:F ratio increased. Compared to the urea treatment (p<0.05) and within the urea combination treatment (quadratic, p<0.01), the flow of microbial nitrogen (MN) to the small intestine and ruminal microbial efficiency were greater for the urea combination at a S:F ratio of 4.5. Irrespective of the S:F ratio, the urea combination improved (2.8%, p = 0.02) postruminal N digestion. As S:F ratio increased, OM digestion increased, but ADF total tract digestion decreased. The combination of urea at 4.5 S:F improved (2%, p = 0.04) the digestible energy (DE) more than expected. Combining urea and Optigen resulted in positive effects on the MN flow and DE of the diet, but apparently these advantages are observed only when there is a certain proportion of starch:ADF in the diet.

Performance Evaluation and Characteristic Study of the Single Anaerobic Digestion from Piggery Slurry (돈분 슬러리를 이용한 단상 혐기소화공정의 특성연구 및 성능평가)

  • Park, Woo-Kyun;Jun, Hang-Bae;Park, Noh-Back;Kwon, Soon-Ik;Shin, Joung-Du;Hong, Seung-Gil
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2011
  • BACKGROUND: Disposal of slurry animal manure produced by an anaerobic slurry-type barn method is not easy since the animal slurry contain high moisture content which makes solid-liquid separation a difficult process. However, recently, the interest about anaerobic digestion process as an environment-friendly waste disposal method has gained a wide interest because it can treat highly organic matter contained by the piggery slurry, decrease the odor after treatment, and enable the effective recovery of the methane gas which is a valuable energy resource. The objectives of this study were to identify the solubilization characteristics and to improve the anaerobic digestion efficiency of piggery slurry through full-scale anaerobic digestion experiments. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a full-scale continuous anaerobic digestion operation, the adaptability of single anaerobic digestion and its digestion efficiency were also evaluated in the farm field. The actual pH range and alkalinity concentration of piggery slurry used during the operation were comparatively higher than the concentrations of pH and alkalinity in the digestion tank which were stable at 7.5~8.0, 4,008 mg/L (as$CaCO_3$), respectively. The removal efficiency of organic matter (TCOD) by anaerobic digestion was 75~90% and methane gas production amount was at 0.33 L/L/day, a little higher than that of ordinary animal manure. CONCLUSION(s): Our findings showed higher recovery of highly purified methane and greater efficiency of anaerobic tank digestion since its methane gas content was at 65~70%.